Shoaib Husnain (2015-VA-1337)

Determination Of Multiple Anthelmintic Resistance Against Haemonchus Contortus In Sheep In Azad Jammu And Kashmir - 2017. - 44p.;

Parasitic problem is a key restriction of ruminant production which leads to reduce production and causes huge financial loss to small ruminant industry by inhibited growth, low production and amplified vulnerability of animals to other infections. The production losses are due to lowered feed intake and reduced efficiency. These economic losses may be due to chronic and subclinical infections in small ruminants. Sheep of different breeds of both sexes from different age groups were included in this study. Fresh fecal samples were collected randomly from sheep and were stored at4°C before microscopic examination. The Eggs per Gram (EPG) was calculated through modified McMaster technique (Coles, 1992). Samples were scanned for the presence of Haemonchus infection and the EPG was done before the administration of anthelmintic. Infected animals having EPG more than 500 were included in the groups for therapeutic trial. 10 animals were added in each group and each group was given different anthelmintics i.e. Albendazole, Oxfendazole, levamisole and ivermectin. A second sampling was done at 7th day post treatment and 3rd sampling was done at 14th day after drug administration to calculate post-treatment EPG to find out the FECR efficiency of the drugs used. The anthelmintics were administered to each group at recommended dose rate as mentioned in table 3.1.Pre-treatment EPG was related to the Post-treatment EPG and the % effectiveness of each anthelmintic was determined by using the efficacy formula. An in vitro egg hatch test was performed by using different preparation of anthelmintic prepared by serial dilutions. Eggs were incubated with these preparations and the percent hatching was determined and the data obtained was analyzed by probit analysis and the LC50 was calculated. The LC50 calculated for albendazole was 0.89ug/ml and that of oxfendazole was 1.09ug/ml which is much higher from the discriminating dose that is 0.1ug/ml which indicated the presence of resistance against these anthelmintics. Low dosing and aggressive use of anthelmintics may have cause the resistance against these anthelmintics. Other factors may include mixed farming and the movement of animals from one place to another which is responsible of dispersal of resistant strains. The present study suggests an alarming situation of anthelmintic resistance in Azad Jammu and Kashmir against common available anthelmintics that is albendazole and oxfendazole. A proper technical knowledge, awareness and alertness is necessary to overcome this problem in order to improve the small ruminants production especially sheep to up raise the livelihood of small livestock farmer. It is the demand of the day to introduce new control strategies by introducing modern anthelmintics and a proper worm control schedule according to the recommendations to avoid such problems in future.

Clinical Medicine


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