Tahira Jamil (2015-VA-595)

Physico-Chemical Analysis Of Milk From Different Milch Species (Cow, Buffalo, Camel) - 2017. - 56p.;

SUMMARY
Milk is described as almost a complete food as it contains all the essential nutrients in balanced quantity. Milk is a complete basis of proteins, fats and dietary energy and there are several factors that can effect the composition of milk. Factors such as (seasonal changes, feed, environmental changes, lactation, milking durations) and variations in analytical methods such as (evaluating proteins, fats, total solids, ash and moisture) can also lead to differences in results. According to FAO STAT 2010, despite the fact that Pakistan ranked among top five milk producing countries in the world, no study has been made so far that is composed of complete data based on physico-chemical analysis of milk composition of various species with respect to seasonal changes.
Milk samples were collected from three different species from UVAS Pattoki Campus i.e. cow, buffalo and camel in morning and evening time. The samples were then sent to UVAS Lahore Campus. These samples were analyzed to obtain different compositional parameters of milk which includes LR, fat, protein, SNF, TS, Ash, Moisture, pH, COB and APT. In the present study, the results showed that the LR, fat, SNF, TS, Proteins, ash, moisture and pH showed no signifgicant differences when studied between the groups by independent sample t test. All results were statistically non-significant i-e p>0.05. Whereas when results of each sample were studied individually throughout the year by descriptive statistic, it was found that samples of cow, buffalo and showed high content of fats, SNF, TS and protein during the summer season and lower in winter season. Other parmeters like ash, moisture, pH also had significant change throughout the year. The monthly results were found to be statistical significant at p<0.05. COB and APT were analyzed as soon the samples arrived the laboratory. So no clotting or precipitations were observed in the sample and gave the negative results throughout the year.
Thestudy was helpful in generating yearly data that was used in comparing the physico-chemical variations in morning and evening samples of milk among different milk producing species (cow, buffalo, camel) on the basis of seasonal changes.
Conclusion:
The directive of the current research was to analyze the physico-chemical parameters from the morning and evening samples of milk of three milk producing species (cow, buffalo, acmel). It was concluded from the results that no significant differences were found within groups of each sample. Whereas when the analysis were conducted on monthly basis throughout the year, it was determined that fat content of the samples of cow, buffalo and camel was high during the summer season. There are several reasons for this such as lactation, feed composition, milking timings, seasonal variations. SNF, TS and protein contents were directly related to fat. It was possible to state that when the fat of milk was higher the solid not fat, total solids and protein contents were also higher. However the other contents of milk such as ash, moisture, pH, COB and APT were not significantly affected by these factors.
Limitations:
 Diet is also an important factor that could affect the composition of milk. This factor can also be researched along with seasonal changes.
 Different geographical regions affect the milk composition of animals. This is also another factor of interest.
 Physiochemical changes of sheep, goat and humans can also be analyzed on the basis of seasonal changes.

Milk is described as almost a complete food as it contains all the essential nutrients in balanced quantity. Milk is a complete basis of proteins, fats and dietary energy and there are several factors that can effect the composition of milk. Factors such as (seasonal changes, feed, environmental changes, lactation, milking durations) and variations in analytical methods such as (evaluating proteins, fats, total solids, ash and moisture) can also lead to differences in results. According to FAO STAT 2010, despite the fact that Pakistan ranked among top five milk producing countries in the world, no study has been made so far that is composed of complete data based on physico-chemical analysis of milk composition of various species with respect to seasonal changes.
Milk samples were collected from three different species from UVAS Pattoki Campus i.e. cow, buffalo and camel in morning and evening time. The samples were then sent to UVAS Lahore Campus. These samples were analyzed to obtain different compositional parameters of milk which includes LR, fat, protein, SNF, TS, Ash, Moisture, pH, COB and APT. In the present study, the results showed that the LR, fat, SNF, TS, Proteins, ash, moisture and pH showed no signifgicant differences when studied between the groups by independent sample t test. All results were statistically non-significant i-e p>0.05. Whereas when results of each sample were studied individually throughout the year by descriptive statistic, it was found that samples of cow, buffalo and showed high content of fats, SNF, TS and protein during the summer season and lower in winter season. Other parmeters like ash, moisture, pH also had significant change throughout the year. The monthly results were found to be statistical significant at p<0.05. COB and APT were analyzed as soon the samples arrived the laboratory. So no clotting or precipitations were observed in the sample and gave the negative results throughout the year.
Thestudy was helpful in generating yearly data that was used in comparing the physico-chemical variations in morning and evening samples of milk among different milk producing species (cow, buffalo, camel) on the basis of seasonal changes.
Conclusion:
The directive of the current research was to analyze the physico-chemical parameters from the morning and evening samples of milk of three milk producing species (cow, buffalo, acmel). It was concluded from the results that no significant differences were found within groups of each sample. Whereas when the analysis were conducted on monthly basis throughout the year, it was determined that fat content of the samples of cow, buffalo and camel was high during the summer season. There are several reasons for this such as lactation, feed composition, milking timings, seasonal variations. SNF, TS and protein contents were directly related to fat. It was possible to state that when the fat of milk was higher the solid not fat, total solids and protein contents were also higher. However the other contents of milk such as ash, moisture, pH, COB and APT were not significantly affected by these factors.
Limitations:
 Diet is also an important factor that could affect the composition of milk. This factor can also be researched along with seasonal changes.
 Different geographical regions affect the milk composition of animals. This is also another factor of interest.
 Physiochemical changes of sheep, goat and humans can also be analyzed on the basis of seasonal changes.



Food Science and Human Nutrition

2884-T


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