Muhammad Asad Ali (2002-VA-73)

Spatial Ecology And Distribution Of Soil Borne Burkholderia Mallei In Punjab, Pakistan - 2017. - 213p.;

Burkholderia mallei is a causative agent of glanders, the disease of equines. The disease is characterized by pulmonary, nasal and cutaneous forms. B. mallei is excreted through nasal discharge, lacerated skin/wounds and expiration. Diseased animals shed bacteria through the discharges contaminating soil, water, fodder and other susceptible animals in its vicinity. The present study was designed to map and investigate the association of different physical factors and soil chemistry analytes with persistence of B. mallei genome in soil of 10% percent villages (n=456) from eight selected districts of Punjab province, Pakistan.
Eleven (0.48%) out of 2, 280 soil samples were positive for B. mallei genome in varied locations of Punjab. Higher prevalence (2.37%) for genome was detected in Sheikhupura district followed by Chakwal district (2.10%). None of the samples from Gujranwala, Sahiwal, DG Khan, Attock, Faisalabad and Sargodha districts were found positive for B. mallei genome. The genome of B. mallei was distributed in 25% study districts of Punjab, Pakistan. In Chakwal district, the genome of B. mallei was strongly associated with moisture (p=0.008) in all positive samples ranging from 0.80 to 39.20%, Phosphorous (p=0.050) ranging from 1.74 to 21.75 mg/Kg. While, this association in Sheikhupura district soil samples was with Sodium (p=0.018) and moisture (0.026) ranging from 1.90 to 133.59 mg/Kg and 0.80 to 39.20%, respectively. The odds of detecting DNA of B. mallei were recorded higher (1.4, 6.8, 5.0, 2.8 and 10.6 ) when soil sample sites were < 500 meters away from vehicular traffic roads, < one kilometer from animal markets, < 100 meters from canal, animal density < 1,000 animals and human population < 300 houses/village. While the odds of detecting DNA of B. mallei were 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.5 when soil sample sites were > 500 meters from vehicular traffic roads, > one kilometer from animal markets, > 100 meters from canal, animal density > 1000 animals and human population > 300 houses/village, respectively. Soil-borne B. mallei DNA is more likely to be detected in areas closer to roads with vehicular traffic along the interstate routes in Punjab and soil containing low level of moisture.
It was concluded that soil of two districts out of eight selected was positive for B. mallei genome in Punjab province. Odds of less distance from main road to animal farm and high animal density at farm were positively associated with B. mallei DNA persistence in soil. Moisture, sodium and phosphorus were positively associated with persistence of B. mallei DNA in soil.






Microbiology
Phd. Thesis

2900-T


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