Gohar Zaman Khattak

Studies On The Prevalence And Taxonomy Of Paramphistomes In Sheep And Their Effects On Various Blood Parameters - 1990

The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Paramphistomes in sheep, taxonomy of the species of the genus Paramphistomum, and their effects on various blood parameters of the infected animals. For this purpose Municipal Corporation Abattoir, Peshawar was visited regularly during the months of May, June and July,1990. A total of 300 sheep were examined for the study purpose. These animals were divided into two age groups each comprising of 150 sheep. Group-I comprised of sheep below one year of age, while Group-II had sheep of more than one year age. Fifty sheep, each from Group-I and Group-II, were examined each month during the course of study.
Five ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein of the sheep, prior to slaughter, in a test tube having a few drops of 0.1% EDTA. After its slaughter the compound stomach of the animal was obtained and put into a polythene bag, which was then brought to parasitology Section, Veterinary Research Institute, Peshawar for further investigations. After opening of the compound stomach, each compartment was searched for paramphistomes. Helminths so collected were put into glass jars. Preservation and staining of Paramphistomes was carried out by adopting the prescribed methods. Complete record of worms collected, regarding their number and site of predilection was maintained. The taxonomy of the species of the genus Paramphistomum was studied with the help of keys.
All the parasites of the genus Paramphistomum were recovered from the rumen of the infected sheep identified as Paramphistomum cervi.
A total of 2,329 helminths (Paramphistomum cervi) were recovered from infected sheep of both the age groups.Average infection rate in these animals was recorded as 7.00%, with an average worm burden of 111 helminths per animal.
Out of 150 below one year of age sheep examined, 8 were found infected with Paramphistomum cervi with an infection rate of 5.33%. Three sheep from Group-I were found infected with Paramphistomum Cervi in each of the month of May and June, while in July only two animals were found infected with these parasites. The highest rate of infection with these parasites was observed in May and June, and the lowest infection rate was recorded in the month of July. A total of 727 helminths were recovered from the infected animals of Group-I with a range of 73 to 112, and the average parasitic load being 91 per animal.
150 sheep of above one year age were examined,out of which 13 were found infected with Paramphistomum cervi, with an infection rate of 8.66%. Six animals of Group-II were found infected in May, for in June and three in the month of July. A total of 1,602 parasites were recovered from these animals, ranging from 96 to 140, with an average worm burden of 123 helminths per animal.
Blood of infected sheep was exposed to various haematological studies including total erythrocyte count (TEC), Hb estimation, packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).These tests were also carried out for worm-free (control) sheep, 10 each from Group-I and Group-II.
A decrease of 8.39% and 14.20% was noticed in total erythrocyte count (TEC) of the infected sheep of Group-I and Group-II, respectively. The results revealed that a highly significant decrease in the TEC of these animals had occurred due to Paramphistomum cervi infection.
Haemoglobin contents of blood were determined. The results showed a fall in the Hb contents of blood. The results of the study revealed that a non-significant decrease resulted due to paramphistomiasis in the Hb contents of blood of animals with below one year age, while a highly significant decrease occurred in the haemoglobin contents of blood of animals with above year of age.
A decrease of 3.35% and 12.25% was recorded in the packed cell volume (PCV) of the infected sheep of Group-I and Group-II, respectively. The results showed that a non-significant decrease occurred in the PCV of infected animals of Group-I, while a highly significant decrease was caused by paramphistomiasis in Group-II animals.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of worm free (control) as well as sheep infected with Paramphistomum cervi was determined. The results showed a 14.0% and 141.42% increase in the ESR after one hour in the infected animals of Group-I and Group-II, Respectively, while the increase in ESR after 24 hours was recorded as 120.5% and 196% for these groups, respectively. The results revealed that a significant increase occurred in ESR of infected sheep of Group-I, after one hour as well as 24 hours, a highly significant increase was observed.
Statistical analysis of the results of the study also revealed that there existed a negative correlation between age of the animal and total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume of blood. A positive correlation existed between age of animals and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.



Department of Parasitology

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