Muhammad Usman

Carrier Status Of Foot And Mouth Disease In Ruminants Through Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain - 2013

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is highly infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It is caused by genus Aphthovirus of Picornaviradae family. FMDV is RNA virus having seven serotypes A, O, C, Asia 1, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3.
Serotypes A, O, C and Asia1 are endemic in Pakistan and causes high economic losses to livestock industry .So priority is to apply quick and efficient methods for detection of FMDV infection and to limit the spread of outbreaks of the disease. Although CFT, VNT and ELISA are already being used for the diagnosis of FMDV in Pakistan but these diagnostic techniques are time consuming and their specificity and sensitivity is low. RT-PCR for the identification of FMDV is very much sensitive and specific, can be done within three hours after receiving of samples to the laboratory.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) in adult sheep and goats is frequently mild or unapparent, but can cause high mortality in young animals. The outbreaks of FMD in 1999 in Morocco, in 2001 in the United Kingdom & in 2007 in Cyprus has highlighted the importance of sheep in the epidemiology of the disease, although there have been numerous examples in the past where small ruminants have been responsible for the introduction of FMD into previously disease-free countries. The difficulty in making a clinical diagnosis should encourage the development of more rapid screening tests to assist in future control programs.
In Pakistan, no study has been conducted to depict the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology and transmission of FMD virus to the large ruminants. Keeping in view this neglected area of research, present study is planned to apply the sensitive and economical RT-PCR technique for the rapid detection of carrier status of FMD virus in ruminants; and to highlight the importance and need of vaccination to small ruminants against FMD virus in order to control outbreaks of the disease and transmission to the large ruminants population.

Department of Epidemiology & Public Health


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