Masood Ul Haq Kakar

Epidemiology, Zoonotic Potential, Serodiagnosis And Chemotherapy Of Sheep Fasciolosis In Different Ecological zones of balochistan - 2012

Various epidemiological aspects of human and sheep fasciolosis were investigated in four districts of Balochistan (Pakistan) having different ecology i.e. district Bolan from (Plain zone), Lasbela (Coastal zone), Qilla Saifullah (sub humid and semi arid sub zone of Upland zone) and district Pishin from (Arid sub zone of Upland zone). Sheep samples were examined through Coprological examination showed overall prevalence of 10.26% in one year study period from June 2010 t0 May 2011. The uppermost prevalence was recorded in district Bolan (14.79%) followed by Lasbela (10.63%), Qilla Saifullah (8.75%), and the lowest in district Pishin (6.88%). Overall the highest prevalence by season was recorded in autumn (25.31%) followed by winter (9.22%), summer (6.41%) and lowest in spring (5%). Amongst the month the overall highest prevalence was recorded in the month of September (30.63%) and lowest in the month of May (1.88%). Sex wise prevalence was found highest in female more susceptible to infection (11.22%) than male (8.48), but sex wise difference was non-significant statistically. Amongst the age group significantly higher prevalence was recorded in adults young than adult of age group (5.91%).
During one year study period prevalence (%) of human fasciolosis in some districts of Balochistan was recorded (0.42%), with overall district wise prevalence in Qilla Saifullah and Bolan (0.83%) and (0%) in Lasbela and Pishin. Overall season wise prevalence was noted the highest in autumn (1.25%) followed by summer (0.63%) and 0% prevalence in winter and spring. Month wise results showed 2.5% prevalence only in the month of August and October while 0% in the other months. Gender wise prevalence 0.42% was
found only in male, no female samples were collected due to some religious, traditional and community problems. Prevalence by age was recorded the highest in above 20 years of age group (0.74%) while this value decreased to zero in below 20 years of age group.
Antibodies against fasciolosis in serum samples through indirect (ELISA) were recorded 13.13% (63/480) in sheep and 0.42% (2/480) in human indicates the higher prevalence (%) as compared to fecal examination. Likewise district, age and sex wise seroprevalence (%) of fasciolosis was reported higher than coprological examination in case of humans as well as in sheep.
In sheep positive correlation was noted between fasciolosis and relative humidity while negative correlation with temperature (ºC) and rainfall (mm). While in humans prevalence positive correlation was observed with temperature (ºC), relative humidity (%) and rainfall (mm).
Overall 1123 snails belonging to different 5 genera were collected from different district from different agr-ecological zones of Balochistan from June 2010 to May 2011. Amongst the snails the highest prevalence (37.04%) was found for Indoplanorbis, followed by Bulinus (32.15%), then Lymnea (20.66%), Melanoides (5.52%) and the lowest Physa (4.63%).
Comparative study for coprological and serological tests (ELISA) was conducted for four districts from different agro-ecological zones of Balochistan i.e. District Bolan from (Plain zone), Lasbela (Coastal zone), Qilla Saifullah (sub humid and semi arid sub zone of Upland zone) and district Pishin from (Arid sub zone of Upland zone) for one year i.e. from June 2010 t0 May 2011. Overall prevalence of sheep and humans was 0% and 8.13% by coprological examination and 13.13% and 0.42% by indirect ELISA tests. Prevalence by ELISA was found higher than fecal examination when analyzed statistically. Similar seroprevalence for month, districts, age and sex was noted higher than coprological examination for sheep and humans. ELISA Sensitivity (%) and specificity (%) was recorded >97.0% and 95% and 100%, 100%, respectively for sheep and humans.
Indigenous plants i.e., Saussurea lappa (roots), Fumaria parviflora (aerial) and Caesalpinia crista (seeds) were used at dose level of 60, 70 and 80 mg/kg body weight against naturally infected sheep with fasciolosis and their effectiveness was compared with triclabendazole (10mg/kg body weight). Triclabendazole was found 100 % effective after second dose whereas all herbal medicine it reached up to this mark after administration of second dose of 80 mg/kg body weight. From this study we can conclude that these herbal medicines can safely replace the triclabendazole, which is not, only cost effective but have no side effects.

Department of Parasitology
Phd. Thesis


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