Qamar Ullah

Pathological Findings Of Field Isolated Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus (Pprv) In Experimentally Infected Goats - 2013

The Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is the influential disease of small ruminants chiefly goats and sheep. It is highly contagious viral disease of economic point of view. It produces hurdles in farming of small ruminants in areas where it is present such as Africa and Asia. Those areas where the disease is endemic and huge numbers of small ruminants are reared by needy farmers; it threats their subsistence. Epidemically the disease identified since 1991 in Punjab province of Pakistan.
The aim of the present study was detection of PPR virus through Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction during period of incubation. The course of the disease was monitored through regular clinical examination and hematological profile. The nature of the disease was evaluated through gross and microscopic lesions. The comparative proteomic analysis of field and vaccinal PPR virus was done through SDS-PAGE.
A total of twenty healthy teddy goats were purchased from local market of Lahore and were reared for 21 days. The goats were randomly divided into Group-A (experimental group) and Group-B (control group), with ten goats (n=10) in each group. Experimental infection of field isolated PPR virus was given intratracheally to the goats of group-A. The goats of group-B served as un-infected control group. For early detection of PPR virus through RT-PCR, ocular and nasal secretions were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 10 from experimentally infected goats and on day 5 and 10 from goats of control group. Clinical examination of all goats of both groups was performed on daily basis. For hematological analysis, 2.5 mL blood was drawn from jugular vein on day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21st day post infection from all goats of both groups. Gross and microscopic lesions were recorded after slaughtering one goat from each group at day 7, 14 and slaughtering all the remaining goats of both groups on day 21 post infection. Two goats of the experimental group were died naturally, one goat at day 8 and one goat at day 13 post infection. Proteomic analysis of PPR virus harvested from experimentally infected goats was done through SDS-PAGE and was compared with PPR virus vaccinal strain Nigeria 75/1.
The results showed that PPR virus was detected by RT-PCR in PPRV infected goats at day three post infection and before the occurrence of acute clinical signs. The PPR virus was not detected in uninfected goats throughout the studied period which showed that there was no natural circulation of virus in the area of experimental sheds. The clinical examination showed significant increase in rectal temperature, pulse and respiration rates in PPRV infected goats as compared to uninfected goats. From the comparison of hematological parameters in PPR infected and uninfected goats, it was observed that PPRV is linked with some obvious alterations in its hematological profile. PPR in experimentally infected goats led to obvious decrease in the number of leucocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, hemoglobin estimation and packed cell volume but marked increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume as compared to uninfected goats. The gross lesions were specific for PPR which were prominently observed in the digestive and respiratory systems and lymphoid organs. The microscopic lesions revealed that there was congestion in trachea, sloughing in mucosa of rumen, mitotic activity in cardiac myocytes and hemorrhagic & effaced mediastinal lymph nodes of infected goats. From the comparative proteomic analysis through SDS-PAGE, differences in bands of proteins were observed.

Department of Pathology


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