Waseem Ahmad (2007-VA-74)

Efficacy Of Chenopodium Album As Anthelmintic Against Gastrointestinal Nematodes Of Sheep Dr. Muhammad Lateef - 2014. - 47p.;

Helminthiasis is among the most significant animal health harms, which inflicts heavy
production and economy losses especially in small ruminants. The helminth problem is
highly common mainly in developing countries like Pakistan (Dhar et al. 1982). Small
ruminants have much importance in meat and leather industry of Pakistan. Sheep play a vital
role in producing income and provide financial support for poor farmers in developing
countries. Endo-parasites represent a major constraint to the production and growth of small
ruminants (Babar et al. 2013). Pakistan has been reported to problem of helminths in sheep
and goat (Raza et al. 2009) and cattle and buffalo (Athar et al. 2011). Mainly infection is
generally controlled by allopathic drugs and vaccination (Behnke et al. 2008). Parasitic
diseases are a major threat in efficiency, the most widespread helminth parasites being
Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum columbianum. Liver
flukes and paramphistomes (Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum microbothrium)
occasionally cause heavy mortality in animals grazing swampy areas (Akerejola et al. 1979).
The adverse effects of nematode infections include: loss of weight, anorexia, anaemia,
retarded growth, delayed sexual maturity, decrease in milk and meat production (Saddiqi et
al. 2012).
Indigenous knowledge of herbal medicine is a big source of the modern knowledge.
Today, thousands of plants, traditionally used as medicines are being explored (Kakar, 2012).
Chemical control of helminths coupled with improved management has been an important
worm control approach throughout the World. However, increasing problems of development
of resistance in helminths rise in price of drugs contributing factor for traditional plant used
(Coles et al. 1997) against anthelmintics have led to the proposal of screening medicinal
plants for their anthelmintic activities. Reports of drug resistance have been made in every
livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high
prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the
viability of small-ruminant industries. Many parasitic nematodes of veterinary importance
have genetic features that favor the development of anthelmintic resistance (Kaplan et al.
The plants are known to provide a rich source of botanical anthelmintics (Lewis and
Elvin Lewis 1977). There are many medicinal plants have been used to treat parasitic
infections in man and animals (Iqbal et al. 2005). Various botanical plants have been
possessed anthelmintic activity against helminth e.g Chenopodium album (Eguale & Giday,
2009). It has been expected that there are around 250,000 plant species present throughout the
world. Plants, from ancient, have served human beings as sources of food, shelter, clothing
and medicines. Before the advent of modern allopathic medicine and synthetic drugs, plants
and to a certain extent, animals and minerals were used in various formulations for treatment
of diseases by traditional medicinal practitioner (Rahmatullah et al. 2011).
Plant medicine is very important from ancient to present daytime. The uses of
biologically different plant assets for various ailments are the lifelong struggle of humankind
(Hussain et al. 2008). In Indo-Pak subcontinent, Ayurvedic and Unani therapeutic systems
are very popular and people have been using plants not only for the treatment of their own
ailments but also for their domesticated animals.
Chenopodium album (Chenopodiaceae) commonly known as “Bathu” is important
medicinal plants in Pakistan and their different parts are utilized in the traditional system of
medicine (Said et al. 1970). Chenopodium album usually recognized as “Bathua” is a familiar
food as well as a medicinal plant. In traditional system of medicine, it is used as an
anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antirheumatic, contraceptive, laxative, cardiotonic, antiscorbutic,
and blood purifier & also in management of hepatic disorder, spleen enlargement, intestinal
ulcers, digestive, carminative, seminal weakness, pharyngopathy, splenopathy, hemorrhoids,
cardiac disorder (Panigrahy et al. 2012). The seeds of the plant are known to possess
anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. A compound C37- trihydroxy adjacent
bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin, present in the seeds, is responsible for inhibition of the egg
hatching of
(Saha et
(Chenopodiaceae) is a rapid rising fragile annual plant and it is found in Bangladesh. In
English plant known as Lamb’s quarters and in Bengali as Buthiya shak. Both in vitro and in
vivo activity of plant as anthelmintic has been reported (Jain and Singhai 2012).
Chenopodium album was found to be one of the initial plant species colonizing a heavy
metal-contaminated site, polluted by pyritic (sulphide-rich) waste from the Aznalcóllar Mine
spill (South-western Spain). This shows its importance in the re-vegetation of this soil
(Walker et al. 2004). In vitro experiments were arranged to conclude the possible
anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts and powder of the whole of Chenopodium
album (Eguale et al. 2009). Commercial preparations of oil of chenopodium album and its
active constituent, ascaridol, obtained by steam distillation, have been and continue to be,
used with substantial success in mass treatment campaigns (Kliks et al. 1985).



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