Muhammad Waqas

Evaluation Of Different Preparations Of Allium Sativum (Garlic) Against Coccidiosis In Broilers Dr. Muhammad Lateef - 2014. - 36p.;

Poultry industry is playing a pivotal role for the prosperity of Pakistan and is growing day
by day. However, this sector is still facing many problems like coccidiosis which are hindering
its progress (Saima et al. 2010). Coccidiosis with the protozoan parasite Eimeria as the
infectious agent causes enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry farms (Dkhil et al.
2011). Eimeria are common parasites in the digestive tract of the hosts causing diarrhea and fluid
loss. Infections begin with oral uptake of Eimerian oocysts which release sporozoites in the
intestine. These in turn invade enterocytes in which they multiply, and finally, oocysts are
released again with the faeces (Renaux et al. 2001). Medicinal plants as natural feed additives
are recently used in poultry diet to enhance the performance and immune response of chicken
(Tanweer et al. 2012). Coccidiosis of chickens is an enteric parasitic disease caused by multiple
species of the protozoan parasite genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eucoccidia: Eimeriidae) and is
one of the commonest and economically most important diseases of poultry world-wide (Shirley
et al. 2005). It causes production losses, and high morbidity (due to acute, bloody enteritis) and
mortality rates. While the control of coccidiosis has relied mainly on the preventive use of anticoccidial
drugs together with the induction of species-specific natural immunity in chicken
flocks (Shirley et al. 2005), this widely used approach is costly and has led to serious problems
with drug resistance in Eimeria populations (Williams, 2006). Levine discovered that
sulphanilamide would cure coccidiosis in chickens, various anticoccidial feed additives have
been developed and added (Levine 1939). Efforts have always been made to add coccidiostats on
regular basis in chicken’s diet. Consistent use of coccidiostats has not only narrowed the gap
between cost of production and returns, it could be a potential threat to human being as a result
of their residual effects. The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs
currently used by poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and antibiotic free
production systems has meant that it is now important to look for new ways to control the
disease. So, research initiated for possible use of herbal (natural) products against avian
coccidiosis. Herbal products in past have been effectively used for the control and treatment of
several ailments in poultry and human beings. Allium sativum a medicinal plant could be an
effective substitute for coccidiostats because of its chemical nature and antimicrobial activities.
Allium sativum (garlic) have been widely used for their broad range of pharmacological
activities, including antiparasitic activities. Avian coccidiosis is one of the most costly and widespread
parasitic diseases in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of
different chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative
control strategies are needed (Elbanna, 2012). Hence, further investigations are required to
understand the exact mechanism underlying the effects of these feed additives, which are still in
use in broiler nutrition as performance enhancers and as agents for controlling coccidiosis.
Garlic (Allium sativum ) has been known as an herbal remedy to prevent and treat a variety
of heart diseases and metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hypertension,
dementia, cancer, and diabetes (Elbanna, 2012). Garlic has rich organosulfur compounds and
precursors (allicin, diallyl sulfide, and diallyl trisulfide). The enzyme allinase that is responsible
for converting alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) to allicin is inactive. When garlic is chopped or
crushed, the allinase enzyme present in garlic is activated and acts on alliin (present in whole
garlic) to produce allicin (Tanweer et al. 2012). Many studies indicate that allicin is the
potentially active component of garlic. These compounds provide garlic its characteristic odor
flavor as well as most of its biological properties and have been identified as having the
hypocholesterolemic effect in human and animal products (Silagy and Neil, 1994; Konjufca et
al., 1997; Chowdhury et al., 2002).
Species of Eimeria in poultry are usually identified by the size and morphology of
different stages of the life cycle of the parasite and the nature and location of lesions in the
intestines. Differentiation of species in mixed infections, however, can be difficult because some
species have similar characteristics (Long and Reid, 1982).
Different workers have investigated the prevalence of eimeriosis in different classes of
poultry birds and in different areas of Pakistan (Dar and Anwar, 1981; Anjum, 1990; Ayaz et al.,
2003). Each Eimeria species has a particular predilection site in the chicken digestive tract; for
example, E. tenella attacks the cecum. However, the most common and pathogenic species that
affects the poultry industry in Pakistan is E. tenella, which results in high mortality (Ayaz et al.,
2003; Abbas et al., 2008).
The increasing resistance of avian coccidiosis to anti-coccidial drugs currently used by
poultry industry together with the requirement for drug and a production systems which should
be antibiotic free, it’s now very much necessary to go for the new and advanced methods to
prevent this disease. Therefore, scientists started to work on medicinal use of herbal products to
control this eimeriosis. In past for treatment of various human and poultry ailments the natural
herbal products have been effectively used several times. Because of the anticoccidial nature and
antibacterial effect, garlic could be served as a valuable alternative for coccidiostats as a
medicinal plant. Previously it has been used for multipurpose like as an antibiotic, for antiinflammatory
effects, for anti- eimerial response and as an anti-ulcer agent. Keeping in view the
importance of poultry industry in Pakistan, the present project has been designed to “Evaluate
different preparations of Allium sativum (Garlic) against coccidiosis in broilers”.

Department of Parasitology


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