Sajid Hussain (2008-VA-77)

Seroprevalence And Risk Factors Of Brucellosis In Ruminents In District Skardu Of Gilgit - 2015. - 46p.;

Brucellosis is among the vital zoonotic and transmissible bacterial diseases of most of the animal’s worldwide (Shafee et al. 2011). Various types of brucella species are the causative agents of bovine brucellosis. In bovines, brucellosis is mainly triggered by Brucella abortus, less repeatedly by Brucella melitensis and sometimes by Brucellosis suis. As it is a zoonotic disease so, the public health is near thoughtful risk. According to (Pappas et al. 2006), it is considered to be the collective zoonosis worldwide, moreover 5, 00,000 cases of brucellosis are reported annually in both animals and humans. It is a common problem of under developed countries with poor health programs. This disease has been eradicated from USA, Canada, Japan, and New Zealand however; it is still an uncontrolled hazard in highly endemic regions of Africa, Latin America, Middle East and Asia (Refai, 2002).
According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and Office International of Epizootics (OIE), brucellosis is considered the most wide spread zoonosis in the world (Schelling et al. 2003). The infection transfers via contact with the body secretions, aborted fetus, contaminated milk feeding, licking of aborted fetuses and also venereal disease. In animals, reproduction, fertility, reduced survival of newborn, decreased milk production and noticed able mortality of the adult are the main effects of brucellosis. (Al-Sous et al. 2004).
It is characterized by abortion during 3rd trimester of pregnancy, weak calves, still births infertility, placentitis, epididymitis, orchitis and the excretion of organisms in milk and uterine secretions. According to public opinion brucellosis is work-related disease it has more effects on
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Veterinarians, slaughter house and farm workers likely butchers and shepherds (Yagupsky and Baron 2005).
Brucellosis occurs in cattle, Sheep, goats, swines, camels, dogs and it may also affect the other ruminants and marine mammals. The other names of brucellosis are Enzootic abortion, Contagious abortion, Bangs disease, Undulant, Malta and Mediterranean fever. It also causes significant losses in those animals which are sexually matured (Forbes and Tessaro 1996).
The main causative agent of bovine brucellosis is Brucella abortus (Ali et al. 2014). The animals and persons, who are directly or indirectly in contact with infected animals, its products and by-products, may acquire infection easily. The main source of human infection is the raw milk of the infected animal as it excretes brucella in milk (Shimol et al. 2012). The Serological, Bacteriological and Molecular Methods are used for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the farm animals and humans. Bacteriological method is considered to be the most standard method among all of the above mentioned methods (Sathyanarayanan et al. 2011). However, due to non-availability of ‘BSL-3 laboratory’ for culturing and isolation, time taking nature and because of the safety concerns of the laboratory workers, it is not widely applicable. According to Alton et al. (1998), in Pakistan, at animal and herd level, the molecular tools, like ‘Polymerase Chain Reaction’ (PCR), are not economical for screening due to limited resources. ‘Milk Ring Test’, a serological test, is economical and mostly used for the diagnosis of brucellosis however according to Huber and Nicoletti et al. (1986), its specificity and sensitivity is doubtful even now.
In most of the countries, for the control and eradication of the disease the serological diagnosis is widely used. Although, different techniques are used to detect the brucella antibodies but, different antibody isotopes were detected by each one of the technique to
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determine seropositive animal to brucellosis (Nielsen et al. 2001). The serological test is more sensitive as compare to the culture techniques but its specificity was quite low (Al-Attas et al. 2000).
Diverse studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate different brucella diagnostic techniques. ELISA was found more sensitive and specific as compared to other serological techniques and the findings confirmed that standard tests, like Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) only detect antibodies to the LPS (lipopolysaccharides) antigen of Brucella abortus so, it has low specificity (Al-Attas et al. 2000). The advanced in specificity and sensitivity levels of the ‘Serological Diagnosis’ as compared to the other conventional technique are due to the introduction of the indirect immuno-enzymatic technique (Mousing et al. 1997).
The indirect ELISA uses cytoplasmic proteins to measure the immunoglobulins of classes M, G, and A. The clinical situation can thus be interpreted better further it also overcomes some of the short comings of serum agglutination test. A comparison shows that ELISA is more specific and sensitive than SAT (serum agglutination test) Almuneef and Memish (2003).
According to certain studies conducted worldwide and also in Pakistan, it has been proved that ELISA tests are more accurate and reliable than other tests like Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and Milk Ring Test (MRT), showing high seropositive samples. Shafee et al. 2011 confirmed by using i-ELISA for the prevalence of brucellosis in Quetta city and the result was found to be 3 and 8.5 percent overall prevalence in cattle using MRT and indirect ELISA respectively.
The Gilgit Baltistan is at developing stages in the livestock sector, small farmers owning 95% of the Gilgit Baltistan’s livestock and are landless, providing an opportunity for improving
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the quality of their livestock. The areas selected for the study were the villages (Shagaribala, Shagari kalan, Kathpanah, Chunda, Kachura, Hussain abad and Sadpara) of Skardu district, which are very important from livestock point of view. There is a dire need of screening these animals for the zoonotic point of view. It is the first time that effort for the diagnosis of brucellosis in Gilgit Baltistan by using the serological test like Rose Bengal Plate Aggulutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) has been made.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery


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