Fariha Mariam (2008-VA-97)

Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Gastro- Intestinal Helminths In Camels Of Cholistan Area Of Bahawalpur - 2015 - 57p.;

Gastrointestinal helminths are responsible for wide range of health problems, economic losses in camels and are characterized by impaired milk, meat, infertility, low calving rates, decreased working efficiency and even death of the camel.
To study the gastrointestinal helminths, 384 camels of different age, sex and breed was examined coprologically. For this, five gram of fresh fecal sample was carefully collected into a sealed container from each camel and was transferred to Medicine lab, UVAS, Lahore in containers with ice packs. Fecal samples were scored 1-3 based on the consistency. The individual samples was triturated in saturated salt solution, sieved and examined for helminths eggs by using different techniques i.e. Direct Smear Method, Sedimentation technique and Floatation technique while the eggs count was performed by McMaster technique. Among the camel population, the current study indicates that in Marrecha breed the prevalence of Nematodes was Trichostrongylus 1.77%, Haemonchus 8.44%, Nematodirus 3.11% and Trichuris 7.11% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 26.66% in infested camels, while the prevalence of Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris in Barella breed was 4.40%, 1.88%, 2.51%, 6.91%, 2.51% and 7.54% respectively. Mixed infestation of all the nematodes was found 25.78% in infested camels. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Berrela breed. It was 18.66% in Marrecha breed and 14.46% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 16.93%. While the prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Marrecha breed than Barella breed. It was 16% in Marrecha breed and 10.69% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 13.80%. The overall prevalence of fascioliosis in camel is 30.31. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Marrecha breed as compared to Barella breed. It was 10.22% in Marrecha breed and 8.80% in Barella breed while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the breeds was 9.63%. The sex wise prevalence of gastrointestinal Nematodes in males was 39.28% which includes Camelostrongylus 8.03%, Trichostrongylus 3.57%, Strongyloides 6.25%, Haemonchus 11.60%, Nematodirus 4.46% and Trichuris 5.35% respectively while in the female it was 25.37% which includes Camelostrongylus 4.41%, Trichostrongylus 2.20%, Strongyloides 2.94%, Haemonchus 6.25%, Nematodirus 2.57% and Trichuris 6.98%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in Male was found higher as compared to Female which was 39.28% and 25.37% respectively. Sex wise prevalence of GI Trematodes in Camels was determined through collected samples. The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 16.91% in Female and 15.18 % in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 19.53%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica was also found higher in Female than Male. It was 12.13% in Female and 11.61% in Male while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in the camels irrespective of the sex was 11.98%. Sex wise prevalence of GI Cestodes in Camels was determined. The prevalence of Moniezia expansa was found higher in Female as compared to Male. It was 14.34% in Female and 13.39% in Male while the overall prevalence of Moniezia expansa in the camels irrespective of the sex was 14.06%. The overall prevalence of Nematodes in age group >10 yrs. was higher 30.25% as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. 20% which includes Camelostrongylus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichuris 3.36%, 2.52%, 6.72%, 5.88% 4.20% and 7.56 in age group >10 yrs and 1.88%, 1.51%, 1.88%, 4.90%, 2.64% and 7.16 respectively, in age group 5-10 yrs.
The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 30% in age group 5-10 yrs and 16.99% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 18.75%. The prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in age group 5-10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group >10 yrs. It was 9.33% in age group 5-10 yrs and 7.55% in age group >10 yrs while the overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantic in the camels irrespective of the age groups was 8.59%.
The prevalence of Moniezia expansa in age group >10 yrs was found higher as compared to age group 5-10 yrs. It was 10.92% in age group >10 yrs and 10.18% in age group 5-10 yrs while the overall prevalence of in Moniezia expansa the camels irrespective of the age groups was 7.81%.
To study the effect of gastrointestinal helminths on various blood parameters of camels, blood samples were collected from 5 infected and 5 healthy camels. Samples were analyzed using Hematology Analyzer and results were compared.
For therapeutic trials, a total of 30 camels positive for helminths was taken and divided into three groups A-C each group comprising of 10 animals. A fourth group D was selected comprising of 10 uninfected camels. The camels of group A were treated with dry Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder at a daily oral dose of 100 gm/camel for five days, group B was treated with Albenzole granules® (Albendazole) at a dose rate of 15mg/kg bd. wt. PO once. Group C (untreated) was designated as positive control, and the camels in Group D as negative control. Efficacy was determined on the reduction of eggs in feces at day 3, 7 and 14 (post-treatment). In the current study Neem leaves and Albendazole gave following results in the camels affected with Helminths. Neem leaves cured 20% of the animals on day 3rd after the drug administration while 40% and 60% of the animals cured on the day 7th and 14th respectively. Albendazole also gave good results against helminths affected camels. On the day 3rd of the treatment 30% animals cured while 60% animals were cured on the 7th day and on 14th day 80% animals recovered.
Data regarding prevalence was measured by non-parametric, chi-square (χ2), while therapeutic trails were analyzed by repeated measures one way ANOVA, using SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences), P < 0.05 was considered significant.



Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery
Clinical Medicine

2298-T


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