Hafiz Faseeh ur Rehman (2013-VA-437)

Effect Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Powder Supplementation On Morphometric Characteristics Of Bone And Skeletal Muscle Of Broiler Chicken - 2016. - 51p.;

Herbal extracts are being used as alternatives to sub-therapeutic antibiotics. Their mechanism of action involves improving growth performance through modulation of immune status of birds and increasing absorption of nutrients through gastro-intestinal tract. Moringa oleifera is one such herb which not only has antibacterial, antifungal properties but also have a good quantity of essential vitamins and minerals.
This study was aimed to analyze the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in different concentrations (0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2% and 1.5%) on commercially important muscle characteristics and morphometric parameters of tibia bone.
Day-old broilers (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D & E), each group having 4 replicates (n=5). Group A (Control) was fed basal diet while group B, C, D & E were fed same diet with 0.6%, 0.9% ,1.2% and 1.5 % supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder for 35 days. Birds were immunized against Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease.
On day 35 of the experiment, two birds from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered by exsanguination. Blood was collected in plan test tube and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes to harvest serum and alkaline phosphatase activity was measured in serum. After slaughtering samples of breast muscle (pectoralis major) were taken for pH measurement and water holding capacity (WHC). For histological slide preparation breast muscle sample were processed by paraffin embedding technique and stained by Haematoxyline & Eosin. Histomorphometry was done by using software (ProgRes®2.1.1 Capture Prog Camera Control Software).
The right and left tibiae of each bird were collected for the morphometric measurements. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Group differences were compared by the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test Difference between groups was considered significant at P < 0.05.
The results revealed that water holding capacity (WHC) was higher in 0.6% MOLP, 0.9% MOLP and 1.5% MOLP supplemented groups as compare to control group. pH values of breast meat in all MOLP supplemented groups were significantly higher at o hour, 12 hour and 24 hour after slaughtering.
The supplementation of MOLP did not significantly affect muscle fiber density in breast muscle, but muscle fibre diameter of breast muscle from groups supplemented with 1.2% and 1.5% MOLP were significantly higher (P<0.05) than control group and group supplemented with 0.6% MOLP. The muscle fibre diameter of breast muscle of 0.9% MOLP supplemented group did not vary significantly from control as well as all other MOLP supplemented groups.
In tibia, bone length, bone diameter, medullary canal diameter did not change significantly in supplemented and control group. The weight of tibia bone increased significantly in groups supplemented with 1.2% MOLP and 1.5% MOLP when compared to control group. In right tibia, all treated groups ash% was significantly (P<0.05) high when compared to control group but the left tibiae the ash% of left tibia was significantly (P<0.05) higher in 0.6% MOLP supplemented group when compare to all other groups. The ash% of control group, 0.9% and 1.2% MOLP supplemented groups were significantly high than 1.5% MOLP.
The serum ALP level and Tibio-Tarsal Index did not vary significantly in all experimental groups. The robusticity index of control group was higher for both left and right tibia bone when compared to 1.2% MOLP and 1.5% MOLP supplemented groups. The
Weight/Length Index of tibia bone was also significantly high in 1.2% MOLP and 1.5% MOLP supplemented groups as compared to control group.
One of the most important considerations which should be kept in mind at the time of sample collection for WHC measurements and for getting cross section of muscles on slides for microscopic morphometry is orientation of muscle fibre and muscle fascicle in a given muscle. The muscle fibres of breast muscle (pectoralis major) in birds are neither perpendicular nor parallel with keel bone’s long axis but running at an oblique angle where the higher end of muscle fibre is on the lateral edges of muscle and lower end of muscle fibre is towards the medial end, so for sampling one must first ascertain muscle fibre direction and then they should be cut perpendicular to their oblique angle.
Supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (1.2% and 1.5%) in diet of broilers improved commercially important traits of breast muscle along with improving the mineral contents and strength of tibia bone.

Department of Anatomy & Histology


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