Muhammad Azfar (2014-VA-1111)

Effects Of Aqueous Extract Of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaves Against Colibacillosis In Broiler - 2016. - 62p.;

In Pakistan the poultry sector has developed rapidly in the last two decades. The poultry production as practiced today is specialized one and concentrating more on the use of high performance birds. The major factors for successful poultry production are high genetic potential, balanced nutrition and health maintenance (Nayaka et al. 2012). Utilization of immunostimulant is one solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious diseases. Immunostimulation comprises a prophylactic and therapeutic concept aimed at stimulation of the non-specific and specific immune response (Hyde and Patnode, 2001).
Most of the commercial poultry growers use antibiotics as growth promoters and to reduce the chance of occurrence of infectious diseases, which usually result in higher costs of production and ultimately lower net returns. There are great concerns about the use of antibiotics as therapeutic immunomodulators and growth promoters as it has given rise to antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this modern world of science, the researchers are once again intending towards exploring the potential benefits of the conventional medicines. Neem (A. indica) is an herbal plant which is known to exhibit various beneficial pharmacological properties including immunomodulatory effect in broilers.
Poultry sector is facing some problems one of which is bacterial disease which cause economic loss. Farmers use different antibiotics as growth promoter and to reduce the incidence of different diseases on poultry which increases cost of production and lowers the net returns. In addition, use of antibiotics giving rise to other problems like increasing drug resistant against these antibiotics especially Gram –ve bacteria (Salmonella and E. coli). It’s necessary that antibiotic residues in meat would not adversely affect human health. Specifically, it has been recommended that the penicillins, tetracyclines, tylosin, and
sulfonamides as growth promoters should not be use any more. So scientists are giving attention to the use of indigenous medicine instead of antibiotics for better rearing of poultry. Pakistan is blessed with different medicinal plants one of which is Neem (Azadirachta indica). For thousands of years the medicinal properties of Neem have been recognized. Each part of the Neem tree has some medicinal property. Biological Activity of Neem is due presence of different chemicals like nimbolide, nimbin, nimbindin, quercetin among others. Biological activities include Anti-inflammatory; Antiarthritic; Antipyretic; Hypoglycemic; Antigastric ulcer; Spermicidal; Antifungal; Antibacterial; Diuretic; Antimalarial; Antitumour; Immunomodulatory A. indica grow fast and is evergreen tree which has medicinal and nutritive value for broilers. Broilers which are given Neem leaves extract in water have shown improved FCR and weight gain. This medicinal Plants compete with synthetic drugs as it strengthens the immune system by activate Cell mediated immunity and have no residues in meat. Neem extracts also improve performance and hematological parameters
However, I did the research work in short-term basis (only 42 days) and modern equipments were also not available. Therefore, an extensive research and development work should be undertaken on Neem and its products to make the findings more accurate and effective for their better economic and therapeutic utilization.

Department of Pathology


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