The Development Of Tea Whitener By Partial Replacement Of Palm Oil With Canola Oil (Record no. 3464)
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|005 - DATE AND TIME OF LATEST TRANSACTION|
|008 - FIXED-LENGTH DATA ELEMENTS--GENERAL INFORMATION|
|fixed length control field||150525s9999 xx 000 0 und d|
|041 ## - LANGUAGE CODE|
|Language code of text/sound track or separate title||eng|
|082 ## - DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION NUMBER|
|100 ## - MAIN ENTRY--AUTHOR NAME|
|Personal name||Junaid Kabir|
|110 ## - MAIN ENTRY--CORPORATE NAME|
|Location of meeting||Dr. Muhammad Nasir|
|245 #4 - TITLE STATEMENT|
|Title||The Development Of Tea Whitener By Partial Replacement Of Palm Oil With Canola Oil|
|260 ## - PUBLICATION, DISTRIBUTION, ETC. (IMPRINT)|
|Year of publication||2013|
|502 ## - DISSERTATION NOTE|
|Dissertation note||Tea whitener is now become a popular trend in Pakistan with 01 billion tons consumption annually according to my personal information and its consumption is increasing day by day. The replacement of hydrogenated palm oil used traditionally is necessary as they contains 49.3% saturated fatty acids, the majority of which are palmitic acid, myristic acid and lauric acid which are proved to be most injurious for human health, raises the total and LDL cholesterol (Bonanome et. Al, 1998). Canola oil is known for its low level of saturated fatty acids, a relatively high level of monounsaturated fatty acids, and a very good amount of the n-3 fatty acid a-linolenic acid. Canola oil consists of an appreciable amount of a-linolenic acid which amounts for almost 10 percent which is a fairly good quantity. In addition, 1:2 is the ratio balance between linolenicacid and linoleic acid which is favorable and well balanced. Canola oil is a relatively rich source of tocopherols,60-70 mg/100g, contains high level of phytosterols (892 mg/100 g. Keeping in mind the above mentioned nutritional aspects, canola oil based tea whitener is developed.
The research was conducted in two phases. During 1stphase the HLB requirement of the canola oil and partially hydrogenated palm oil was determined which are determined as 08 and 06 respectively. Then the emulsifier's percentages are calculated according to their standard HLB values and the doses of the emulsifiers "DATEM" and "GMS" are adjusted according to the ratios of hydrogenated palm oil and canola oil in all the formulations. During second phase the proximate, chemical, physical and sensory analysis are done for all the emulsions so as to determine their resemblance with the control formulation S1.
Different graph analysis regarding proximate analysis of canola oil based tea whitener showed that the results for moisture percentage are (85.69 ± 0.089), for crude protein the values are (1.66±0.22), for dry matter its (14.32±0.04) for crude fat the result shows (7.01±0.03). The variation in all the emulsions were negligible, as the ingredients except fat source is almost the same in all the formulations.
The results for acidity of tea whitener emulsions on the 2nd day which is 0.09± 0.02 which shows the acceptable range, while on the 6th day the mean value of the acidity is also in the acceptable range which is 0.14± 0.01 which means acidity increases to some extent on the 6th day of storage. The mean of the acidity on the 8th day is 0.16± 0.01. The trend shows the acidity increases from 0.09±0.02 to 0.16±0.01 in 08 days. The variation was observed in all the emulsions with the passage of time, but there is not a very significant difference among all the emulsions as compared to control S1.
Mean values for pH on the 2nd day is 6.79±0.03 while the control sample S1 has the pH value of 6.82 on the 2nd day and the treatment which has the lowest pH values on day 2nd is S6 with pH 6.75. The observations on 6th days are shown in pH chart which shows slight decrease in pH in the 6th day with the mean value 6.71±0.02. The mean value of pH on the 8th day is 6.61±0.02. The results showed that pH of tea whitener emulsionsdecreases as storage progressed. A very interesting point raised during study that the pH values of the standard emulsion S1 is higher among all the emulsions on the 2nd day, but as the days proceeds, the pH of the emulsions with different rations of canola oil retains their pH and the pH becomes almost the same as standard on the 8th day. This may concludes that the emulsions containing canola oil retains their ph more as compared to palm oil based emulsion.
The mean value of density of the tea whitener emulsions 1.12±0.02. So overall the results variation is not significant. The little difference may be due to the fact that palm oil has density of 0.89 L/kg at 25 C while the density if canola oil is 0.91 L/kg on the same temperature. The density of all the formulations are comparable with the control emulsion S1.
The results depicted that 'L" value was decreaseswith increase in the ratio of canola oil. Mean comparison for color "L" parameter showed that highest value for S1 which is 90.45 and least value for S8 which is 89.29. The variation is very slight but the palm oil based emulsions are slight whiter in the appearance.The mean value of a* is -0.285 ± 0.095 which shows a very little variation. The level of greenness decreases slightly as the ratio of the canola oil increases from S1 to S8. The degree of yellowness in the emulsion increases as the ratio of canola oil in increases in the emulsions. The mean value of b* is 2.94±0.27 which shows a slight variation as we go from S1 to S8.
The sensory attributes scores obtained from sensory evaluation by trained panelists varies a lot. Addition of canola oil in place of palm oil significantly alters the flavor, After taste and over all acceptability of the tea made with tea whitener emulsions from S1 to S8, the scores are almost the same up to S4 as compared to control formulation S1 for all the attributes mentioned above. Score decreases from S5 to S8 which is definitely due to the addition of canola oil in the formulations. The sensory attributes like fat separation and color get the same scored almost for all the formulations.
Flavor scores are almost the same up to S5 but the scores decreases significantly from S6 to S8, for the sensory attribute of "after taste" the formulations from S1 (standard) to S4 get good scores means the after taste if the S2, S3 and S4 are comparable to the control emulsion S1 while S5 to S8 get lower scores, For "overall acceptability" S2, S3 and S4 are nearly equivalent and good scores as compared to control formulation with 100 percent palm oil formulation with the mean value of 90±02 which gives a green signal that we can partially replace hydrogenated palm oil with canola oil. The formulation S5 get a little lower score as compared to control one. The formulations from S6 to S8 get lower scores in overall acceptability.
Finally it is concluded that the formulation S4 is the one which can be replaced with the control emulsion S1 for making of tea which means 42.5 percent of the total fat in tea whitener can be replaced successfully with canola oil without compromising the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the tea.
The main aim of this project was to make a tea whitener which is based on healthier and heart friendly oil (canola oil) instead of palm oil. Canola oil has been used as a cooking oil and also in nutritional products like "Ensure Plus" and "Glucerna" due to its health friendly composition. The idea is drawn from the nutritional products compositions whose fat part is mostly consists of canola oil.
In Pakistan, keeping in mind a very huge consumption of tea whitener of 01 billion annually according to my personal information. The production may be much higher as my information may be limited. Keeping in mind the annual production or consumption of liquid tea whitener in Pakistan, the delivery of more healthy oil to the consumers by incorporating it in the liquid tea whitener product seems to be a pretty good idea. It is not only the matter of incorporation of healthy canola oil but also the matter of replacement of saturated fatty acids rich palm oil. Keeping in mind the chemical, physical and sensory properties of tea whitener emulsions S4 with 42 percent canola oil of the oil phase gives similar physical, chemical and sensory properties when compared to control formulation tea whitener S1 with 100 percent palm oil as oil phase. Keeping in mind the composition of the canola oil, if tea whitener is made with 07 percent fat level, in case of S4 (The formulation with resemblance to control up to maximum canola oil extent) canola oil percentage if the total fat is 42.5 percent of the total fat, it will give 0.7 grams of omega-3 as ALA per 250 ml of the tea whitener which means that it will provide 2.8 grams of omega-3 per liter of tea whiteners which can help us to meet up to some extent the ADA recommendations which is 1.3 to 2.9 grams based on 2000 Kcal diet (ADA, 2007)
The real challenge in the making of tea whitener formulations with different ratios of canola oil and palm oil is to make a successful emulsions without fat separation, thanks to HLB system for successful making of emulsions. Another challenge is to mask the after taste of the canola oil which can be prominent in the tea whitener, the after taste of canola oil is masked by milk flavor due to which the successful replacement of palm oil with canola oil up to 42 percent becomes possible. The purpose of the product development of making it a source of omega-3 was successfully met as the results shows the partial replacement of palm oil with canola oil is possible.
From the present study it can be concluded that canola oil can be incorporated in liquid tea whitener up to the percentage of 42.5 percent of the total fat without any persistent change in chemical, physical and sensory properties of the tea whitener. The concluded value of omega-3 which it gives per 250 ml is 0.7 grams according to fatty acid profile given by ADA reports (ADA, 2007). They do not affect the taste or texture of the product. My study showed that the replacement of palm oil with canola oil up to 42.5 percent in tea whitener formulation was acceptable among consumers and also the tea whitener retained its quality and sensory properties after storage for 08 days at 04 C. The tea prepared from S4 has the same sensory properties as the tea made with the control formulation. It is recommended that canola oil based tea whitener should be a introduced in the market for creating awareness among the general population about the role of omega-3 n human health and threats of consuming saturated fatty acids. There are need of studies forefficacy of developed tea whitener whether it beneficially transmit the omega-3 to human body or not and what are the health benefits among the subjects. More research work is required to testify the product under UHT treatment to find out what are the changes in physical and chemical properties of the product up to 03 months, it's emulsion stability and it's sensory properties during and after 03 months of shelf life in tetra packaging.
|650 ## - SUBJECT ADDED ENTRY--TOPICAL TERM|
|Topical Term||Department of Food Sciences & Human Nutrition|
|700 ## - ADDED ENTRY--PERSONAL NAME|
|Personal name||Dr. Aftab Ahmad anjum|
|700 ## - ADDED ENTRY--PERSONAL NAME|
|Personal name||Dr. Saima|
|942 ## - ADDED ENTRY ELEMENTS (KOHA)|
|Koha item type||Thesis|
|Damaged status||Collection code||Permanent Location||Current Location||Shelving location||Date acquired||Full call number||Accession Number||Koha item type|
|Veterinary Science||UVAS Library||UVAS Library||Thesis Section||2015-06-01||1756,T||1756,T||Thesis|