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Targeted Survey Of Avian Influenza (H5, H7, H9) In Backyard Poultry In High Risk Area Kasur District

By: Shumaila IQbal (2009-VA-83) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.
Contributor(s): Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 57p.Subject(s): Epidemiology and Public HealthDDC classification: 2655-T Dissertation note: Avian Influenza is the most feared disease of poultry and other birds throughout the world. The segmented, negative strand RNA viruses that form the family Orthomyxoviridae are divided into three types of influenza virus, A, B and C. Only influenza A viruses have been reported to cause natural infections of birds. The outbreak can be mitigated by applying biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movement, using inactivated vaccines and initiating an AI surveillance network throughout the country. A targeted survey was conducted for a period of 3 months in order to determine prevalence of Avian Influenza H5, H7 and H9 in the villages of Kasur district. Two stage cluster sampling without replacement was adopted in this study. Thirty clusters were selected and in each cluster, seven elementary units (chicken) were sampled, i.e. a total of 210 birds. Tracheal swabs were collected from live and apparently healthy backyard birds then swabs were stored properly at 4°C (24-48hours) until processed. Data were collected from the owner in a face to face interview. A detail predesigned questionnaire was filled after taking written consent from the owner. The sample was collected during the survey of backyard poultry in villages of Kasur district was processed for laboratory analysis. Polymerase chain reaction for Avian Influenza virus isolation was conducted to diagnose sample for AIV. The weighted proportion estimate with 95% Cl (confidence intervals) of the overall prevalence was computed by using “R” software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome. Variables with significant univariate relationship at p <0.25 was selected for inclusion in the final model. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% Cl (confidence intervals) were calculated (Hosmer and Lemeshow, 2000). CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Discussion 53 The management practice risk scores provide a means to quantify the level of risk to avian influenza across villages. However, the utility of such a measure cannot be assessed until these are related to AI status form clinical tests. Nevertheless it is useful to assess what factors are associated with these scores. In particular, specific profiles of farms can be identified with potential high risk and control resources allocate accordingly. For example, this study has found amongst other things that farms with mixed poultry breeds, which have reported diarrhea, or reported high mortality have high risk scores, and these might be targeted for intervention. Prevalence estimate of Avian Influenza was generated. Potential risk factors associated with this prevalence was identified and will be communicated to concerned persons through publication. The poultry birds reared completely outdoor have more chance to contact with wild birds which increase the occurrence of AIV. A strong association between source of water and AIV was found. Water source can play a vital role in transmission of AIV. Another strong association was found in unethical disposal of dead birds and waste poultry farm near to houses with increase the chances of infection. Presence of live bird market stall and visiting of poultry farm vehicle to villages can increase the chances of AIV infection. Elimination or reduction of above mentioned risk factors, use of disinfectant for cleaning and regular vaccination against AI could significantly improve backyard poultry production system in villages.
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Avian Influenza is the most feared disease of poultry and other birds throughout the world. The segmented, negative strand RNA viruses that form the family Orthomyxoviridae are divided into three types of influenza virus, A, B and C. Only influenza A viruses have been reported to cause natural infections of birds. The outbreak can be mitigated by applying biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movement, using inactivated vaccines and initiating an AI surveillance network throughout the country.
A targeted survey was conducted for a period of 3 months in order to determine prevalence of Avian Influenza H5, H7 and H9 in the villages of Kasur district. Two stage cluster sampling without replacement was adopted in this study. Thirty clusters were selected and in each cluster, seven elementary units (chicken) were sampled, i.e. a total of 210 birds. Tracheal swabs were collected from live and apparently healthy backyard birds then swabs were stored properly at 4°C (24-48hours) until processed. Data were collected from the owner in a face to face interview. A detail predesigned questionnaire was filled after taking written consent from the owner. The sample was collected during the survey of backyard poultry in villages of Kasur district was processed for laboratory analysis. Polymerase chain reaction for Avian Influenza virus isolation was conducted to diagnose sample for AIV.
The weighted proportion estimate with 95% Cl (confidence intervals) of the overall prevalence was computed by using “R” software. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the effect of each study variable on the outcome. Variables with significant univariate relationship at p <0.25 was selected for inclusion in the final model. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% Cl (confidence intervals) were calculated (Hosmer and Lemeshow, 2000).
CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY
Discussion
53
The management practice risk scores provide a means to quantify the level of risk to avian influenza across villages. However, the utility of such a measure cannot be assessed until these are related to AI status form clinical tests. Nevertheless it is useful to assess what factors are associated with these scores. In particular, specific profiles of farms can be identified with potential high risk and control resources allocate accordingly. For example, this study has found amongst other things that farms with mixed poultry breeds, which have reported diarrhea, or reported high mortality have high risk scores, and these might be targeted for intervention. Prevalence estimate of Avian Influenza was generated. Potential risk factors associated with this prevalence was identified and will be communicated to concerned persons through publication. The poultry birds reared completely outdoor have more chance to contact with wild birds which increase the occurrence of AIV. A strong association between source of water and AIV was found. Water source can play a vital role in transmission of AIV. Another strong association was found in unethical disposal of dead birds and waste poultry farm near to houses with increase the chances of infection. Presence of live bird market stall and visiting of poultry farm vehicle to villages can increase the chances of AIV infection. Elimination or reduction of above mentioned risk factors, use of disinfectant for cleaning and regular vaccination against AI could significantly improve backyard poultry production system in villages.

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