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Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Bovine Anaplasmosis In District Mirpur Azad Jammu And Kashmir

By: Ayyaz Shakar (2014-VA-1119) | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.
Contributor(s): Dr. Imtiaz Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 51p.Subject(s): Clinical Medicine--CMS | Clinical Medicine and SurgeryDDC classification: 2665-T Dissertation note: Anaplasmosis of livestock is mostly confined to tropical and subtropical countries like Pakistan, where climatic conditions are suitable for growth and development of many vectors as ticks. Piroplasms belongs to this complex and affects both large and small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality rates resulting in heavy economic losses and thus poses a serious risk to livestock production. A total of 200 blood samples of bovine, cattle (n=100) and buffalo (n=100) showing the signs of fever, progressive anemia, a marked decline in body weight, depression and debility from district Mirpur AJK were included in the study. The diagnosis was made through thin blood smear examination. The overall prevalence was found 15.00% in both species of animals. The prevalence in cattle and buffaloes revealed 22% and 08% respectively. The results showed significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence between cattle and buffaloes. The gender wise prevalence of the disease revealed 12.12% in male and 26.87% in female cattle whereas; these values were 6.45% in male and 8.70% in female buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between male and female animals in the area. The data on breed wise prevalence of anaplasmosis showed highest prevalence in exotic breeds (28.00%) followed by cross breed cattle (24.44%) and native breed (16.67%) of AJK. The prevalence was 5.71% in Kunddi breed of buffalo and 9.23% in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between breeds of animals. Three different age groups of cattle and buffaloes were analyzed for the prevalence percentage of anaplasmosis in the area. The data showed highest prevalence (35.48%) in 1-3 year age group of animals followed by 18.92% in 3-5 year and 12.50% in age group 5-7 year in case of cattle and 14.29%, 6.67% and 5.88% in buffaloes respectively. the analysis of the data revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) among different age groups. The values of hemoglobin percent, packed cell volume and total Summery 40 erythrocyte count were found increased significantly (P<0.05) in cattle and buffaloes infected with anaplasmosis whereas; total leukocyte count was decreased significantly. The parameters were tested through student’s T-test. The analysis showed significant difference of values of all parameters in normal and infected animals. The chemotherapeutic trials were conducted with two drugs against bovine anaplasmosis in clinically diagnosed cases. Twelve positive cases of each cattle and buffaloes were divided into two main groups A and B comprising of 06 animals in each group. Each group was further divided into two sub groups comprising of 03 animals in each sub groups. The group A was treated with Oxytetracycline @ 20 mg/kg B.W. I/M the efficacy of the drug was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of Anaplasma in the blood smear. The efficacy percentage of Oxytetracycline was 33.3, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 33.3, 33.3 and 66.7 respectively in buffaloes. The group B was treated with Calotropis procera (Aak) at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg body weight orally. The efficacy percentage of Calotropis procera (Aak) was 0.00, 33.3, 66.7, and 66.7 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 and 33.3 respectively in buffaloes. The efficacy of Oxytetracycline against bovine anaplasmosis on day 08 was found 83.33% whereas; of Calotropis procera was 66.66%. It was concluded that Oxytetracycline is the most effective drug against bovine anaplasmosis.
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Anaplasmosis of livestock is mostly confined to tropical and subtropical countries like Pakistan, where climatic conditions are suitable for growth and development of many vectors as ticks. Piroplasms belongs to this complex and affects both large and small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality rates resulting in heavy economic losses and thus poses a serious risk to livestock production. A total of 200 blood samples of bovine, cattle (n=100) and buffalo (n=100) showing the signs of fever, progressive anemia, a marked decline in body weight, depression and debility from district Mirpur AJK were included in the study. The diagnosis was made through thin blood smear examination. The overall prevalence was found 15.00% in both species of animals. The prevalence in cattle and buffaloes revealed 22% and 08% respectively. The results showed significant difference (P<0.05) in prevalence between cattle and buffaloes. The gender wise prevalence of the disease revealed 12.12% in male and 26.87% in female cattle whereas; these values were 6.45% in male and 8.70% in female buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between male and female animals in the area. The data on breed wise prevalence of anaplasmosis showed highest prevalence in exotic breeds (28.00%) followed by cross breed cattle (24.44%) and native breed (16.67%) of AJK. The prevalence was 5.71% in Kunddi breed of buffalo and 9.23% in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P<0.05) between breeds of animals. Three different age groups of cattle and buffaloes were analyzed for the prevalence percentage of anaplasmosis in the area. The data showed highest prevalence (35.48%) in 1-3 year age group of animals followed by 18.92% in 3-5 year and 12.50% in age group 5-7 year in case of cattle and 14.29%, 6.67% and 5.88% in buffaloes respectively. the analysis of the data revealed a significant difference (P<0.05) among different age groups. The values of hemoglobin percent, packed cell volume and total
Summery
40
erythrocyte count were found increased significantly (P<0.05) in cattle and buffaloes infected with anaplasmosis whereas; total leukocyte count was decreased significantly. The parameters were tested through student’s T-test. The analysis showed significant difference of values of all parameters in normal and infected animals. The chemotherapeutic trials were conducted with two drugs against bovine anaplasmosis in clinically diagnosed cases. Twelve positive cases of each cattle and buffaloes were divided into two main groups A and B comprising of 06 animals in each group. Each group was further divided into two sub groups comprising of 03 animals in each sub groups. The group A was treated with Oxytetracycline @ 20 mg/kg B.W. I/M the efficacy of the drug was evaluated on the basis of disappearance of Anaplasma in the blood smear. The efficacy percentage of Oxytetracycline was 33.3, 33.3, 66.7, and 100 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 33.3, 33.3 and 66.7 respectively in buffaloes. The group B was treated with Calotropis procera (Aak) at the dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg body weight orally. The efficacy percentage of Calotropis procera (Aak) was 0.00, 33.3, 66.7, and 66.7 at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th day respectively post treatment in cattle whereas; 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 and 33.3 respectively in buffaloes. The efficacy of Oxytetracycline against bovine anaplasmosis on day 08 was found 83.33% whereas; of Calotropis procera was 66.66%. It was concluded that Oxytetracycline is the most effective drug against bovine anaplasmosis.

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