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A Comparative Epidemiological Study Of Coccidiosis In Broilers Raised Under Open And Control Sheds

By: Shehar Yar Alvi (2007-VA-173) | Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed.
Contributor(s): Dr. MUhammad Lateef | Dr. Jawad Nazir.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 59p.Subject(s): ParasitologyDDC classification: 2691-T Dissertation note: The domesticated fowl (Gallus gallus) is susceptible to seven species of genus Eimeria which are are Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox and Eimeria tenella. All of these are capable of causing disease but the clinical picture and pathogenesis may be different according to species, while the pathogenicity ranges from mild to severe. All the species are ubiquitous and cause disease in combination up-to 6 species at the same time on an individual farm so in this sense coccidiosis may be regarded as a disease complex. Now a days subclinical coccidiosis is more frequently affecting the birds as compared to clinical coccidiosis and greatest financial losses are being caused by subclinical coccidiosis in terms of decreased or less weight gain and reduced feed conversion efficiency. . The present study was designed to compile data on the prevalence of coccidiosis in broilers reared under open and controlled sheds situated in and around the Lahore city. Study provided better understanding of the risk factors associated with coccidiosis and their relationship. A questionnaire was designed to record information regarding the management practices, health status of the flock, weight gain. Pooled faecal samples were collected from 50 control sheds and 50 open sheds and were transported to the parasitology laboratory of UVAS. Faecal sample were examined by direct smear to see the coccidial oocysts. Post mortem was conducted to check the presence or absence of the gross lesions associated with coccidiosis. Association between coccidiosis and the risk factors was determined, and the results of open and control sheds were compared. It was assumed that coccidial infections will be higher in the open sheds as compared to environmentally controlled sheds. Open sheds had more prevalence 78% as compared to closed sheds which was reported as 72%. Five major risk factors were studied. Temperature and humidity fluctuation were strong risk factors associated with prevalence of coccidiosis. While litter condition also appeared as an associated risk factor for the prevalence and occurrence coccidiosis in both type of farming systems. Whereas use of medicated feed in open houses appeared as an associated risk factor but in controlled houses use of medicated feed was not associated with the prevalence of coccidiosis. History of previous infections of coccidiosis was also associated risk factor in both type of farming systems. The high prevalence of coccidiosis in open sheds may be due to lack of biosecurity and uncontrollable conditions of temperature and humidity while closed farms have proper biosecurity measures and good husbandry practices. Use of medicated feed and good husbandry practices may be help full to minimize the risk of occurrence of coccidiosis. Further studies are required for better understanding of the disease and associated risk factors. Therefore, the following recommendations are forwarded. • Educating farmers about the importance coccidiosis and its control. • Adaptation of good management practices on farms. • Avoid over-crowding in the house. • Alternative remedies need to be developed and evaluated to prevent and control coccidiosis.
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The domesticated fowl (Gallus gallus) is susceptible to seven species of genus Eimeria which are are Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox and Eimeria tenella. All of these are capable of causing disease but the clinical picture and pathogenesis may be different according to species, while the pathogenicity ranges from mild to severe. All the species are ubiquitous and cause disease in combination up-to 6 species at the same time on an individual farm so in this sense coccidiosis may be regarded as a disease complex. Now a days subclinical coccidiosis is more frequently affecting the birds as compared to clinical coccidiosis and greatest financial losses are being caused by subclinical coccidiosis in terms of decreased or less weight gain and reduced feed conversion efficiency.
. The present study was designed to compile data on the prevalence of coccidiosis in broilers reared under open and controlled sheds situated in and around the Lahore city. Study provided better understanding of the risk factors associated with coccidiosis and their relationship.
A questionnaire was designed to record information regarding the management practices, health status of the flock, weight gain. Pooled faecal samples were collected from 50 control sheds and 50 open sheds and were transported to the parasitology laboratory of UVAS. Faecal sample were examined by direct smear to see the coccidial oocysts. Post mortem was conducted to check the presence or absence of the gross lesions associated with coccidiosis. Association between coccidiosis and the risk factors was determined, and the results of open and control sheds were compared. It was assumed that coccidial infections will be higher in the open sheds as compared to environmentally controlled sheds. Open sheds had more prevalence 78% as compared to closed sheds which was reported as 72%. Five major risk factors were studied. Temperature and humidity fluctuation were strong risk factors associated with prevalence of coccidiosis. While litter condition also appeared as an associated risk factor for the prevalence and occurrence coccidiosis in both type of farming systems. Whereas use of medicated feed in open houses appeared as an associated risk factor but in controlled houses use of medicated feed was not associated with the prevalence of coccidiosis. History of previous infections of coccidiosis was also associated risk factor in both type of farming systems. The high prevalence of coccidiosis in open sheds may be due to lack of biosecurity and uncontrollable conditions of temperature and humidity while closed farms have proper biosecurity measures and good husbandry practices. Use of medicated feed and good husbandry practices may be help full to minimize the risk of occurrence of coccidiosis. Further studies are required for better understanding of the disease and associated risk factors.
Therefore, the following recommendations are forwarded.
• Educating farmers about the importance coccidiosis and its control.
• Adaptation of good management practices on farms.
• Avoid over-crowding in the house.
• Alternative remedies need to be developed and evaluated to prevent and control coccidiosis.

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