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Prevalence And In Vitro Acaricidal Activity Of Nicotiana Tobacum Extract(S) Against Ticks(S) Of Cattle In District Loralai (Balochistan)

By: Najeeb Ullah (2008-VA-203) | Dr. Muhammad Lateef.
Contributor(s): Dr. Saad Ullah Jan | Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameeer Durrani.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 69p.Subject(s): ParasitologyDDC classification: 2687-T Dissertation note: In this study prevalence and acaricidal activity of Nicotiana tobacum plant leaves extracts of chloroform and methanol based was evaluated. 6.1 Prevalence study In this study total 670 cattles were examined for tick infestation in cattle of different breed, age and sex in district Loralai (Balochistan). Overall prevalence of tick infestation of cattle recorded was 21.49%. Breed wise prevalence was 26.15, 12.80 and 22% in Friesian, Sahiwal and non-descriptive breed of cattle respectively. Age wise prevalence was 27.90, 26.88 and 19.34% in <1 year, 2 year and >2 years of cattle respectively. Higher sex related prevalence was noticed in female cattle (21.98%) as low found with male cattle (16.92%). 6.2 Acarididal effects of tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) plant The plant leaves of Nicotiana tobacum were dried for 8 to 10 days. The leaves were grinded mechanically into powder form and extract was prepared in Soxhlets apparatus. Extract was further dried in rotatory evaporator and hot air oven to remove left over moisture to obtain solid extract. The dry powder was stored in refrigerator at 4 °C to protect it from any fungal contamination. The powder extracts was used to make different concentrations of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml in distilled water. The ticks collected from study area was weighed and dipped in to the formulated solution for interval of 5 mints. After immersion ticks were incubated at 30 °C temperature and 80% relative humidity. After the oviposition period (18 days), the eggs were collected and weighed for each group. The comparison of all the groups was observed in terms of egg laying index and percentage inhibition of egg laying. 200 eggs (Approximately 10mg) were studied for egg hatchability of different groups at different concentration of chloroform and methanol extracts, This study has successfully achieved main objectives to determine the acaricidal effects of Nicotina tobacum extracts on ticks of cattle. Egg laying index: values of egg laying index at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml for chloroform and methanol extracts were as follows, for chloroform extracts these were 0.4782800±0.02789077, 0.4388300±.05119868 and 0.3963600±0.03380405 and for methanol extracts these were 0.4991200±0.00948646, 0.4614300±0.03917896 and 0.4205800±0.04183098 respectively. While for control group it was calculated 0.5331200±0.02757486 for all concentrations of Nicotiana tobacum extracts. This decline in egg laying index showed by ticks of chloroform and methanol extracts was significantly different (P<0.05) from control group. Percentage inhibition of egg laying: For chloroform extract calculated value was 10.048, 17.378 and 25.143% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively, and for methanol extracts the value was 6.367, 13.152 and 20.827% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively. Egg hatchability: Hatchability of ticks eggs of chloroform extract of Nicotiana tobacum plant were recorded 67.5, 43.5 and 17% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml, and 50mg/ml respectively. Moreover, hatchability of ticks eggs of methanol extract of Nicotiana tobacum plant were recorded 77.5, 47.5 and 23% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml, and 50mg/ml respectively and for control group it was recorded 100% as treated with distilled water.
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Veterinary Science 2687-T (Browse shelf) Available 2687-T
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In this study prevalence and acaricidal activity of Nicotiana tobacum plant leaves extracts of chloroform and methanol based was evaluated.
6.1 Prevalence study
In this study total 670 cattles were examined for tick infestation in cattle of different breed, age and sex in district Loralai (Balochistan). Overall prevalence of tick infestation of cattle recorded was 21.49%. Breed wise prevalence was 26.15, 12.80 and 22% in Friesian, Sahiwal and non-descriptive breed of cattle respectively. Age wise prevalence was 27.90, 26.88 and 19.34% in <1 year, 2 year and >2 years of cattle respectively. Higher sex related prevalence was noticed in female cattle (21.98%) as low found with male cattle (16.92%).
6.2 Acarididal effects of tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) plant
The plant leaves of Nicotiana tobacum were dried for 8 to 10 days. The leaves were grinded mechanically into powder form and extract was prepared in Soxhlets apparatus. Extract was further dried in rotatory evaporator and hot air oven to remove left over moisture to obtain solid extract. The dry powder was stored in refrigerator at 4 °C to protect it from any fungal contamination. The powder extracts was used to make different concentrations of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml in distilled water. The ticks collected from study area was weighed and dipped in to the formulated solution for interval of 5 mints. After immersion ticks were incubated at 30 °C temperature and 80% relative humidity. After the oviposition period (18 days), the eggs were collected and weighed for each group. The comparison of all the groups was observed in terms of egg laying index and percentage inhibition of egg laying. 200 eggs (Approximately 10mg) were studied for egg hatchability of different groups at different concentration of chloroform and methanol extracts,
This study has successfully achieved main objectives to determine the acaricidal effects of Nicotina tobacum extracts on ticks of cattle.
Egg laying index: values of egg laying index at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml for chloroform and methanol extracts were as follows, for chloroform extracts these were 0.4782800±0.02789077, 0.4388300±.05119868 and 0.3963600±0.03380405 and for methanol extracts these were 0.4991200±0.00948646, 0.4614300±0.03917896 and 0.4205800±0.04183098 respectively. While for control group it was calculated 0.5331200±0.02757486 for all concentrations of Nicotiana tobacum extracts. This decline in egg laying index showed by ticks of chloroform and methanol extracts was significantly different (P<0.05) from control group.
Percentage inhibition of egg laying: For chloroform extract calculated value was 10.048, 17.378 and 25.143% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively, and for methanol extracts the value was 6.367, 13.152 and 20.827% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively.
Egg hatchability: Hatchability of ticks eggs of chloroform extract of Nicotiana tobacum plant were recorded 67.5, 43.5 and 17% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml, and 50mg/ml respectively. Moreover, hatchability of ticks eggs of methanol extract of Nicotiana tobacum plant were recorded 77.5, 47.5 and 23% at concentration of 12.5mg/ml, 25mg/ml, and 50mg/ml respectively and for control group it was recorded 100% as treated with distilled water.

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