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Seroprevalence Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies In Captive Birds Of District Lahore & Kasur, Pakistan

By: Freeha Amin (2014-VA-954) | Dr. Khalid Mehmood Anjum.
Contributor(s): Dr. Shahzad Ali | Dr. M. Afzal Rashid.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 44p.Subject(s): ZoologyDDC classification: 2692-T Dissertation note: Toxoplasmosis is the furthermost zoonosis globaldiseases which isinitiated by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma (T.) gondii. Felidae,(Felis silvestris) are the only definitive hosts.All warm-blooded vertebrates, mammals and birds, turn out to beseptic by consumption sporulated T. gondii oocysts in the environment or by ingesting T. gondii tissue cysts within the tissues of intermediate hosts. Climatic aspects influence the oocysts in the atmosphere. Tropical countries have higher seroprevalence due to humid and warm climate.The main reason of human seroprevalence, are dietary habits (categories of meat or vegetables consumed, cooking technique of meat,vegetable cleaning, hand washing, etc.) economic, cultural social habits, quality of water, and sanitation coverage. Pet birds are act as natural pools for many pathogens. The lifeless infected birds eaten by cats, the catscome to be infected and afterwards eliminated oocysts. The current study wasdesigned toconclude the seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive birds (Domesticated and caged) in district Kasur and Lahore, Pakistan.The study area was comprised of two geologically altered districts. Fifteen different sampling sites areas were UVAS-C and A-block, Pattoki; Defence Colony, Kasur; Village Kyloon Kalan, Kasur; Kyloon Khurd, Kasur;Khudian Khas, Kasur;Gulburg Colony, Kasur; Kacha Paka, Kasur; Dowlay Wala, Kasur;Pet Market, Pattoki; Tollinton Market, Lahore;Elahabad City, Kasur; Village Wadana, Kasur; Mustafa Abad, Kasur; The Educator School, Pattoki. A total of 200 bird’sblood samples were collected. All birds’ sample were collectedrandomly from Pet Markets (n = 44), Captive Breeding Centres (n = 93)and Homes (n = 63). One ml of blood was taken from wing vein and stored in sterile clean test tube.Serum samples were analyzed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT).Thirty seven serum samples (18.5%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies out of 200. Apparently, highest seroprevalence (66.7%) was documented inDefence Colony, Kasur and no seropositive case was reported from Mustafa Abad, Kasur and The Educator School, Pattoki. Several parameters(order/species, habitat, feeding and drinking behavior and environmental conditions of the birds) were observed for the seroprevalence of T.gondii antibodies. In order, Galliformes 11.9%, Anseriformes15.8%, Psittaciformes 29.4% Columbiformes, 22.4%,Passeriformes 41.7%were seropositive for antibodies against T. gondii by Latex Agglutination Test.According to species level parameter, the Turkey (Meleagri gallopavo) 20%, Indian Peacock(Pavo muticus) 5.6%, Common Quail(Anser domesticus) 10.7%, Duck (Bucephala albeola) 17.2%, White Goose (Corturnix coturnix) 11.1%, Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) 50%, Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)20%,Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri)25.0%, Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) 50%, Dimond Dove(Geopelia cuneata) 50%,Eurasian collared-dove(Streptopelia decaocto)40%, Khumra33.4%,Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) 11.2%, Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) 27.3%, Tricoloured Munia (Lonchura malacca)50%,Zebra Waxbill (Amandava subflava) 50%, Society Finch(Lonchura striata domestica) 75% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies.None of White Peahen(Pavo cristatus),Desert Finch(Rhodospiza obsoleta), Guinea fowl(Numida meleagris),and White-throated Munia (Euodice malabarica) serum sample was seropositive for T.gondii antibodies. Gender wise study shows that out of total sera samples male seroprevalence rate were20.9%,while in the female 16.8%. Out of total samples in domesticated birds the seroprevalence rate were14.3%, breeding centers 15.1%,pet market of districts Kasur and Lahore 31.9%.The rate of seroprevalence in natural source drinker were 20.4%, while in contaminated drinker were 14.4%. The present study provided evidence of T. gondii infection in domesticated and caged birds in district Kasur and Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. As, T. gondii is zoonotic agent which can be transferred from these birds to human being having close contact with them. There is dire need of prevention and control of said diseases in our domesticated and caged birds.
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Toxoplasmosis is the furthermost zoonosis globaldiseases which isinitiated by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma (T.) gondii. Felidae,(Felis silvestris) are the only definitive hosts.All warm-blooded vertebrates, mammals and birds, turn out to beseptic by consumption sporulated T. gondii oocysts in the environment or by ingesting T. gondii tissue cysts within the tissues of intermediate hosts. Climatic aspects influence the oocysts in the atmosphere. Tropical countries have higher seroprevalence due to humid and warm climate.The main reason of human seroprevalence, are dietary habits (categories of meat or vegetables consumed, cooking technique of meat,vegetable cleaning, hand washing, etc.) economic, cultural social habits, quality of water, and sanitation coverage. Pet birds are act as natural pools for many pathogens. The lifeless infected birds eaten by cats, the catscome to be infected and afterwards eliminated oocysts.
The current study wasdesigned toconclude the seroprevalence of T. gondii in captive birds (Domesticated and caged) in district Kasur and Lahore, Pakistan.The study area was comprised of two geologically altered districts. Fifteen different sampling sites areas were UVAS-C and A-block, Pattoki; Defence Colony, Kasur; Village Kyloon Kalan, Kasur; Kyloon Khurd, Kasur;Khudian Khas, Kasur;Gulburg Colony, Kasur; Kacha Paka, Kasur; Dowlay Wala, Kasur;Pet Market, Pattoki; Tollinton Market, Lahore;Elahabad City, Kasur; Village Wadana, Kasur; Mustafa Abad, Kasur; The Educator School, Pattoki.
A total of 200 bird’sblood samples were collected. All birds’ sample were collectedrandomly from Pet Markets (n = 44), Captive Breeding Centres (n = 93)and Homes (n = 63).

One ml of blood was taken from wing vein and stored in sterile clean test tube.Serum samples were analyzed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT).Thirty seven serum samples (18.5%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies out of 200. Apparently, highest seroprevalence (66.7%) was documented inDefence Colony, Kasur and no seropositive case was reported from Mustafa Abad, Kasur and The Educator School, Pattoki.
Several parameters(order/species, habitat, feeding and drinking behavior and environmental conditions of the birds) were observed for the seroprevalence of T.gondii antibodies. In order, Galliformes 11.9%, Anseriformes15.8%, Psittaciformes 29.4% Columbiformes, 22.4%,Passeriformes 41.7%were seropositive for antibodies against T. gondii by Latex Agglutination Test.According to species level parameter, the Turkey (Meleagri gallopavo) 20%, Indian Peacock(Pavo muticus) 5.6%, Common Quail(Anser domesticus) 10.7%, Duck (Bucephala albeola) 17.2%, White Goose (Corturnix coturnix) 11.1%, Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) 50%, Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus)20%,Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri)25.0%, Sulphur-Crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) 50%, Dimond Dove(Geopelia cuneata) 50%,Eurasian collared-dove(Streptopelia decaocto)40%, Khumra33.4%,Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) 11.2%, Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) 27.3%, Tricoloured Munia (Lonchura malacca)50%,Zebra Waxbill (Amandava subflava) 50%, Society Finch(Lonchura striata domestica) 75% were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies.None of White Peahen(Pavo cristatus),Desert Finch(Rhodospiza obsoleta), Guinea fowl(Numida meleagris),and White-throated Munia (Euodice malabarica) serum sample was seropositive for T.gondii antibodies.
Gender wise study shows that out of total sera samples male seroprevalence rate were20.9%,while in the female 16.8%. Out of total samples in domesticated birds the seroprevalence rate were14.3%, breeding centers 15.1%,pet market of districts Kasur and Lahore 31.9%.The rate of seroprevalence in natural source drinker were 20.4%, while in contaminated drinker were 14.4%.
The present study provided evidence of T. gondii infection in domesticated and caged birds in district Kasur and Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. As, T. gondii is zoonotic agent which can be transferred from these birds to human being having close contact with them. There is dire need of prevention and control of said diseases in our domesticated and caged birds.

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