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Estimation And Correlation Of Serum Electrolytes And Minerals Levels During Gastroentritis In Dogs

By: Asif Hameed Awan (2008-VA-242) | Dr. Syed Saleem Ahmad.
Contributor(s): Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 53p.Subject(s): Clinical MedicineDDC classification: 2733-T Dissertation note: In gastroenteritis, there is severe diarrhoea and vomiting occurs, particularly in young dogs, it is a life-threatening condition due to loss of body fluid and vital electrolytes and minerals. Which contributes to high mortality. Fluid therapy in these patients is essential to correct hypovolemia, dehydration, acid-base imbalances and serum electrolyte abnormalities. Diarrhoea means increase in frequency, fluid quantity and volume of faecal excretion. As diarrhoea has different levels of dehydration recognized by their specific signs can lead to abnormal level of serum electrolytes and trace elements (minerals). Serum concentration of electrolytes and minerals varies during gastroenteritis in dogs and its values change dramatically at different dehydration levels. Which could cause death in dogs. The present study was designed to check the effect of diarrhea on different electrolyte and mineral. Total 40 dogs was included in this study from different private pet clinics and Pet Centre, UVAS, Lahore suffering from clinical diarrhea and vomiting irrespective of cause, These dogs were divided into four groups A, B, C and Control, comprising of 10 dogs in each group. Group A, B and C will be categorized according to dehydration state i.e. 0 - 5%, 5 -8% and 8 - 10% respectively. These groups were made on basis of clinical signs and Packed Cell Volume, (PCV), whereas Group D was be kept as a control, comprising of normal and healthy dogs. These were further subdivided on the basis of age. 5 dogs were included having less than 1 year age and 5 dogs were included having more than 1 year age with the same dehydration level. PCV was checked to diagnose the level of dehydration. The PCV value, which comes in desire category, were further proceeded for serum collection to check the concentrations of serum electrolytes and minerals like Na, K, Cl, Cu, Zn and Fe through different methods like Na CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 46 and K were checked by flame photometer, Fe, Zn and Cu were checked by atomic absorption and Cl were determined by titration at WTO Laboratory and the Laboratory of Environmental Science, Department at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Analysis of variance ANOVA (1 way factorial) technique were used with Random Complete Block Design (RCBD) to compare serum electrolytes and trace elements concentration in gastroenteritis with the concentration of healthy one. Considering the importance and utilization of dogs in our country and substantial losses occur due to deficiency of vital electrolytes and minerals at different dehydration levels due to diarrhea and vomiting irrespective of the cause, the present project were planned to give proper guidance to dog’s owners for their treatment and quick recovery by knowing about the decreasing serum concentration of essential electrolytes and vital minerals during different dehydration levels have different age groups. From the present study the value of sodium was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done/ According to result of present study, the concentration of Na in healthy dog was 146.47 ± 3.06 (mmol/l) in infected dogs the concentration was Na= 144.40 ± 3.61 (mmol/l) while normal range of Na= 142-150mmol/l. Chloride value was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. This Chloride value was also significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group A as compared to the groups B and C, while chloride value in group B was significantly reduced (P<0.05) as compared to group C. Potassium is another vital electrolyte that can be affected by dehydration. Potassium is important for muscle contraction and the heart’s rhythm. Small changes in the concentration of K in the bloodstream can have serious health hazards. Potassium value was observed significantly Summary 47 reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. Copper value was observed significantly increased (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. This copper value has been increased as the dehydration increases from group A to group C such that Control>A>B>C. Iron value was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. This value was also significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group C as compared to the groups A, but the iron value has no significant effect between group A and group B. Zinc value was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. Zinc value was also significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group C as compared to the groups A, but the iron value has no significant effect between group A and group B. Electrolytes such as sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), Cupper (Cu), and iron (Fe) are involved in several physiological processes like conduction of electrical impulse through nervous system and muscle contraction and their imbalance could lead a lowering of animal performance. Dogs having gastroenteritis experienced diarrhea and vomiting due to which fluid loss along with vital electroytes like Na, K, Cl, Fe and Zn in dehydration inspite of Cu which increases as dehydration increases.
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Veterinary Science 2733-T (Browse shelf) Available 2733-T
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In gastroenteritis, there is severe diarrhoea and vomiting occurs, particularly in young dogs, it is a life-threatening condition due to loss of body fluid and vital electrolytes and minerals. Which contributes to high mortality. Fluid therapy in these patients is essential to correct hypovolemia, dehydration, acid-base imbalances and serum electrolyte abnormalities. Diarrhoea means increase in frequency, fluid quantity and volume of faecal excretion. As diarrhoea has different levels of dehydration recognized by their specific signs can lead to abnormal level of serum electrolytes and trace elements (minerals).
Serum concentration of electrolytes and minerals varies during gastroenteritis in dogs and its values change dramatically at different dehydration levels. Which could cause death in dogs.
The present study was designed to check the effect of diarrhea on different electrolyte and mineral. Total 40 dogs was included in this study from different private pet clinics and Pet Centre, UVAS, Lahore suffering from clinical diarrhea and vomiting irrespective of cause, These dogs were divided into four groups A, B, C and Control, comprising of 10 dogs in each group. Group A, B and C will be categorized according to dehydration state i.e. 0 - 5%, 5 -8% and 8 - 10% respectively. These groups were made on basis of clinical signs and Packed Cell Volume, (PCV), whereas Group D was be kept as a control, comprising of normal and healthy dogs. These were further subdivided on the basis of age. 5 dogs were included having less than 1 year age and 5 dogs were included having more than 1 year age with the same dehydration level.
PCV was checked to diagnose the level of dehydration. The PCV value, which comes in desire category, were further proceeded for serum collection to check the concentrations of serum electrolytes and minerals like Na, K, Cl, Cu, Zn and Fe through different methods like Na
CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY
Summary
46
and K were checked by flame photometer, Fe, Zn and Cu were checked by atomic absorption and Cl were determined by titration at WTO Laboratory and the Laboratory of Environmental Science, Department at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore.
Analysis of variance ANOVA (1 way factorial) technique were used with Random Complete Block Design (RCBD) to compare serum electrolytes and trace elements concentration in gastroenteritis with the concentration of healthy one. Considering the importance and utilization of dogs in our country and substantial losses occur due to deficiency of vital electrolytes and minerals at different dehydration levels due to diarrhea and vomiting irrespective of the cause, the present project were planned to give proper guidance to dog’s owners for their treatment and quick recovery by knowing about the decreasing serum concentration of essential electrolytes and vital minerals during different dehydration levels have different age groups.
From the present study the value of sodium was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done/ According to result of present study, the concentration of Na in healthy dog was 146.47 ± 3.06 (mmol/l) in infected dogs the concentration was Na= 144.40 ± 3.61 (mmol/l) while normal range of Na= 142-150mmol/l.
Chloride value was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. This Chloride value was also significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group A as compared to the groups B and C, while chloride value in group B was significantly reduced (P<0.05) as compared to group C. Potassium is another vital electrolyte that can be affected by dehydration. Potassium is important for muscle contraction and the heart’s rhythm. Small changes in the concentration of K in the bloodstream can have serious health hazards. Potassium value was observed significantly
Summary
47
reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. Copper value was observed significantly increased (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. This copper value has been increased as the dehydration increases from group A to group C such that Control>A>B>C. Iron value was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. This value was also significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group C as compared to the groups A, but the iron value has no significant effect between group A and group B. Zinc value was observed significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all test groups (A, B, C) as compared to control unhydrated group of dogs when serum chemistry was done. Zinc value was also significantly reduced (P<0.05) in group C as compared to the groups A, but the iron value has no significant effect between group A and group B. Electrolytes such as sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), Cupper (Cu), and iron (Fe) are involved in several physiological processes like conduction of electrical impulse through nervous system and muscle contraction and their imbalance could lead a lowering of animal performance.
Dogs having gastroenteritis experienced diarrhea and vomiting due to which fluid loss along with vital electroytes like Na, K, Cl, Fe and Zn in dehydration inspite of Cu which increases as dehydration increases.

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