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Evaluation Of Antioxidant And Antmicrobial Potential Of Rutin In Cheddar Cheese

By: Namrah Wahid (2009-VA-574) | Mr. Haroon Jamshaid Qazi.
Contributor(s): Mr. Haroon Jamshaid Qazi | Dr.Azmat Ullah Khan | Dr. Muhammad Nadeem.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 78p.Subject(s): Food Safety and ControlDDC classification: 2735-T Dissertation note: Commercially synthetic antioxidants like Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT),Butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and ascorbic acid were added in cheese as antioxidants. Researches reveal that synthetic antioxidant has human various side effects on human health. With increasing food safety demand, the synthetic antioxidant needs to be replaced with natural antioxidants. Rutin is a natural flavonoid, which has antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and can be used as natural antioxidant to reduce lipolysis and decrease microbial load. Rutinin various concentrations was added as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in Cheddar Cheese to reduce lipolysis and microbial load in Cheddar Cheese. Total no. of treatments (n=6) of cheddar cheese were prepared and analyzed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Rutin. Each treatment was done in replicates. Cheddar cheese was ripened for three months at 8ᵒC. During ripening different types of tests i.e., antioxidant (includes Total phenolic contents, Total antioxidant capacity, Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, Anisidine value, Per oxide value, Thiobarbituric acid value, Free Fatty Acid value), antimicrobial (includes Total plate count, Yeast and mould count, Antimicrobial test for S. aureus and E. coli.) were performedat 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of ripening. Sensory evaluation was performed by a five semi trained panel of judges; samples were evaluated for color, taste, flavor and overall acceptability at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of ripening. Total phenolic contents, total antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity in linoleic acid tend to increase with increasing antioxidants concentrations from T1 to T4.In current study T4 showed slightly more antioxidant capacity than positive control. On the other hand, TPC and AA tend to decrease during storage time from 0 to 90 days Summary 67 which shows that the phenols contents are being utilized during storage time to stop free radicals to produce. Anisidine test is used as a chemical indicator of lipid oxidation and to measure the secondary lipid oxidation. Anisidine value increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all treatments from 0 to 90 days storage. Antioxidant activity of the rutin has no effect on free fatty acid value. But free fatty acid value increase during the time 0 to 90 days due to moisture present in the samples. In current study per oxide value increased during storage. PV was highest for negative control. Per oxide value and positive control showed lowest PV. PV value decreases with increasing rutin concentration. In microbial test antimicrobial potential of rutin was evaluated. Total plate count, yeast and mold count showed the significant (p <0.05) during storage of 90 days. While increasing rutin concentration showed the significant reduction the total plate count and yeast and mold count. In sensory evaluation color of all the experimental cheddar cheese treated with rutin and controls were not different from each other (P>0.05).The result showed that increasing rutin concentration had no effect on the color at storage from 0 to 90 days. Antimicrobial potential of rutin against E.coli and S.aureus showed the non significant (p > 0.05). In current study sensory scores of all the treatments having different concentration of rutin showed the decreasing trend with storage from 0 to 90 days. The change in the taste of all the treated cheddar cheese showed the significant (p < 0.05) declining trend, this could be due to the change in the chemical composition of the cheese during storage. 68 Conclusion The study showed successful incorporation of various concentration of rutin in cheddar cheese as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. All the treatments showed decreased rate of lipid oxidation. Study showed that rutin increased the total antioxidant activity and total phenol in cheddar during 90 days of storage. Oxidative storage stability of rutin in cheddar cheese was evaluated by TBAR, Anisidine value, FFA, Peroxide value. Antimicrobial potential of rutin was also evaluated by total plate count and yeast and mold count. The results showed that increasing rutin concentration significantly reduced the TBA, FFA, PV,Anisidine Value and microbial load. This could be due to the phenoilic and phytochemical properties of rutin. Incorporation of rutin in cheddar cheese improved the antioxidant activity and storage stability of cheese and can be served commercially as a natural preservative in other cheese as well. Recommendations  Increasing rutin concentration increased the antioxidant activity, total phenol and linoleic activity in cheddar cheese.  Oxidative/storage stability of cheddar cheese can be increased by increasing rutin concentration.  T4 with 80ppm of rutin is the best among all the treatments.  Rutin can be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent industrially in other variety of cheeses.
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Commercially synthetic antioxidants like Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT),Butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and ascorbic acid were added in cheese as antioxidants. Researches reveal that synthetic antioxidant has human various side effects on human health. With increasing food safety demand, the synthetic antioxidant needs to be replaced with natural antioxidants. Rutin is a natural flavonoid, which has antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and can be used as natural antioxidant to reduce lipolysis and decrease microbial load.
Rutinin various concentrations was added as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in Cheddar Cheese to reduce lipolysis and microbial load in Cheddar Cheese.
Total no. of treatments (n=6) of cheddar cheese were prepared and analyzed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Rutin. Each treatment was done in replicates. Cheddar cheese was ripened for three months at 8ᵒC. During ripening different types of tests i.e., antioxidant (includes Total phenolic contents, Total antioxidant capacity, Antioxidant activity in linoleic acid, Anisidine value, Per oxide value, Thiobarbituric acid value, Free Fatty Acid value), antimicrobial (includes Total plate count, Yeast and mould count, Antimicrobial test for S. aureus and E. coli.) were performedat 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of ripening. Sensory evaluation was performed by a five semi trained panel of judges; samples were evaluated for color, taste, flavor and overall acceptability at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of ripening.
Total phenolic contents, total antioxidant capacity, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity in linoleic acid tend to increase with increasing antioxidants concentrations from T1 to T4.In current study T4 showed slightly more antioxidant capacity than positive control. On the other hand, TPC and AA tend to decrease during storage time from 0 to 90 days
Summary
67
which shows that the phenols contents are being utilized during storage time to stop free radicals to produce.
Anisidine test is used as a chemical indicator of lipid oxidation and to measure the secondary lipid oxidation. Anisidine value increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all treatments from 0 to 90 days storage.
Antioxidant activity of the rutin has no effect on free fatty acid value. But free fatty acid value increase during the time 0 to 90 days due to moisture present in the samples.
In current study per oxide value increased during storage. PV was highest for negative control. Per oxide value and positive control showed lowest PV. PV value decreases with increasing rutin concentration.
In microbial test antimicrobial potential of rutin was evaluated. Total plate count, yeast and mold count showed the significant (p <0.05) during storage of 90 days. While increasing rutin concentration showed the significant reduction the total plate count and yeast and mold count.
In sensory evaluation color of all the experimental cheddar cheese treated with rutin and controls were not different from each other (P>0.05).The result showed that increasing rutin concentration had no effect on the color at storage from 0 to 90 days. Antimicrobial potential of rutin against E.coli and S.aureus showed the non significant (p > 0.05).
In current study sensory scores of all the treatments having different concentration of rutin showed the decreasing trend with storage from 0 to 90 days. The change in the taste of all the treated cheddar cheese showed the significant (p < 0.05) declining trend, this could be due to the change in the chemical composition of the cheese during storage.
68
Conclusion
The study showed successful incorporation of various concentration of rutin in cheddar cheese as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. All the treatments showed decreased rate of lipid oxidation. Study showed that rutin increased the total antioxidant activity and total phenol in cheddar during 90 days of storage. Oxidative storage stability of rutin in cheddar cheese was evaluated by TBAR, Anisidine value, FFA, Peroxide value. Antimicrobial potential of rutin was also evaluated by total plate count and yeast and mold count. The results showed that increasing rutin concentration significantly reduced the TBA, FFA, PV,Anisidine Value and microbial load. This could be due to the phenoilic and phytochemical properties of rutin. Incorporation of rutin in cheddar cheese improved the antioxidant activity and storage stability of cheese and can be served commercially as a natural preservative in other cheese as well.
Recommendations
 Increasing rutin concentration increased the antioxidant activity, total phenol and linoleic activity in cheddar cheese.
 Oxidative/storage stability of cheddar cheese can be increased by increasing rutin concentration.
 T4 with 80ppm of rutin is the best among all the treatments.
 Rutin can be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent industrially in other variety of cheeses.

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