Normal view MARC view ISBD view

Extraction Of Amino Acids And Proteins From Chrome Leather Waste

By: Maria Khatoon (2014-VA-217) | Dr.Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif.
Contributor(s): Mrs Saman Saad | Dr.Muhammad Nawaz.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 50p.Subject(s): Environment SciencesDDC classification: 2753-T Dissertation note: Pakistan’s second biggest industry concerning exports is the Leather Industry. According to Pakistan Tanners Association (PTA) report Contributing more than $800 million in 2009 to the remote trade in Pakistan, by the year 2014 either products export increased up to 9.62 percent (PakistanEconomic Survey2014-15) , this industry has the capability of conveying increasingly and giving a substantial number of occupations by diversifying item run and enhancing quality. Hides are the by-product of the meat business, which are converted into leather through tanning processes. Solid wastes of leather industry are raw trimmings, flashings, chrome shavings, buffing dusts and keratin wastes. Chromium salts are used in processing of leather, which creates difficulties in its throw out. The leather industry waste has a large amount of nitrogen content which is amino acids, i.e. protein, which can be used for different purposes, after extraction through different methods.The objective of the present work is to isolate protein products from chrome leather waste and to evaluate acid and alkali for efficiency to convert chrome leather waste into useful products, as the most practiced methods are acid and alkali methods, for extraction of protein. Chromium is precipitated by raising its pH through an alkali, in to Cr(OH)3, while the insoluble protein is collected by lowering the temperature. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used for chromium determination, for protein determination Biuret and Kjeldhal’s method will be used, along with protein extraction, dissolved and left amount of CLW was analyzed and precipitated chromium was measured by using AAS. The highest amount of CLW was dissolved in NaOH, while the lowest one in CaO. The raise of temperature increases the dissolved amount of CLW.The left amount of CLW was also measured Summary 45 for all alkali treatments, as the teprature and quantity of the alkali is increased the left amount of CLW decreased, as 18g of NaOH give the minimum amount of left CLW i.e 3g, the high amount of temperature or high quantity of alkali denature the proteins. 7g of NaOH at 50C and 10g of MgO at 50C for 6 hours give the best results.Higher the quantity of alkali more it precipitate the chromium as by using 18g of NaOH at 50C 4.92% of total chromium was precipitated. Highest dissolved amount 42.98g was obtain by 80ml of 10% sulfuric acid at 60C with 90 min shaking time, highest left amount of CLW was 43.02 by using 50ml of 10% sulfuric acid at 25C with shaking time of 30 minutes and high amount of protein was extracted by using 40ml and 80 ml 10% sulfuric acid for the shaking time 60 and 30 minutes at 40C and 25C respectively. Chromium is precipitated at the first step in the acid method when CLW is treated with 6M NaOH. The highest precipitate was collected when 80ml of 10% sulfuric acid was used at 40C with the shaking time of 60 minutes. The highest amount of protein was extracted by using 40ml and 80 ml 10% sulfuric acid for the shaking time 60 and 30 minutes at 400C and 250C respectively, in alkali methodwhen the conditions were optimum otherwise the protein denatured, the high amount of temperature or high quantity of alkali denatures the proteins. 7g of NaOH at 50C and 10g of MgO at 50C for 6 hours give the best results.While the high amount of temperature and time along with high quantity of acid denature the protein. After all the observations are taken the result of chromium and protein determination was compared by using After all the observation was taken, the results of chromium and protein determination was analyzed by using SPSS one-way ANOVA factorial design
Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Add tag(s)
Log in to add tags.
    average rating: 0.0 (0 votes)

Pakistan’s second biggest industry concerning exports is the Leather Industry. According
to Pakistan Tanners Association (PTA) report Contributing more than $800 million in 2009 to
the remote trade in Pakistan, by the year 2014 either products export increased up to 9.62 percent
(PakistanEconomic Survey2014-15) , this industry has the capability of conveying increasingly
and giving a substantial number of occupations by diversifying item run and enhancing quality.
Hides are the by-product of the meat business, which are converted into leather through
tanning processes. Solid wastes of leather industry are raw trimmings, flashings, chrome
shavings, buffing dusts and keratin wastes. Chromium salts are used in processing of leather,
which creates difficulties in its throw out. The leather industry waste has a large amount of
nitrogen content which is amino acids, i.e. protein, which can be used for different purposes,
after extraction through different methods.The objective of the present work is to isolate protein
products from chrome leather waste and to evaluate acid and alkali for efficiency to convert
chrome leather waste into useful products, as the most practiced methods are acid and alkali
methods, for extraction of protein. Chromium is precipitated by raising its pH through an alkali,
in to Cr(OH)3, while the insoluble protein is collected by lowering the temperature. Atomic
absorption spectrophotometer was used for chromium determination, for protein determination
Biuret and Kjeldhal’s method will be used, along with protein extraction, dissolved and left
amount of CLW was analyzed and precipitated chromium was measured by using AAS.
The highest amount of CLW was dissolved in NaOH, while the lowest one in CaO. The raise of
temperature increases the dissolved amount of CLW.The left amount of CLW was also measured
Summary
45
for all alkali treatments, as the teprature and quantity of the alkali is increased the left amount of
CLW decreased, as 18g of NaOH give the minimum amount of left CLW i.e 3g, the high amount
of temperature or high quantity of alkali denature the proteins. 7g of NaOH at 50C and 10g of
MgO at 50C for 6 hours give the best results.Higher the quantity of alkali more it precipitate the
chromium as by using 18g of NaOH at 50C 4.92% of total chromium was precipitated.
Highest dissolved amount 42.98g was obtain by 80ml of 10% sulfuric acid at 60C with 90 min
shaking time, highest left amount of CLW was 43.02 by using 50ml of 10% sulfuric acid at 25C
with shaking time of 30 minutes and high amount of protein was extracted by using 40ml and 80
ml 10% sulfuric acid for the shaking time 60 and 30 minutes at 40C and 25C respectively.
Chromium is precipitated at the first step in the acid method when CLW is treated with 6M
NaOH. The highest precipitate was collected when 80ml of 10% sulfuric acid was used at 40C
with the shaking time of 60 minutes.
The highest amount of protein was extracted by using 40ml and 80 ml 10% sulfuric acid for the
shaking time 60 and 30 minutes at 400C and 250C respectively, in alkali methodwhen the
conditions were optimum otherwise the protein denatured, the high amount of temperature or
high quantity of alkali denatures the proteins. 7g of NaOH at 50C and 10g of MgO at 50C for 6
hours give the best results.While the high amount of temperature and time along with high
quantity of acid denature the protein.
After all the observations are taken the result of chromium and protein determination was
compared by using After all the observation was taken, the results of chromium and protein
determination was analyzed by using SPSS one-way ANOVA factorial design

There are no comments for this item.

Log in to your account to post a comment.


Implemented and Maintained by UVAS Library.
For any Suggestions/Query Contact to library or Email:rehana.kousar@uvas.edu.pk Phone:+91 99239068
Website/OPAC best viewed in Mozilla Browser in 1366X768 Resolution.