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Comparative Efficacy Of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol Combination With Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac Tromethamine In Dogs

By: Ameer Hamza Rabbani (2009-VA-58) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2017Description: 63p.Subject(s): Veterinary Surgery | Clinical Medicine and SurgeryDDC classification: 2807-T Dissertation note: The study was designed on the premise that use of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol combination was more efficacious in providing better depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia than the combination of Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine. Two separate combinations of anesthetic cocktails i.e. ketamine-xylazine-tramadol and ketamine-xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine were tested for their comparative efficacies. A total of 8 mongrel adult clinically healthy male dogs between 1 to 2 years of age which were presented to clinic for castration, were managed in to two groups comprising 4 (n=4) individuals in each. These groups were designated as group A and B. General and clinical examination of the animal, LFT and RFT were performed prior to surgery. Atropine was administered at dose rate of 0.04mg/kg SC twenty minutes prior to the surgery. Both anesthetic regiments were used respectively in either groups and their efficacy was tested based upon the depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. In case of group A ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and tramadol at a dose rate of 2mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia was monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. In case of group B, ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and ketorolac tromethamine at a dose rate of 0.5mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia were monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. Surgical procedure for castration was SUMMARY 58 performed as surgical plane of anesthesia was acquired. Postoperatively, Intramuscular antibiotics were injected for 5 days to avoid secondary bacterial infections to wounds. Cleaning of the wound with good antiseptic solution and excellent hygienic measures were adopted to minimize infection. Balanced diet was given to improve health of animals. LFT and RFT were performed preoperatively (baseline), and one hour postoperatively in each dog. The measurements were analyzed as change from baseline in each dog. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05), using statistical analysis software Statistica. The results of temperature, pulse and respiration were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05). Observations pertaining to depth and quality of sedation were analyzed by using t-test with statistical analysis software Statistica. Statistical significance was assigned at p≤0.05. This study was helpful in determining efficacy of tramadol an opioid against ketorolac tromethamine which is an NSAID. This study emphasized upon discovering the most efficacious adjuvant to anesthetic combination of ketamine and xylazine. This study aimed to reduce the dose of xylazine without compromising the anesthetic effect of the combination while mitigating its side effects as well. This study provided us with a viable analgesic agent which may be administered peri-operatively to provide analgesia during immediate post-surgery period. Furthermore magnitude of improvement in depth of anesthesia helped determine an effective and cheap adjuvant to ketamine-xylazine combination.
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The study was designed on the premise that use of Ketamine-Xylazine-Tramadol combination was more efficacious in providing better depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia than the combination of Ketamine-Xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine.
Two separate combinations of anesthetic cocktails i.e. ketamine-xylazine-tramadol and ketamine-xylazine-Ketorolac tromethamine were tested for their comparative efficacies. A total of 8 mongrel adult clinically healthy male dogs between 1 to 2 years of age which were presented to clinic for castration, were managed in to two groups comprising 4 (n=4) individuals in each. These groups were designated as group A and B. General and clinical examination of the animal, LFT and RFT were performed prior to surgery. Atropine was administered at dose rate of 0.04mg/kg SC twenty minutes prior to the surgery. Both anesthetic regiments were used respectively in either groups and their efficacy was tested based upon the depth of anesthesia and postoperative analgesia.
In case of group A ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and tramadol at a dose rate of 2mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia was monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. In case of group B, ketamine was used at a dose rate of 6mg/kg, xylazine at 0.5mg/kg and ketorolac tromethamine at a dose rate of 0.5mg/kg. These anesthetic agents were administered intramuscularly. The time it took for onset of sedation and depth of anesthesia were monitored, while presence of ocular, oropharyngeal, and anal sphincter reflexes indicated induction, depth, maintenance and recovery from sedation. Surgical procedure for castration was
SUMMARY
58
performed as surgical plane of anesthesia was acquired. Postoperatively, Intramuscular antibiotics were injected for 5 days to avoid secondary bacterial infections to wounds. Cleaning of the wound with good antiseptic solution and excellent hygienic measures were adopted to minimize infection. Balanced diet was given to improve health of animals. LFT and RFT were performed preoperatively (baseline), and one hour postoperatively in each dog. The measurements were analyzed as change from baseline in each dog.
The results were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05), using statistical analysis software Statistica. The results of temperature, pulse and respiration were statistically analyzed using t-test with significant level 0.05% (p≤0.05). Observations pertaining to depth and quality of sedation were analyzed by using t-test with statistical analysis software Statistica. Statistical significance was assigned at p≤0.05.
This study was helpful in determining efficacy of tramadol an opioid against ketorolac tromethamine which is an NSAID. This study emphasized upon discovering the most efficacious adjuvant to anesthetic combination of ketamine and xylazine. This study aimed to reduce the dose of xylazine without compromising the anesthetic effect of the combination while mitigating its side effects as well. This study provided us with a viable analgesic agent which may be administered peri-operatively to provide analgesia during immediate post-surgery period. Furthermore magnitude of improvement in depth of anesthesia helped determine an effective and cheap adjuvant to ketamine-xylazine combination.

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