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Efficacy Of Levamisole, Benzimidazole And Ivermectin Against Nematodes In Sheep In District Jafferabad Balochistan.

By: Mansoor Ahmad(2008-VA-161) | Dr.Muhammad Lateef.
Contributor(s): Dr.Saadullah Jan | Dr.Muhammad Oneeb | Dr.Muhammad Zubair Shabbir.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2017Description: 62p.Subject(s): ParasitologyDDC classification: 2966-T Dissertation note: The contribution of Livestock sector in agriculture’s share is about 11.6 % to national GDP out of which livestock share’s is more than 55 %. In Pakistan 70% of population live in rural area and nearly 35-40 million rural people directly or indirectly depend on livestock. The population receives about 30-40% of their income from livestock. The average population in each house hold is estimated to be 2 or 3 cattle, 5 to 6 sheep or goats. There are many hurdles and diseases that effecting the growth of livestock industry in the country, among these constraints parasitic infestation is one of the major growth threatening condition which affect the livestock the industry worldwide. Many commercially available drugs are used every year to control the gastrointestinal nematodes in the animals, specially grazing animals. Uncontrolled uses of these medicines have made the helminth less susceptible to the drugs. And in many regions of world the parasites have developed resistance against such anthelmintic. To overcome the issue of drug resistance scientist is thinking to develop medicinal plant as curing agent against the nematodes. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially available anthelmintic against gastrointestinal of sheep of Tehsil Usta Muhammad district Jaffar Abad Balochistan. The drugs administered in the study were Albendazole, Levamisole, and Ivermectin. A total of 80 sheep microscopically positive and having worm load of > 150 eggs per gram of GIT nematodes were randomly selected for the trial. Four groups were made with each group containing 20 animals alternately. Group A was treated with Levamisole at the dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The animals in group B were drenched with Albendazole at the dose rate 54 Summary of 3.8mg/kg body weight. Group C were treated with Ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight. In the results Ivermectin showed maximum reduction in EPG that is 96.17% followed by 91.71% and 84.17% of Albendazole and Levamisole respectively. The data was analyzed through repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS version 20.0. The results showed resistance against in the nematodes of sheep against the drugs Albendazole and Levamisole. Conclusion There is a serious threat of either developed or a tendency for development of anthelmintic resistance against Levamisole and Albendazole in nematode population of sheep in study area. The factors that assist to the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode population of sheep flocks recorded in the present study can be divided in to operational, inherited, and medicinal, which need to be addressed together as a part of a potent worm control program. The level of alertness, awareness and technical know-how is unsatisfactorily poor among all the farmers concerned in small ruminant farming. Therefore, there is no dewormer schedule for worm control practices in place at present, which describes a severe fear on the future of sheep and goats production on the one hand and permits an immediate attention on the problem of anthelmintic resistance. In the present study Ivermectin is commercially available and widely used anthelmintic is still effective against nematodes of sheep. Other anthelmintic were less effective in comparison to ivermectin in sheep of District Jaffarabad Balochistan.
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The contribution of Livestock sector in agriculture’s share is about 11.6 % to national GDP out of which livestock share’s is more than 55 %. In Pakistan 70% of population live in rural area and nearly 35-40 million rural people directly or indirectly depend on livestock. The population receives about 30-40% of their income from livestock. The average population in each house hold is estimated to be 2 or 3 cattle, 5 to 6 sheep or goats. There are many hurdles and diseases that effecting the growth of livestock industry in the country, among these constraints parasitic infestation is one of the major growth threatening condition which affect the livestock the industry worldwide.
Many commercially available drugs are used every year to control the gastrointestinal nematodes in the animals, specially grazing animals. Uncontrolled uses of these medicines have made the helminth less susceptible to the drugs. And in many regions of world the parasites have developed resistance against such anthelmintic. To overcome the issue of drug resistance scientist is thinking to develop medicinal plant as curing agent against the nematodes.
The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially available anthelmintic against gastrointestinal of sheep of Tehsil Usta Muhammad district Jaffar Abad Balochistan. The drugs administered in the study were Albendazole, Levamisole, and Ivermectin. A total of 80 sheep microscopically positive and having worm load of > 150 eggs per gram of GIT nematodes were randomly selected for the trial. Four groups were made with each group containing 20 animals alternately. Group A was treated with Levamisole at the dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg body weight. The animals in group B were drenched with Albendazole at the dose rate
54
Summary
of 3.8mg/kg body weight. Group C were treated with Ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2mg/kg body weight. In the results Ivermectin showed maximum reduction in EPG that is 96.17% followed by 91.71% and 84.17% of Albendazole and Levamisole respectively. The data was analyzed through repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS version 20.0. The results showed resistance against in the nematodes of sheep against the drugs Albendazole and Levamisole.
Conclusion
There is a serious threat of either developed or a tendency for development of anthelmintic resistance against Levamisole and Albendazole in nematode population of sheep in study area. The factors that assist to the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode population of sheep flocks recorded in the present study can be divided in to operational, inherited, and medicinal, which need to be addressed together as a part of a potent worm control program. The level of alertness, awareness and technical know-how is unsatisfactorily poor among all the farmers concerned in small ruminant farming. Therefore, there is no dewormer schedule for worm control practices in place at present, which describes a severe fear on the future of sheep and goats production on the one hand and permits an immediate attention on the problem of anthelmintic resistance.
In the present study Ivermectin is commercially available and widely used anthelmintic is still effective against nematodes of sheep. Other anthelmintic were less effective in comparison to ivermectin in sheep of District Jaffarabad Balochistan.

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