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Studies On The Incidence Of Iodine Deficiency In Lahore

By: Farrukh zahoor | Dr. Muhammad Yaqoob Malik.
Contributor(s): Dr. Nisar | Dr. Saghir Ahmad Jafri.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 1983Subject(s): Department of Animal NutritionDDC classification: 0903,T Dissertation note: The iodine which is so necessary for normal thyroid function is obtained from the food we eat, and to a much less extent: , from the water we drink4 Iodine deficiency is the commonest cause of goitre. Deficient dietary intake is the most important single cause of iodine deficiency, and its role is especially important in districts with a high prevalence of simple goitre. The best known areas of high prevalence of iodine deficiency in the world are mountanious, e.g. the Alps, the Himalayas and the Andes, but high prevalence was also found in certain low lying areas. In countries where most of the population receive iodized salt and where iodine-containing foods are widely distributed, this condition is becoming less common. Pakistan is one of the developing countries of the world which faces malnutrition as a serious public health problem. Trace mineral imbalance and deficiency are one of the causes of malnutrition in people of the country. Surveys carried Out in recent years have shown goitrous areas particularly North-West of Pakistan. Iodine prophylaxis has been introduced in some of such areas with success and the disease has been practically controlled. The present study was therefore designed to determine the iodine status of the people of Lahore city and collect information of the factors that interfere with the availability and utilization of iodine. A total number of 1,000 patients of thyroid dysfunction were selected at random at the Atomic Energy Medical Centre, Mayo Hospital Lahore. The observations on the incidence of iodine deficiency and its relation to age, sex, type of thyroid diseases and financial status of the patients were recorded. The map of Lahore city was divided into five experimental areas and the numbers of patients from each area were counted. Clinical tests showed a wide variety of thyroid problems including iodine deficiency goitre, simple goitre, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, puberty goitre, thyroid cancer,etc. Some patients were proved to be normal. Results of the survey showed that there was a highly significant (P/ 0.01) occurrence of thyroid patients in the experimental area II, i.e. North West of Lahore city. It showed the highest frequency of 42.1% of thyroid patients, as compared to other experimental areas I, III, IV and V having 19.3, 18.8, 9.0, 10.8% frequency respectively. Comparison of different thyroid diseases showed that there was highest profusion of iodine deficiency goitre in the patients. There was highly significant (PLO.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre of 37.0% as compared to simple goitre, hypothyroidism and miscellaneous thyroid diseases, which were 14.2, 13.5, and 4.2% respectively. Prevalence of iodine deficiency goitre was also significantly (PLO.05) higher i.e. 37.0% in occurrence as compared to hyperthyroidism)i.e. 27.0%. Only 4.1% patients were found normal. It was revealed that there was highly significant (L 0.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre in the patients of the experimental area II as compared to the experimental areas IV,V,III and I. The survey revealed that there was highly significant (L 0.01) occurrence of the patients having thyroid problems from 30-40 years of age as compared to the patients of thyroid dysfunction from 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 40-50 and 50-above years of age. It was observed that there was a much higher occurrence,i.e 76.2 % of thyroid complaints in females than in males.i.e 23.8%. The results showed that there was a higher occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre in females, i.e 30.2% as compared to males,i.e 6.8%. ) The survey revealed that thyroid dysfunction was prevalent in the patients belonging to the three categories of incomei.e upper class, middle class and lower class. But there was no significant difference between the three classes. Out of a total number of 50 samples of drinking water from the five experimental areas 30 samples were found deficient in iodine,i.e having lower than 40 microgram of iodine per liter. 20 Samples were found normal in iodine level having more than 40 microgram of iodine per liter of water. The highest iodine level of 44.0 microgram per litre of water was found in the experimental area V and the lowest iodine level,i.e 20.0 microgram per litre of water was found in the experimental area II, having the highest thyroid dysfunction rate of 40.3% of the patients. There was highly significant (P/_0.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency in the blood of the patients having thyroid dysfunction. Iodine deficiency in the blood was highly significant (P/_0.01) in the patients of group II as compared to the patients of group III. The results of water test and blood test were in agreement with the findings of the general survey of the patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction. The experimental area II had the highest number of patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction, i.e 42.1% and the larger number of patients having deficiency of blood iodine was also observed in the same' area,i.e 70%. The lowest iodine level of 20.0 microgram per litre of water was also found in the same experimental area.
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The iodine which is so necessary for normal thyroid function is obtained from the food we eat, and to a much less extent: , from the water we drink4 Iodine deficiency is the commonest cause of goitre. Deficient dietary intake is the most important single cause of iodine deficiency, and its role is especially important in districts with a high prevalence of simple goitre. The best known areas of high prevalence of iodine deficiency in the world are mountanious, e.g. the Alps, the Himalayas and the Andes, but high prevalence was also found in certain low lying areas. In countries where most of the population receive iodized salt and where iodine-containing foods are widely distributed, this condition is becoming less common.

Pakistan is one of the developing countries of the world which faces malnutrition as a serious public health problem. Trace mineral imbalance and deficiency are one of the causes of malnutrition in people of the country. Surveys carried Out in recent years have shown goitrous areas particularly North-West of Pakistan. Iodine prophylaxis has been introduced in some of such areas with success and the disease has been practically controlled.

The present study was therefore designed to determine the iodine status of the people of Lahore city and collect information of the factors that interfere with the availability and utilization of iodine.

A total number of 1,000 patients of thyroid dysfunction were selected at random at the Atomic Energy Medical Centre, Mayo Hospital Lahore. The observations on the incidence of iodine deficiency and its relation to age, sex, type of thyroid diseases and financial status of the patients were recorded.

The map of Lahore city was divided into five experimental areas and the numbers of patients from each area were counted.

Clinical tests showed a wide variety of thyroid problems including iodine deficiency goitre, simple goitre, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, puberty goitre, thyroid cancer,etc. Some patients were proved to be normal.

Results of the survey showed that there was a highly significant (P/ 0.01) occurrence of thyroid patients in the experimental area II, i.e. North West of Lahore city. It showed the highest frequency of 42.1% of thyroid patients, as compared to other experimental areas I, III, IV and V having 19.3, 18.8, 9.0, 10.8% frequency respectively.

Comparison of different thyroid diseases showed that there was highest profusion of iodine deficiency goitre in the patients. There was highly significant (PLO.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre of 37.0% as compared to simple goitre, hypothyroidism and miscellaneous thyroid diseases, which were 14.2, 13.5, and 4.2% respectively. Prevalence of iodine deficiency goitre was also significantly (PLO.05) higher i.e. 37.0% in occurrence as compared to hyperthyroidism)i.e. 27.0%. Only 4.1% patients were found normal.

It was revealed that there was highly significant (L 0.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre in the patients of the experimental area II as compared to the experimental areas IV,V,III and I.

The survey revealed that there was highly significant (L 0.01) occurrence of the patients having thyroid problems from 30-40 years of age as compared to the patients of thyroid dysfunction from 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 40-50 and 50-above years of age.

It was observed that there was a much higher occurrence,i.e 76.2 % of thyroid complaints in females than in males.i.e 23.8%. The results showed that there was a higher occurrence of iodine deficiency goitre in females, i.e 30.2% as compared to males,i.e 6.8%. )

The survey revealed that thyroid dysfunction was prevalent in the patients belonging to the three categories of incomei.e upper class, middle class and lower class. But there was no significant difference between the three classes.

Out of a total number of 50 samples of drinking water from the five experimental areas 30 samples were found deficient in iodine,i.e having lower than 40 microgram of iodine per liter. 20 Samples were found normal in iodine level having more than 40 microgram of iodine per liter of water. The highest iodine level of 44.0 microgram per litre of water was found in the experimental area V and the lowest iodine level,i.e 20.0 microgram per litre of water was found in the experimental area II, having the highest thyroid dysfunction rate of 40.3% of the patients.

There was highly significant (P/_0.01) occurrence of iodine deficiency in the blood of the patients having thyroid dysfunction. Iodine deficiency in the blood was highly significant (P/_0.01) in the patients of group II as compared to the patients of group III.

The results of water test and blood test were in agreement with the findings of the general survey of the patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction. The experimental area II had the highest number of patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction, i.e 42.1% and the larger number of patients having deficiency of blood iodine was also observed in the same' area,i.e 70%. The lowest iodine level of 20.0 microgram per litre of water was also found in the same experimental area.

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