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Ecology And Population Of Waterbirds Of A Ramsar Site Along Makran Coastal Wetlands Complex Pakistan

By: Fehmeeda Bibi | Dr.Zulfiqar Ali.
Contributor(s): Dr.Muhammad Mahmood-ul-Hassan.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2009Subject(s): Department of Wildlife and EcologyDDC classification: 1059,T Dissertation note: AWetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world's land surface. Natural wetlands in Pakistan covering approximately 10% of the total land area of the country. Waterbirds depend on wetlands for a variety of activities which include feeding, breeding, nesting and moulting. This study was undertaken to identify and analyzed the ecology and population of waterbirds. Jiwani Coastal Wetlands is internationally well known wetlands and declared as Ramsar Site on 5th October, 2001. Located along Gawater Bay arround the delta of the Dasht River, a very significant area of mangrove forests extending westward to the Iranian frontier, contiguous with Iran's Gawater Bay and Hur-e-Bahu Ramsar site. From December, 2007 to December, 2008 study was conducted to observe the ecology and population of waterbirds in the study area. During one year, number of birds species recorded was 112; representing 16 orders and 38 families recorded from the 4600 hectare area of the Jiwani Coastal Wetlands. Status and seasonal occurrence of birds was also studied, total count was 15,469 that comprise 53 species as common, 10 rare, 31 scarce, 17 abundant and status of one species was unknown. According to seasonal occurrence of waterbirds at Jiwani Coastal Wetlands, 79 species were exclusively as visitor and 33 were resident. Out of 79 visitor species, 54 species were winter visitor, 11 summer visitor, 10 were irregular year round visitor, and three species were vagrant. Maximum number of species recorded from order Chadriiformes were 34 while in Passeriformes were 30; number of species belongs to order Phoenicopteriformes, Falconiformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Upupiformes recorded equal in numbers; one species in each order Relative abundance, Census Index and Shannon Weiner Diversity Index were found for recorded bird data and compared with previous studies. Relatively abundant species were Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (0.1577), Common Teal Anas crecca (0.0645), Herring Gull Larus cachinnans (0.06 15), Eurasian Oyster Catcher Haematopus ostralegus (0.0606) and Shoveler Anas clypeata (0.0511) respectively while in previous study Dalmatian Pelican Felicanus crispus (14.037), Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus rubber (14.014), Herring Gull Larus cachinnans (11.487) Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus (3.046), Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis (0.24) respectively. Density of birds also recorded in this study which was 3.36 per bird per hectare; in comparison to previous study this value was 5.43 per birds per hectare that was slightly higher. Shannon Weiner Diversity Index value of the 112 species of waterbirds was 0.253 while in previous it was 0.236 that is slightly lowers. Population of birds was significantly higher in the present study total birds population was 15,469 and in previous study it was 8,862. Yet the number of species was 125 in past and 112 in present study. Identified threats for decline in number of species were exploitation of natural habitat, fishing, cultivation, illegal hunting, deforestation, urbanization and due to global warming. Hence there is a strong need to restore, conserve and preserve these existing wetlands to maintain and improve the distribution, diversity, and abundance of populations and habitats of breeding, migratory, and nonbreeding waterbirds throught the lands and waters of the Pakistan.
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Thesis Thesis UVAS Library
Thesis Section
Veterinary Science 1059,T (Browse shelf) Available 1059,T
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AWetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world's land surface. Natural wetlands in Pakistan covering approximately 10% of the total land area of the country. Waterbirds depend on wetlands for a variety of activities which include feeding, breeding, nesting and moulting.
This study was undertaken to identify and analyzed the ecology and population of waterbirds. Jiwani Coastal Wetlands is internationally well known wetlands and declared as Ramsar Site on 5th October, 2001. Located along Gawater Bay arround the delta of the Dasht River, a very significant area of mangrove forests extending westward to the Iranian frontier, contiguous with Iran's Gawater Bay and Hur-e-Bahu Ramsar site. From December, 2007 to December, 2008 study was conducted to observe the ecology and population of waterbirds in the study area. During one year, number of birds species recorded was 112; representing 16 orders and 38 families recorded from the 4600 hectare area of the Jiwani Coastal Wetlands. Status and seasonal occurrence of birds was also studied, total count was 15,469 that comprise 53 species as common, 10 rare, 31 scarce, 17 abundant and status of one species was unknown. According to seasonal occurrence of waterbirds at Jiwani Coastal Wetlands, 79 species were exclusively as visitor and 33 were resident. Out of 79 visitor species, 54 species were winter visitor, 11 summer visitor, 10 were irregular year round visitor, and three species were vagrant. Maximum number of species recorded from order Chadriiformes were 34 while in Passeriformes were 30; number of species belongs to order Phoenicopteriformes, Falconiformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Upupiformes recorded equal in numbers; one species in each order
Relative abundance, Census Index and Shannon Weiner Diversity Index were found for recorded bird data and compared with previous studies. Relatively abundant species were Eurasian Coot Fulica atra (0.1577), Common Teal Anas crecca (0.0645), Herring Gull Larus cachinnans (0.06 15), Eurasian Oyster Catcher Haematopus ostralegus (0.0606) and Shoveler Anas clypeata (0.0511) respectively while in previous study Dalmatian Pelican Felicanus crispus (14.037), Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus rubber (14.014), Herring Gull Larus cachinnans (11.487) Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus (3.046), Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis (0.24) respectively. Density of birds also recorded in this study which was 3.36 per bird per hectare; in comparison to previous study this value was 5.43 per birds per hectare that was slightly higher. Shannon Weiner Diversity Index value of the 112 species of waterbirds was 0.253 while in previous it was 0.236 that is slightly lowers. Population of birds was significantly higher in the present study total birds population was 15,469 and in previous study it was 8,862. Yet the number of species was 125 in past and 112 in present study. Identified threats for decline in number of species were exploitation of natural habitat, fishing, cultivation, illegal hunting, deforestation, urbanization and due to global warming.

Hence there is a strong need to restore, conserve and preserve these existing wetlands to maintain and improve the distribution, diversity, and abundance of populations and habitats of breeding, migratory, and nonbreeding waterbirds throught the lands and waters of the Pakistan.

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