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Effect Of Feeding Citrus Pulp Silage On The Growth Performance Of Sahiwal Calves

By: Muhammad Iqbal | Prof.Dr.Talat Naseer Pasha.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Makhdoom Abdul Jabbar.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2011Subject(s): Department of Animal NutritionDDC classification: 1284,T Dissertation note: Livestock is contributing about 53 per cent of agricultural value added and 11.4 per cent to the national GDP with a total animal heads of 157.3 million but feed availability of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) is deficient by 38.10 and 24.02%, respectively. However, a decline in domestic feed resources and the need for Pakistan's livestock production to become internationally competitive are strong reasons for promoting the use of alternative locally available and cheap sources of feed ingredients, such as citrus pulp from fruit processing industry which do not attract competition in consumption between humans and livestock. The primary objective for the use of these by-products is to reduce the feed cost and consequently cost of producing a unit of the product like milk or meat as well as to fulfill the nutrients demands of animals. Citrus pulp is a by-product widely available in Pakistan and is mainly discarded as waste. Its cost is relatively low compared to its nutritive value but is seldom used as ruminant feed. The large amounts which are available during the harvesting season can be ensiled in combination with dry roughage, to get the required moisture level of it. So in the present study citrus pulp with wheat straw was ensiled and the silage was fed to Sahiwal calves to observe its intake, weight gain as well as economics. Results of the present study revealed that the optimum level of 20% citrus pulp in feed gave good results while intake and weight gain decreased for 30% citrus pulp in feed. Average total weight gain were 27.5, 37.5, 28.75 and 23.75kg for ration A, B, C and D, respectively (containing 10, 20 and 30 citrus pulp, respectively). Average daily gain for group A, B, C and D were 0.44, 0.60, 0.46 and 0.38kg, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When average daily feed intake for each calf was calculated on dry matter basis it showed 4.40, 4.50, 3.39 and 3.13kg respectively for group A, B, C and D which was not significantly different between diets. By ascertaining the cost of the feed for ration groups it showed significance difference having average cost of production per animal per kg body weight 37.07, 23.80, 21.68 and 25.58 Rs for group A, B, C and D, respectively.
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Livestock is contributing about 53 per cent of agricultural value added and 11.4 per cent to the national GDP with a total animal heads of 157.3 million but feed availability of crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) is deficient by 38.10 and 24.02%, respectively. However, a decline in domestic feed resources and the need for Pakistan's livestock production to become internationally competitive are strong reasons for promoting the use of alternative locally available and cheap sources of feed ingredients, such as citrus pulp from fruit processing industry which do not attract competition in consumption between humans and livestock. The primary objective for the use of these by-products is to reduce the feed cost and consequently cost of producing a unit of the product like milk or meat as well as to fulfill the nutrients demands of animals. Citrus pulp is a by-product widely available in Pakistan and is mainly discarded as waste. Its cost is relatively low compared to its nutritive value but is seldom used as ruminant feed. The large amounts which are available during the harvesting season can be ensiled in combination with dry roughage, to get the required moisture level of it. So in the present study citrus pulp with wheat straw was ensiled and the silage was fed to Sahiwal calves to observe its intake, weight gain as well as economics. Results of the present study revealed that the optimum level of 20% citrus pulp in feed gave good results while intake and weight gain decreased for 30% citrus pulp in feed. Average total weight gain were 27.5, 37.5, 28.75 and 23.75kg for ration A, B, C and D, respectively (containing 10, 20 and 30 citrus pulp, respectively). Average daily gain for group A, B, C and D were 0.44, 0.60, 0.46 and 0.38kg, respectively and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When average daily feed intake for each calf was calculated on dry matter basis it showed 4.40, 4.50, 3.39 and 3.13kg respectively for group A, B, C and D which was not significantly different between diets. By ascertaining the cost of the feed for ration groups it showed significance difference having average cost of production per animal per kg body weight 37.07, 23.80, 21.68 and 25.58 Rs for group A, B, C and D, respectively.

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