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Immunoprophylaxis Of Tick Infestation In Bovine

By: Zakir Ali | Prof. Dr. Azhar Maqbool.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr | Prof.Dr. Khushi Muhammad.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2010Subject(s): Department of Parasitology | Phd. ThesisDDC classification: 1416,T Dissertation note: A study to investigate prevalence of different genera of hard ticks was carried out in three districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan (Faisalabad, Jhang and Khanewal). Overall prevalence of Hyalomma species is the highest at 61 % as compared to other genera of hard ticks. In sex-wise distribution, it was found that female Hyalomma species were the highest at 85% followed by A mblyomma species at 81 %, whi Ie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) species and Haemaphysalis species were at 77%. Infestation rate in cattle at 70% was higher as compared to buffaloes at 34%. In tick infestation level study, high infestation level in cattle at 59% was higher as compared to that of buffalo population at 18%. In cattle population, peR results showed the prevalence of T annulata in H anatolicum and Hidromedari ticks as 50% and 40% respectively. No theilerial organism was detected in Himarginatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Three different types of vaccines were prepared from different organs of ticks i.e., salivary gland, intestine or whole ticks of the same species of Hyalomma and they were injected to rabbits. It was found that vaccine prepared by grinding whole tick produced the higher level of antibody as compared to two other vaccines. Each of the whole tick homogenate vaccine prepared from either of the species of Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus or Amblyomma and injected to rabbits. These vaccines produced antibody as well and cross reacted with each other showing each of the hard ticks were antigenically similar. Efforts were made to prepare oil based whole Hyalomma tick vaccine with three different antigen concentration 5.0 mg, 7.5mg and 10.0 mg and evaluated its potency in buffalo calves. It was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as invaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as in vaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of contamination for the tick cell culture which are extrinsic as well extrinsic. The growth rate of these cells in our study was not optimal so the media was not splitted to get more cells.
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A study to investigate prevalence of different genera of hard ticks was carried out in three districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan (Faisalabad, Jhang and Khanewal). Overall prevalence of Hyalomma species is the highest at 61 % as compared to other genera of hard ticks. In sex-wise distribution, it was found that female Hyalomma species were the highest at 85% followed by A mblyomma species at 81 %, whi Ie Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) species and Haemaphysalis species were at 77%. Infestation rate in cattle at 70% was higher as compared to buffaloes at 34%. In tick infestation level study, high infestation level in cattle at 59% was higher as compared to that of buffalo population at 18%. In cattle population, peR results showed the prevalence of T annulata in H anatolicum and Hidromedari ticks as 50% and 40% respectively. No theilerial organism was detected in Himarginatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Three different types of vaccines were prepared from different organs of ticks i.e., salivary gland, intestine or whole ticks of the same species of Hyalomma and they were injected to rabbits. It was found that vaccine prepared by grinding whole tick produced the higher level of antibody as compared to two other vaccines. Each of the whole tick homogenate vaccine prepared from either of the species of Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus or Amblyomma and injected to rabbits. These vaccines produced antibody as well and cross reacted with each other showing each of the hard ticks were antigenically similar. Efforts were made to prepare oil based whole Hyalomma tick vaccine with three different antigen concentration 5.0 mg, 7.5mg and 10.0 mg and evaluated its potency in buffalo calves. It was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as invaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of was found that the vaccine dose containing 5.0 mg antigen per dose did not produced detectable antibody in buffalo calves while the vaccine containing 7.5mg or more antigen produced detectable antibody. Moreover, we concluded that montanide based bard tick homogenate vaccine with more than 7.5mg protein per dose is effective in producing antibodies against tick infestation in the dairy animals. The antibody level in vaccinated buffaloes as well as in vaccinated rabbits reached to peak level on day 45 post vaccination and started declining thereafter. Capacity of vaccine in controlling tick infestation was assessed in 12 cross-bred calves. It was found tbat rejection percentage in immunized group was higher as compared to control group. There was no difference of engorgement period between immunized and control group. Reproductive index in immunized group was lower as compared to control group. The efforts were made to grow midgut cells insect culture media after isolation them from Hyalomma Ticks.. The purpose of this experiment was to grow midgut cell and then use these cells as a source of contamination for the tick cell culture which are extrinsic as well extrinsic. The growth rate of these cells in our study was not optimal so the media was not splitted to get more cells.

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