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Preparation Of Iron Fortified Pasteurized Milk And Its Efficacy Against Iron Defficiency Anaemia In Rats.

By: Syed Naveed Akhtar | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal.
Contributor(s): Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Prof. Dr.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2012Subject(s): Department of Food Sciences & HumanDDC classification: 1494,T Dissertation note: Anemia is abnormal condition in which there is drop in the number of red blood cells or the heamoglobin in them to lower than the normal blood cells and consequently there is less supply of oxygen to body and it gets less energy as compared to it needs for performing normal function (Bunnet al., 1995).The concentration of haemoglobin fluctuates with various factors that involves age, physiological condition, sex and person altitude from sea level below its normal value that is 14g/dL When iron that is absorbed from diet is unable to meet physiological related requirements of the body it leads to nutritional iron deficiency. Locally prepared iron fortified pasteurized milk may be helpful in increasing the haemoglobin status of anaemic patients in the same way as iron supplements. Therefore present project was designed for preparation and characterization of iron fortified milk and its utilization against iron deficiency anemia. In first part of the study Iron fortified milk was prepared by adding different concentrations of iron sulphate (FeSO4) @ 0.00 (as a control), 0.04, 0.06 & 0.08%. In second part sensory evaluation and physicochemical analysis of iron fortified milk samples were performed. During the third part of the study, efficacy of iron fortified pasteurized milk was evaluated in Sprague Dawley Rats.Accordingly the significant outcomes of the present research are summarized hereafter. Proximate analysis showed that the milk prepared from different level of iron are non-significant for fat content as well as for storage intervals (P?0.05) and also the interaction between treatment and storage level also showed non-significant effect. The result for protein of milk fortified by iron at different levels is showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05). The storage of these treatments and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals also showed non-significant effect on protein of different treatments. Analysis of variance for SNF for different treatments of milk shows that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05).Data regarding mean values for storage study of SNF of different treatments showed that the mean values for control milk are 8.21 and there is no increase significantly with iron fortification at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% which showed 8.73, 8.66 and 8.82 respectively. As the storage progressed the SNF content not differ significantly from 8.50 to 8.81 at 0 and 4day respectively. The statistical analysis regarding pH for milk fortified by iron at different levels showed that analysis of variance for pH of different treatments of milk, storage shows that they are statistically highly significant (P? 0.01) and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed slightly significant effect on pH of different treatments The statistical analysis pertaining to Total Solids for milk fortified by iron at different levels, storage and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals also showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05). The results for Vitamin C content showed that the values for different treatments for fortification of iron are highly significant (p?0.01).Mean values for storage study of vitamin C different treatments showed that the mean values for control milk are 4.50 and increases significantly with iron fortification at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% which is 25.68, 26.01 and 25.26 respectively. As the storage progressed the Vitamin C content decreases significantly from 22.7 to18.5 at 0 and 4day respectively. The interaction between treatment and storage level showed non-significant effect on Vitamin C of iron fortified milk (P?0.05) Using statistical design for mineral Iron of different treatments of milk showed that the fortification of Iron at different levels in milk has significant effect (p?0.001).The results of Mean comparison of Fe showed that control has lowest score (0.06±0.00) and 0.06% and 0.08% had highest scores that is (0.11±0.001) and (0.155±0.001) respectively The statistical analysis pertaining to flavor for milk fortified by iron at different levels , their storage for four days at 4°C and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed that they are statistically non significant (P ?0.05). The statistical analysis pertaining to sensory attributes of iron fortified milk prepared at different levels of FeSO4 and control for taste , colour , flavor, consistency and overall acceptability, their storage for four days at 4°C refrigeration temperature and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05).The statistical analysis pertaining to haemoglobin level w.r.t to groups of rats and study intervals is highly significant (P?0.01) The interaction between different groups and study intervals also showed highly significant (P?0.01) results. For haemotological measurements statistical analysis showed that mean data regarding Group A showed haemoglobin level at 0 day (9.68±0.435)g/dL which increase slightly at 14 and 28 day and then again decrease at 56 day (9.34±0.171) g/dL.
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Anemia is abnormal condition in which there is drop in the number of red blood cells or the heamoglobin in them to lower than the normal blood cells and consequently there is less supply of oxygen to body and it gets less energy as compared to it needs for performing normal function (Bunnet al., 1995).The concentration of haemoglobin fluctuates with various factors that involves age, physiological condition, sex and person altitude from sea level below its normal value that is 14g/dL When iron that is absorbed from diet is unable to meet physiological related requirements of the body it leads to nutritional iron deficiency. Locally prepared iron fortified pasteurized milk may be helpful in increasing the haemoglobin status of anaemic patients in the same way as iron supplements.
Therefore present project was designed for preparation and characterization of iron fortified milk and its utilization against iron deficiency anemia. In first part of the study Iron fortified milk was prepared by adding different concentrations of iron sulphate (FeSO4) @ 0.00 (as a control), 0.04, 0.06 & 0.08%. In second part sensory evaluation and physicochemical analysis of iron fortified milk samples were performed. During the third part of the study, efficacy of iron fortified pasteurized milk was evaluated in Sprague Dawley Rats.Accordingly the significant outcomes of the present research are summarized hereafter.
Proximate analysis showed that the milk prepared from different level of iron are non-significant for fat content as well as for storage intervals (P?0.05) and also the interaction between treatment and storage level also showed non-significant effect.
The result for protein of milk fortified by iron at different levels is showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05). The storage of these treatments and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals also showed non-significant effect on protein of different treatments.
Analysis of variance for SNF for different treatments of milk shows that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05).Data regarding mean values for storage study of SNF of different treatments showed that the mean values for control milk are 8.21 and there is no increase significantly with iron fortification at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% which showed 8.73, 8.66 and 8.82 respectively. As the storage progressed the SNF content not differ significantly from 8.50 to 8.81 at 0 and 4day respectively.
The statistical analysis regarding pH for milk fortified by iron at different levels showed that analysis of variance for pH of different treatments of milk, storage shows that they are statistically highly significant (P? 0.01) and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed slightly significant effect on pH of different treatments
The statistical analysis pertaining to Total Solids for milk fortified by iron at different levels, storage and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals also showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05).
The results for Vitamin C content showed that the values for different treatments for fortification of iron are highly significant (p?0.01).Mean values for storage study of vitamin C different treatments showed that the mean values for control milk are 4.50 and increases significantly with iron fortification at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08% which is 25.68, 26.01 and 25.26 respectively. As the storage progressed the Vitamin C content decreases significantly from 22.7 to18.5 at 0 and 4day respectively. The interaction between treatment and storage level showed non-significant effect on Vitamin C of iron fortified milk (P?0.05)
Using statistical design for mineral Iron of different treatments of milk showed that the fortification of Iron at different levels in milk has significant effect (p?0.001).The results of Mean comparison of Fe showed that control has lowest score (0.06±0.00) and 0.06% and 0.08% had highest scores that is (0.11±0.001) and (0.155±0.001) respectively
The statistical analysis pertaining to flavor for milk fortified by iron at different levels , their storage for four days at 4°C and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed that they are statistically non significant (P ?0.05).
The statistical analysis pertaining to sensory attributes of iron fortified milk prepared at different levels of FeSO4 and control for taste , colour , flavor, consistency and overall acceptability, their storage for four days at 4°C refrigeration temperature and the interaction between the treatments and storage intervals showed that they are statistically non significant (P?0.05).The statistical analysis pertaining to haemoglobin level w.r.t to groups of rats and study intervals is highly significant (P?0.01) The interaction between different groups and study intervals also showed highly significant (P?0.01) results. For haemotological measurements statistical analysis showed that mean data regarding Group A showed haemoglobin level at 0 day (9.68±0.435)g/dL which increase slightly at 14 and 28 day and then again decrease at 56 day (9.34±0.171) g/dL.

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