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Feeding Behavior And Performance Of Sheep And Goats Under Various Feeding Management Systems

By: Nasrullah | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Abdullan.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Masroor Ellahi Babar.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2012Subject(s): Department of Livestock Production | Phd. thesisDDC classification: 1503,T Dissertation note: Sheep and goats have been bestowed with the capacity of surviving under a variety of environmental conditions including the coastal region, plains and high mountains. The profitable small ruminants farming depend upon feeding and management systems because the feed cost is 70% in any livestock farming. In Pakistan, mostly people grazed ruminants on summer and winter fodders for maintenance and production requirements. Commercial livestock production demands a change in feeding with a trend for more efficient utilization of scarce feed resources. The proposed study was planned in to three experiments under a factorial arrangement to evaluate the growth performance of sheep and goats. In experiment one a study was first conducted to compare the voluntary intake and digestibility of janter (coriandrum sativum), guar (cyamopsis tetragonolba), cowpea (Vigna sinesis) in sheep and goats. For this purpose, 90 female animals (sheep n=45 and goats n = 45) were selected randomly and divided equally in, 6 groups representing each species under 2×3 factorial arrangements, Groups A,B ,C represented goats while group D,E,F represented sheep. Results showed that goats spent more time on eating than sheep while ruminating time was higher in sheep than goats. Drinking time was not different (P>0.05) among the species. Goats spent more time on playing and resting than sheep fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. Dry mater CP, NDF, ADF and GE intake was higher in sheep than goats fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. DMD and CP were higher in sheep than goats fed guar. NDF and ADF digestibility was similar in both species. Average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain were similar in both the species. It is concluded that the jantar fodder in summer is most suitable fodder for sheep and goats compare to guar and Cowpea. In the second trial of the first phase study comparison of voluntary intake and digestibility maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) in sheep and goats were compared. Statistical analyses showed that eating time was higher (P?0.05) in goats than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum while, sheep spent more time on ruminating, drinking and standing than goats. Goats showed higher playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter CP, NDF and ADF intake was similar (P>0.05) in both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter digestibility was similar in sheep and goats fed maize, millet and sorghum. NDF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep fed sorghum while this was different (P?0.05) when maize and millet were fed. ADF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep. Average daily weight gain feed efficiency and cost of gain was not significant (P>0.05) among both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Results of the study showed that the non leguminous fodders during summer are equally preferred by both species. In second the phase voluntary feed intake and digestibility of berseem, (Trifolium alexandrium) lucerne, (Medicago Sativa), oats, (Avena Sativa) in female sheep and goats was studied. For this purpose, female animals (n=90) of sheep (n=45) and goats (n=45) were randomly selected and divided equally in six in a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that eating time was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep, while ruminating time was more in sheep than goats fed berseem lucerne and oats, whereas time spent on drinking was similar in both goats and sheep. Goats utilized less time in standing, higher (P<0.05) time in playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Crude protein intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne. DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem, while it was similar when fed lucerne and oats fodder. NDF, ADF and GE (M cal/d) intakes were higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne fodder however it was similar in both the species fed on oats fodder. DM digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in sheep and goats fed berseem, lucerne and oats. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. When fed Lucerne and oats there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between goats and sheep.. NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. Average daily gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain/kg was non-significant (P>0.05) between goats and sheep fed berseem, lucern and oats. Results demonstrated that during winter the most suitable fodder for sheep and goats is lucerne fodder. In the second experiment the study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under various feeding management systems in which ninety female animals were selected and divided into six equal groups with three groups of each species (sheep n=45, goats n=45) under a 2×3 factorial arrangement. These were in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive feeding management systems. Dry matter intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than goats kept under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep than goats fed intensively. NDF and ADF intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than in goats. Average daily weight gain was higher in sheep than goats on the extensive system followed by the semi-intensive system. Feed efficiency was similar in goats and sheep while the cost of gain per kg was more economical in sheep than goats. Results of study revealed that both species performed better on extensive feeding system than the other systems might be of natural grazing behavior. The third experiment of study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under the intensive management system. Sixty female animals (lambs n= 30 and kids n=30) were used. The animals were divided equally in four groups A and B representing lambs while C, D was for kids. Both species were allotted two treatments i.e. fodder ad libitum with concentrate supplement (240 grams/animal/day) and total mixed ration ad libitum under a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Results showed that DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids. Average daily weight gain was higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed total mixed ration. Feed efficiency was higher (P?0.05) in kids than in lambs fed fodder plus supplement. Dry matter and CP digestibility was higher (P?0.05) in kids than lambs fed a total mixed ration. NDF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed the TMR, it was also higher in kids than in lambs when fed fodder plus the concentrate supplement. ADF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than in kids fed the total mixed ration. The performance of lambs was better on TMR while kids showed good results on fodder plus the concentrate supplementation.
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Sheep and goats have been bestowed with the capacity of surviving under a variety of environmental conditions including the coastal region, plains and high mountains. The profitable small ruminants farming depend upon feeding and management systems because the feed cost is 70% in any livestock farming. In Pakistan, mostly people grazed ruminants on summer and winter fodders for maintenance and production requirements. Commercial livestock production demands a change in feeding with a trend for more efficient utilization of scarce feed resources. The proposed study was planned in to three experiments under a factorial arrangement to evaluate the growth performance of sheep and goats. In experiment one a study was first conducted to compare the voluntary intake and digestibility of janter (coriandrum sativum), guar (cyamopsis tetragonolba), cowpea (Vigna sinesis) in sheep and goats. For this purpose, 90 female animals (sheep n=45 and goats n = 45) were selected randomly and divided equally in, 6 groups representing each species under 2×3 factorial arrangements, Groups A,B ,C represented goats while group D,E,F represented sheep. Results showed that goats spent more time on eating than sheep while ruminating time was higher in sheep than goats. Drinking time was not different (P>0.05) among the species. Goats spent more time on playing and resting than sheep fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. Dry mater CP, NDF, ADF and GE intake was higher in sheep than goats fed guar, cowpeas and jantar. DMD and CP were higher in sheep than goats fed guar. NDF and ADF digestibility was similar in both species. Average daily weight gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain were similar in both the species. It is concluded that the jantar fodder in summer is most suitable fodder for sheep and goats compare to guar and Cowpea. In the second trial of the first phase study comparison of voluntary intake and digestibility maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americanum) in sheep and goats were compared. Statistical analyses showed that eating time was higher (P?0.05) in goats than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum while, sheep spent more time on ruminating, drinking and standing than goats. Goats showed higher playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter CP, NDF and ADF intake was similar (P>0.05) in both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Dry matter digestibility was similar in sheep and goats fed maize, millet and sorghum. NDF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep fed sorghum while this was different (P?0.05) when maize and millet were fed. ADF digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in goat and sheep. Average daily weight gain feed efficiency and cost of gain was not significant (P>0.05) among both the species fed maize, millet and sorghum. Results of the study showed that the non leguminous fodders during summer are equally preferred by both species. In second the phase voluntary feed intake and digestibility of berseem, (Trifolium alexandrium) lucerne, (Medicago Sativa), oats, (Avena Sativa) in female sheep and goats was studied. For this purpose, female animals (n=90) of sheep (n=45) and goats (n=45) were randomly selected and divided equally in six in a 2×3 factorial arrangement. Results showed that eating time was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep, while ruminating time was more in sheep than goats fed berseem lucerne and oats, whereas time spent on drinking was similar in both goats and sheep. Goats utilized less time in standing, higher (P<0.05) time in playing, resting and other activities than sheep fed maize, millet and sorghum. Crude protein intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne. DM intake was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem, while it was similar when fed lucerne and oats fodder. NDF, ADF and GE (M cal/d) intakes were higher (P<0.05) in goats than sheep fed berseem and lucerne fodder however it was similar in both the species fed on oats fodder. DM digestibility was similar (P>0.05) in sheep and goats fed berseem, lucerne and oats. CP digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. When fed Lucerne and oats there was no significant difference (P>0.05) between goats and sheep.. NDF digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in goats than in sheep fed berseem. Average daily gain, feed efficiency and cost of gain/kg was non-significant (P>0.05) between goats and sheep fed berseem, lucern and oats. Results demonstrated that during winter the most suitable fodder for sheep and goats is lucerne fodder. In the second experiment the study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under various feeding management systems in which ninety female animals were selected and divided into six equal groups with three groups of each species (sheep n=45, goats n=45) under a 2×3 factorial arrangement. These were in extensive, semi-intensive and intensive feeding management systems. Dry matter intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than goats kept under extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in sheep than goats fed intensively. NDF and ADF intake was higher (P?0.05) (P<0.05) in sheep than in goats. Average daily weight gain was higher in sheep than goats on the extensive system followed by the semi-intensive system. Feed efficiency was similar in goats and sheep while the cost of gain per kg was more economical in sheep than goats. Results of study revealed that both species performed better on extensive feeding system than the other systems might be of natural grazing behavior. The third experiment of study was conducted to compare the performance of sheep and goats under the intensive management system. Sixty female animals (lambs n= 30 and kids n=30) were used. The animals were divided equally in four groups A and B representing lambs while C, D was for kids. Both species were allotted two treatments i.e. fodder ad libitum with concentrate supplement (240 grams/animal/day) and total mixed ration ad libitum under a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Results showed that DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids. Average daily weight gain was higher (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed total mixed ration. Feed efficiency was higher (P?0.05) in kids than in lambs fed fodder plus supplement. Dry matter and CP digestibility was higher (P?0.05) in kids than lambs fed a total mixed ration. NDF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than kids fed the TMR, it was also higher in kids than in lambs when fed fodder plus the concentrate supplement. ADF digestibility was maximum (P?0.05) in lambs than in kids fed the total mixed ration. The performance of lambs was better on TMR while kids showed good results on fodder plus the concentrate supplementation.

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