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Preparation Of Low-Glycemic India Vetch-Wheat Composite Flours And Evaluation Of Their Chapatti Making

By: Amara Khan | Dr. Muhammad Nasir.
Contributor(s): Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal | Dr. Sualeha.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2012Subject(s): Department of Food Sciences & Human NutritionDDC classification: 1550,T Dissertation note: Wheat is one of the popular cereals that supply the basic nutritional and energy requirements of the population. More so, wheat flour is commonly consumed across the world. Complementation of wheat flour with Indian vetch will not only upgrade its protein quality but also will helpful in decreasing glycemic index because studies have shown effects of Indian vetch on glycemic index. Objectives of the present study are to develop low glycemic, nutritious composite flours and to assess the glycemic efficacy of selected composite flour based chapattisin normal adult human subjects. The present study was conducted in two phases. During first phase composite flours were prepared and their chemical, functional and rheological properties were analyzed. In second phase the effect of sample chapattis on post- prandial glycemic response in healthy subjects was evaluated. The composite flours were prepared by mixing various ratios of wheat flour and Indian vetch flour. The ratio of Indian vetch flour was 10, 20, and 30 g respectively with 90, 80, and 70g wheat flour. Chemical properties revealed that The results for the proximate composition of composite flour and wheat flour show that the moisture content of composite flours is lower than the wheat flour , which progressively decreased as the level of Indian vetch supplementation increased. The supplementation at different levels of Indian vetch flour (seed coat removed during milling) has a significant lowering effect on the crude fiber, ash and crude fat but a significant increase was observed in the protein content, which was due to high protein content of Indian vetch flour. Mean square for bulk density of composite flour blends shows that bulk density was significantly affected by the Indian vetch flour addition (10-30Overall, bulk density ranged from 86.66±1.527 to 83.66±1.154 in all flour blends. Water and oil absorption capacities are amongst the important functional properties for additives supplemented in food systems. Water and oil absorption are significantly affected with addition of Indian vetch). 30% Indian vetch Composite flour showed excellent water holding capacity 5.889±0.040% as compared to wheat flour 4.956±0.056%. The oil absorption capacity of composite flour was noted to be 5.64±0.032% that was significantly higher than that of wheat flour (T0). Therefore water and oil absorption capacities of flour blends were improved at all levels of Indian vetch flour addition. Foaming capacity and stability were also significantly affected among different compositions of flours. T30 flour sample showed foaming capacity 9±0% and foaming stability 8.5±0%, whilst T0 wheat flour possessed 7.166±0.288% and 6.51±0.5% of foaming capacity and stability, respectively. The foaming stability of composite flours increased as the ratio of Indian vetch increased in present study. As expected, Indian vetch flour addition resulted a significant increase in the stability of foam in flour blends. Gelling power of the flour dispersions increased with the level of Indian Vetch flour in flour blends. The highest gelling power was observed in T30 (30% Indian vetch flour). The partial gelation in T20 was observed at 4% flour suspension, whereas in T30 above 3% flour dispersion resulted in complete gelling. The lowest gelling properties were noticed in case of T0 (100% wheat flour). It is evident from results that Indian vetch addition resulted in decreased redness ("a") and increased lightness ("L") . Hunter color values increased significantly with Indian vetch addition in composite flour , representing an increased yellowness of chapatti . The values for Chroma remained same while hue angle also increased momentously by adding up of Indian vetch. Dough rheological behavior is mainly affected due to protein quantity and quality of flour. The rheological characteristics are the source for understanding the dough handling behavior in bakery. Consequently, dough properties play a key role in quality of finished products. Significant variations were observed among various flour samples for these traits. On the basis of sensory evaluation two best chapatti samples T10 and T20 were selected for further efficacy studies. A total of 10 healthy adult volunteers were recruited through flyers, emails and personal contacts. Eligibility for volunteers will be determined on the basis of age (20-50 years), health status, individuals having optimum BMI and free from any communicable diseases and gluten allergy. The study procedure was discussed with all volunteers and were asked to sign the consent to voluntarily participate in the study. Predicted glycemic index was lower in chapattis added with 20% Indian vetch flour than in 10% composite flour and 100% wheat flour. So chapattis of composite flour might be a dietetic alternative forpeople with low-calorie requirements.
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Wheat is one of the popular cereals that supply the basic nutritional and energy requirements of the population. More so, wheat flour is commonly consumed across the world. Complementation of wheat flour with Indian vetch will not only upgrade its protein quality but also will helpful in decreasing glycemic index because studies have shown effects of Indian vetch on glycemic index. Objectives of the present study are to develop low glycemic, nutritious composite flours and to assess the glycemic efficacy of selected composite flour based chapattisin normal adult human subjects.
The present study was conducted in two phases. During first phase composite flours were prepared and their chemical, functional and rheological properties were analyzed. In second phase the effect of sample chapattis on post- prandial glycemic response in healthy subjects was evaluated.
The composite flours were prepared by mixing various ratios of wheat flour and Indian vetch flour. The ratio of Indian vetch flour was 10, 20, and 30 g respectively with 90, 80, and 70g wheat flour. Chemical properties revealed that The results for the proximate composition of composite flour and wheat flour show that the moisture content of composite flours is lower than the wheat flour , which progressively decreased as the level of Indian vetch supplementation increased. The supplementation at different levels of Indian vetch flour (seed coat removed during milling) has a significant lowering effect on the crude fiber, ash and crude fat but a significant increase was observed in the protein content, which was due to high protein content of Indian vetch flour.
Mean square for bulk density of composite flour blends shows that bulk density was significantly affected by the Indian vetch flour addition (10-30Overall, bulk density ranged from 86.66±1.527 to 83.66±1.154 in all flour blends.
Water and oil absorption capacities are amongst the important functional properties for additives supplemented in food systems. Water and oil absorption are significantly affected with addition of Indian vetch). 30% Indian vetch Composite flour showed excellent water holding capacity 5.889±0.040% as compared to wheat flour 4.956±0.056%. The oil absorption capacity of composite flour was noted to be 5.64±0.032% that was significantly higher than that of wheat flour (T0). Therefore water and oil absorption capacities of flour blends were improved at all levels of Indian vetch flour addition.
Foaming capacity and stability were also significantly affected among different compositions of flours. T30 flour sample showed foaming capacity 9±0% and foaming stability 8.5±0%, whilst T0 wheat flour possessed 7.166±0.288% and 6.51±0.5% of foaming capacity and stability, respectively. The foaming stability of composite flours increased as the ratio of Indian vetch increased in present study. As expected, Indian vetch flour addition resulted a significant increase in the stability of foam in flour blends.
Gelling power of the flour dispersions increased with the level of Indian Vetch flour in flour blends. The highest gelling power was observed in T30 (30% Indian vetch flour). The partial gelation in T20 was observed at 4% flour suspension, whereas in T30 above 3% flour dispersion resulted in complete gelling. The lowest gelling properties were noticed in case of T0 (100% wheat flour).
It is evident from results that Indian vetch addition resulted in decreased redness ("a") and increased lightness ("L") . Hunter color values increased significantly with Indian vetch addition in composite flour , representing an increased yellowness of chapatti . The values for Chroma remained same while hue angle also increased momentously by adding up of Indian vetch.
Dough rheological behavior is mainly affected due to protein quantity and quality of flour. The rheological characteristics are the source for understanding the dough handling behavior in bakery. Consequently, dough properties play a key role in quality of finished products. Significant variations were observed among various flour samples for these traits.
On the basis of sensory evaluation two best chapatti samples T10 and T20 were selected for further efficacy studies.
A total of 10 healthy adult volunteers were recruited through flyers, emails and personal contacts. Eligibility for volunteers will be determined on the basis of age (20-50 years), health status, individuals having optimum BMI and free from any communicable diseases and gluten allergy. The study procedure was discussed with all volunteers and were asked to sign the consent to voluntarily participate in the study.
Predicted glycemic index was lower in chapattis added with 20% Indian vetch flour than in 10% composite flour and 100% wheat flour. So chapattis of composite flour might be a dietetic alternative forpeople with low-calorie requirements.

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