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Comparing Diseases Severity And Other Health Problems In Major Dairy Animals Through Active Surveillance In Different Ecological Clusters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province

By: Amjad Khan | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Mansoor-ud-Din Ahmad.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2013Subject(s): Department of Epidemiology & Public HealthDDC classification: 1793,T Dissertation note: In spite of the significance of dairy animals to poor citizens relatively is the neglected area of research. Considering this an active surveillance based study was conducted to analyze the impact of climate change on the epidemiology of diseases in dairy animals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, Pakistan. Ecologically and geographically two different clusters having four randomly selected districts each; furthermore randomly a single village from each district was selected. Data from 1252 (49.8%) cattle and 1260 (50.2%) buffaloes was collected on a predesigned questionnaire about the epidemiological parameters for the period of one year i.e. from July 2012 to June 2013. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) association of change in environmental temperature with the morbidity, mortality and case fatality rate of the diseases and major health problems. As the mean temperature at lower altitudes (below 500m) increases above 300C the rates of incidence of disease also increases. While at higher altitudes temperatures when increases above 300C the rate of incidence increases faster than in HCC. In CCC, the higher morbidity rate was due to ID in cattle and RB in Buffalo population and in HCC RB was higher morbidity causing health problem in both species. While in terms of mortality and case fatality HS was the leading cause in both clusters and species. The results also showed that the susceptibility of buffaloes and cattle to heat stress varied significantly according to specie, breeds, genetic potential and life stage. It was concluded that climate change do have an impact on occurrence, pattern and severity of health problems and infectious diseases at different altitudes. Further research work is needed to find out the best breeds in terms of production and reproduction that could well establish themselves in these climates.
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In spite of the significance of dairy animals to poor citizens relatively is the neglected area of research. Considering this an active surveillance based study was conducted to analyze the impact of climate change on the epidemiology of diseases in dairy animals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, Pakistan. Ecologically and geographically two different clusters having four randomly selected districts each; furthermore randomly a single village from each district was selected. Data from 1252 (49.8%) cattle and 1260 (50.2%) buffaloes was collected on a predesigned questionnaire about the epidemiological parameters for the period of one year i.e. from July 2012 to June 2013. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) association of change in environmental temperature with the morbidity, mortality and case fatality rate of the diseases and major health problems. As the mean temperature at lower altitudes (below 500m) increases above 300C the rates of incidence of disease also increases. While at higher altitudes temperatures when increases above 300C the rate of incidence increases faster than in HCC. In CCC, the higher morbidity rate was due to ID in cattle and RB in Buffalo population and in HCC RB was higher morbidity causing health problem in both species. While in terms of mortality and case fatality HS was the leading cause in both clusters and species. The results also showed that the susceptibility of buffaloes and cattle to heat stress varied significantly according to specie, breeds, genetic potential and life stage. It was concluded that climate change do have an impact on occurrence, pattern and severity of health problems and infectious diseases at different altitudes. Further research work is needed to find out the best breeds in terms of production and reproduction that could well establish themselves in these climates.

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