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Toxicopathological Alterations And Tissue Residue Of Colistinsulphate (Polymixin E) In Broilers

By: Muhammad Aslam (2012-VA-809) | Dr. Muhammad Raza Hameed.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Syed Ehtisham ul Haque.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2014Description: 61p.Subject(s): Department of PathologyDDC classification: 2221-T Dissertation note: Poultry industry is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan playing important role to meet daily protein requirement with an investment of more than 200 billion rupees. It is contributing 6.1% and 10.8% share in total contribution of agriculture and livestock the national GDP, respectively. Total poultry meat production in the last year was 987 thousand tones (Economic survey of Pakistan 2013-2014). Because of high density and lack of biosecurity measures, outbreaks of infectious disease are more common and often occurs. Different antibiotics are used rational and irrational to treat and control these outbreaks. Colistin is among the most widely used antibiotic in intensive poultry farming, it is used to combat gram negative bacterial infections particularly for collibacillosis and gastrointestinal tract infections (Hussain and Khalil 2013). Colistin belongs to the polymixins group of antibiotics. It is also known as Polymixin E. Polymixins are structurally related substances consisting of a cyclic peptide with a hydrophobic tail, mainly produced from gram positive nitrogen fixing bacteria Bacillus polymyxa. Polymixins are classified into six subtypes namely polymixin A to F and among these polymixin B and E are commonly used for the treatment of gram negative infections in animal and human beings. Colistin is mixture of two subtype’s colistin A (polymixin E1) and colistin B (polymixin E2). Commercially, it is available in two forms colistin sulfate and colistimethate sodium but colistin sulfate is more stable cationic water soluble salt (Landman et al. 2000) and is easily available in markets. colistin sulphate has lipophilic and lipophobic(hydrophilic) properties, that makes it easier to interact on bacterial cell membrane by displacing counter ions in lipopolysaccharides, influencing Mg efflux that’s why it is effective against gram negative bacteria (Poole and Sheffield 2013). Polymixins also presents antipyretic activity by binding endotoxins, especially lipid A, (the active compound of lipopolysaccharide). Owing to this property it is extensively used to treat gram negative infections in livestock and poultry industries (Hanasawa et al. 1990). The use of colistin was restricted in the past due to its toxic properties mainly in nephrotoxicity. There are reports available in the literature indicating that the parental use of colistin leads to the alterations of biochemical parameters in chicken i.e. increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, catalase activity, creatinine while, adversely affect total plasma proteins (Ibrahin et al. 2011). In ostriches it leads to the development of neurotoxic signs along with histologically odema formation in pericardium, intestinal serosa and heart was observed (Landman et al. 2000). Toxic effects of colistin were also reported in humans including nephrotoxicity, increased serum creatinine during the treatment (Falagas et al. 2005). As bioavailability for oral route is minimal and it is used parentally to treat systemic infections. Parenteral route may cause toxopathological effects in birds. Other effects includes change in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase which indicate liver damage. Red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin estimation were also decreased (Saleemi et al. 2013). The incidence of nephrotoxicity is severe but less common in oral administration as polymixins absorption through gastrointestinal tract is very slow and limited, and cannot be detected in plasma concentrations at ordinary doses (Falagas and Kasiakou 2006). Instead of all these toxic effects, now a days it is frequently used for the treatment against gram negative bacterial infections (Vaara 2010). The emergence of bacterial resistance has become an important public health hazard throughout the world). Due to irrational use of antimicrobial drugs against different diseases (Naqvi et al.2013. Colistin is one of the most widely used antibiotic in poultry industry against diseases like collibacillosis, salmonellosis and clostridial infections through drinking water, feed additives and parenteral route in developing countries like Pakistan (Tanweer et al.2013). Parenteral use of colistin sulphate may leads to the deposition of residues in different tissues. The presence of its residues in edible parts may lead to the toxicity as well as development of antibacterial resistance in human. Keeping in view the potential toxic effects and other hazards relating to the extensive use of colistin in poultry birds, present study has been designed to investigate dose dependent patho-morphological alterations and tissue residue in broiler chickens. Objective 1. To study the toxicopathological effects of parenteral administration of colistin in broilers. 2.Investigation of the tissue deposition of colistin as residues and its withdrawal period.
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Poultry industry is the 2nd largest industry in Pakistan playing important role to meet daily protein requirement with an investment of more than 200 billion rupees. It is contributing 6.1% and 10.8% share in total contribution of agriculture and livestock the national GDP, respectively. Total poultry meat production in the last year was 987 thousand tones (Economic survey of Pakistan 2013-2014). Because of high density and lack of biosecurity measures, outbreaks of infectious disease are more common and often occurs. Different antibiotics are used rational and irrational to treat and control these outbreaks. Colistin is among the most widely used antibiotic in intensive poultry farming, it is used to combat gram negative bacterial infections particularly for collibacillosis and gastrointestinal tract infections (Hussain and Khalil 2013).
Colistin belongs to the polymixins group of antibiotics. It is also known as Polymixin E. Polymixins are structurally related substances consisting of a cyclic peptide with a hydrophobic tail, mainly produced from gram positive nitrogen fixing bacteria Bacillus polymyxa. Polymixins are classified into six subtypes namely polymixin A to F and among these polymixin B and E are commonly used for the treatment of gram negative infections in animal and human beings. Colistin is mixture of two subtype’s colistin A (polymixin E1) and colistin B (polymixin E2). Commercially, it is available in two forms colistin sulfate and colistimethate sodium but colistin sulfate is more stable cationic water soluble salt (Landman et al. 2000) and is easily available in markets.
colistin sulphate has lipophilic and lipophobic(hydrophilic) properties, that makes it easier to interact on bacterial cell membrane by displacing counter ions in lipopolysaccharides, influencing Mg efflux that’s why it is effective against gram negative bacteria (Poole and Sheffield 2013). Polymixins also presents antipyretic activity by binding endotoxins, especially lipid A, (the active compound of lipopolysaccharide). Owing to this property it is extensively used to treat gram negative infections in livestock and poultry industries (Hanasawa et al. 1990).
The use of colistin was restricted in the past due to its toxic properties mainly in nephrotoxicity. There are reports available in the literature indicating that the parental use of colistin leads to the alterations of biochemical parameters in chicken i.e. increase in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, catalase activity, creatinine while, adversely affect total plasma proteins (Ibrahin et al. 2011). In ostriches it leads to the development of neurotoxic signs along with histologically odema formation in pericardium, intestinal serosa and heart was observed (Landman et al. 2000).
Toxic effects of colistin were also reported in humans including nephrotoxicity, increased serum creatinine during the treatment (Falagas et al. 2005). As bioavailability for oral route is minimal and it is used parentally to treat systemic infections. Parenteral route may cause toxopathological effects in birds. Other effects includes change in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase which indicate liver damage. Red blood cells, white blood cells, packed cell volume and hemoglobin estimation were also decreased (Saleemi et al. 2013). The incidence of nephrotoxicity is severe but less common in oral administration as polymixins absorption through gastrointestinal tract is very slow and limited, and cannot be detected in plasma concentrations at ordinary doses (Falagas and Kasiakou 2006). Instead of all these toxic effects, now a days it is frequently used for the treatment against gram negative bacterial infections (Vaara 2010).
The emergence of bacterial resistance has become an important public health hazard throughout the world). Due to irrational use of antimicrobial drugs against different diseases (Naqvi et al.2013. Colistin is one of the most widely used antibiotic in poultry industry against diseases like collibacillosis, salmonellosis and clostridial infections through drinking water, feed additives and parenteral route in developing countries like Pakistan (Tanweer et al.2013). Parenteral use of colistin sulphate may leads to the deposition of residues in different tissues. The presence of its residues in edible parts may lead to the toxicity as well as development of antibacterial resistance in human.
Keeping in view the potential toxic effects and other hazards relating to the extensive use of colistin in poultry birds, present study has been designed to investigate dose dependent patho-morphological alterations and tissue residue in broiler chickens.
Objective
1. To study the toxicopathological effects of parenteral administration of colistin in broilers.
2.Investigation of the tissue deposition of colistin as residues and its withdrawal period.

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