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Comparative Efficacy Of Different Nsaids Against Bovine Ephemeral Fever

By: Ghazanfar Ali Chishti (2007-VA-51) | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durani.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Shehla Gul Bukhari.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2015Description: 48p.Subject(s): Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryDDC classification: 2243-T Dissertation note: Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment. One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals. Introduction 2 During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore. BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012). Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal.
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Dairy sector has significant role in Pakistan economy with a share of 46.8% in agriculture and 10.8% to Pakistan GDP. Pakistan ranks 4th among largest milk producing countries in the world (Anonymous 2012-13).In last decade, dairy sector in Pakistan has seen tremendous growth and corporate investment. More than 40000 exotic cross bred high producing cattles have been imported. Earlier this sector used to rely primarily on local low producing cattles and small scale subsistence farming, now different commercial dairy farms having high producers exotic cattles are also becoming major contributor in this sector. Trend is changing, different issues concerned with sector are rising. Sensitivity level of commercial dairy farmer is far high as compared to small scale traditional farmers, they can not accept or tolerate any factor affecting economy of their dairy business due to heavy investment.
One such issue rose to headlines in July-August 2014, Pakistan dairy industry was struck badly with an outbreak of viral disease called Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF). It caused colossal damages to dairy industry in terms of decreased milk production, mortalities and treatment costs. This was not an out rightly a new disease in Pakistan its episodes have been seen in past in local cattles and buffalo (Asi et al. 1999) and locally it was termed as “will” (Prof Khushe personal communication). But it never got such a hype and attention in past as local animals were already low producers and their production was never affected at substantial level. Local animals were generally weak having low Body Condition Score, a character which does not support the intensity of this disease, Ectoparasite resistance is another factor considered to be a source of protection for local animals.
Introduction
2
During initial phase of outbreak, it was considered as a common local epidemic Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and few signs also confused it with Milk Fever. But once outbreak progressed, it became clearer that it in neither HS and nor FMD it is something different. After going through literature it was clinically suspected as BEF and later was confirmed through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) by University Diagnostic Laboratory (UDL), UVAS, Lahore.
BEF is a viral disease caused by genus Ephemerovirus and family Rhabdoviridae. (Uren et al. 1992).It is a noncontagious, vector borne disease of water buffaloes and cattles proposed to be communicated by midges (Culicoides biting) and mosquitoes.(Walker et al. 2012). Ephemeral fever, stiff sickness, three-day-sickness, bovine influenza and bovine epizootic fever have been used to name this viral disease in the different nations at different eras (Chiu 1986; Chiu and Lu 1986; Lin and Inoue 1969; St.George1981). BEF happens seasonally in temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Middle-East and Australia and this is a disabling disease with significant economic effect due to reduction of milk production, loss of health status in beef herds, abortion and infertility. Characteristic clinical signs comprise of a sudden onset of fever as high as 41 °C, an abrupt and austere drop in milk production, lethargy, inappetence, salivation, depression, nasal discharge, stiffness, dyspnea and ruminal stasis (Walker et al. 2012).
Primarily, pathogenesis of BEF is based on vascular inflammation (Young and Spradbrow, 1980) so this provides the rationale for its treatment through anti-inflammatory drugs. Different NSAIDs have been used in previous studies phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine and ketoprofen (Uren and Murphy, 1985; St George et al. 1984) but no study has been found using most common field NSAID of Pakistan, meloxicam. So, here a comparative study was carried out between three NSAIDs meloxicam, ketoprofen and phenylbutazone on naturally infected BEF animal.

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