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Growth Performance, Body Measurements And Slaughter Characteristics As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters In Japanese Quail

By: Imran Ullah (2013-VA-598) | Dr. Jibran Hussain.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Muhammad Akram | Dr. Atia Basheer.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2015Description: 84p.Subject(s): Department of Poultry ProductionDDC classification: 2251-T Dissertation note: Coturnix japonica is the zoological name of Japanese quail, which belongs to order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie japonica (Beletsky, 2006). It is highly disease resistant with a very short maturity age as well as market life (4-5weeks). Female quail starts laying almost at 7-8 weeks of age, hence getting popular (Ashok and Prabakaran 2012). Generally the chicks are removed from hatcher only when most of chicks have hatched within the period of hatch window which is almost 36 to 48 hours (Careghi et al. 2005). Many factors affect delay in hatching, the most important being the parent flock age, handling of eggs, time of egg preservation and internal incubation conditions (Decuypere et al. 2001). Little space in the hatcher for hatched chicks, opening of hatcher over many time and late collection of chick can lead to dehydrated and low quality chicks (Bamelis et al. 2005). To reduce above stated risks a concept named “Patio system” was introduced in Netherland, proposed by Kuijpers brothers to improve hatchability and growth performance of chicks. In this system pre incubated eggs (hatching phase) and after hatching chicks (brooding phase) are placed combined in hatchery (http://www.vencomatic.com). Patio system improves body weight, quality of chicks and reduces chick mortality in broilers (Van de Ven et al. 2009). A synergistic effect on growth performance and various economic traits can be attained by using patio system and various feed additives such as probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics etc. The term probiotic is derived from two Latin words “pro” and “bios”. Probiotics are prepared from different species of microorganisms (Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces) considered as intestinal beneficial microflora (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Probiotics are used to make the products through the use of which, many species of animals improve their intestinal miro-flora (Leeson and Summers 1997). Improved beneficial bacteria CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION 2 of intestine suppress harmful bacteria like E. coli and produce beneficial enzymes and substances that have antibiotic like effects (Montes and Pugh 1993). Probiotics work by two ways. 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Enhancing immune system. In competitive exclusion, bacterias in gastrointestinal tract produce such type of substances that stunt the growth of harmful bacterias and compete for their predilection site (intestinal epithelium) while second mode of action is, to stimulate their immune system as the young one born is sterile, hence, their gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and beneficial bacterias in GIT are not able to produce antibodies against harmful bacterias that aggregate in chick GIT. By using probiotics that attach intestinal mucosa and create barriers for harmful bacteria and enhance immune system (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Different probiotics (Bacillus subtili) have different modes of action (competitive inhibition) that utilize oxygen in GIT of birds and convert them in different useful enzymes (subtilin and catalase) by which friendly bacterias (Lactobacilli) colonize in birds GIT and block predilection site of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Lactobacilli bacteria produce lactic acid that kill many harmful bacteria like, Salmonella and E.coli (Hosoi et al. 2000). Probiotics are also found to enhance activity of immunoglobulins, macrophages, lymphocytes and interferon (Yang et al. 2009). Birds fed on probiotic mixed diet showed higher body weight and increased carcass percentage (Kabir et al. 2004a) but feed intake, proventiculus, gizzard and liver weight were found to be non-significant among different treatments (Dizaji et al. 2012). Similarly in another study, higher body weight and weight gain were observed in ostrich birds fed on probiotic enriched diet (Karimi-Kivi et al. 2015). Using antibiotics as feed additives can also improve health status of birds. The first antibiotic “chlortetracycline” when used in animal feed during early 1940s increased body weight was observed (Dibner and Richards 2005). For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used in INTRODUCTION 3 poultry feed as a supplement to improve bird’s growth performance, feed conversion ratio and carcass meat yield (Denli et al. 2003). Antibiotics being used in poultry industry are also used therapeutically in human medicines (Edens, 2003). However, recent progress in poultry industry and consumer concerns have risen the questions on use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to their side effects (Wray and Davies 2000). The European Union (EU) banned some antibiotics as growth promoters because of many bacterial strains showing resistant against them (Edens, 2003) In Pakistan high production cost and market price of quail meat discourage both the producer and consumer. The use of patio system may help reduction in production cost, hence, help in gaining the trust and preference of both quail farmers and consumers. Present study was conducted with the main objectives to study the advantages of patio system in Japanese quail and also provide basic information regarding future use of this technique in quails. It was further tried to understand the utility of different growth promoters in quail production with special emphasis on antibiotics and probiotics.
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Coturnix japonica is the zoological name of Japanese quail, which belongs to order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie japonica (Beletsky, 2006). It is highly disease resistant with a very short maturity age as well as market life (4-5weeks). Female quail starts laying almost at 7-8 weeks of age, hence getting popular (Ashok and Prabakaran 2012).
Generally the chicks are removed from hatcher only when most of chicks have hatched within the period of hatch window which is almost 36 to 48 hours (Careghi et al. 2005). Many factors affect delay in hatching, the most important being the parent flock age, handling of eggs, time of egg preservation and internal incubation conditions (Decuypere et al. 2001). Little space in the hatcher for hatched chicks, opening of hatcher over many time and late collection of chick can lead to dehydrated and low quality chicks (Bamelis et al. 2005). To reduce above stated risks a concept named “Patio system” was introduced in Netherland, proposed by Kuijpers brothers to improve hatchability and growth performance of chicks. In this system pre incubated eggs (hatching phase) and after hatching chicks (brooding phase) are placed combined in hatchery (http://www.vencomatic.com). Patio system improves body weight, quality of chicks and reduces chick mortality in broilers (Van de Ven et al. 2009). A synergistic effect on growth performance and various economic traits can be attained by using patio system and various feed additives such as probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics etc. The term probiotic is derived from two Latin words “pro” and “bios”. Probiotics are prepared from different species of microorganisms (Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces) considered as intestinal beneficial microflora (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Probiotics are used to make the products through the use of which, many species of animals improve their intestinal miro-flora (Leeson and Summers 1997). Improved beneficial bacteria
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
2
of intestine suppress harmful bacteria like E. coli and produce beneficial enzymes and substances that have antibiotic like effects (Montes and Pugh 1993). Probiotics work by two ways. 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Enhancing immune system. In competitive exclusion, bacterias in gastrointestinal tract produce such type of substances that stunt the growth of harmful bacterias and compete for their predilection site (intestinal epithelium) while second mode of action is, to stimulate their immune system as the young one born is sterile, hence, their gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and beneficial bacterias in GIT are not able to produce antibodies against harmful bacterias that aggregate in chick GIT. By using probiotics that attach intestinal mucosa and create barriers for harmful bacteria and enhance immune system (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Different probiotics (Bacillus subtili) have different modes of action (competitive inhibition) that utilize oxygen in GIT of birds and convert them in different useful enzymes (subtilin and catalase) by which friendly bacterias (Lactobacilli) colonize in birds GIT and block predilection site of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Lactobacilli bacteria produce lactic acid that kill many harmful bacteria like, Salmonella and E.coli (Hosoi et al. 2000). Probiotics are also found to enhance activity of immunoglobulins, macrophages, lymphocytes and interferon (Yang et al. 2009). Birds fed on probiotic mixed diet showed higher body weight and increased carcass percentage (Kabir et al. 2004a) but feed intake, proventiculus, gizzard and liver weight were found to be non-significant among different treatments (Dizaji et al. 2012). Similarly in another study, higher body weight and weight gain were observed in ostrich birds fed on probiotic enriched diet (Karimi-Kivi et al. 2015). Using antibiotics as feed additives can also improve health status of birds. The first antibiotic “chlortetracycline” when used in animal feed during early 1940s increased body weight was observed (Dibner and Richards 2005). For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used in
INTRODUCTION
3
poultry feed as a supplement to improve bird’s growth performance, feed conversion ratio and carcass meat yield (Denli et al. 2003). Antibiotics being used in poultry industry are also used therapeutically in human medicines (Edens, 2003). However, recent progress in poultry industry and consumer concerns have risen the questions on use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to their side effects (Wray and Davies 2000). The European Union (EU) banned some antibiotics as growth promoters because of many bacterial strains showing resistant against them (Edens, 2003) In Pakistan high production cost and market price of quail meat discourage both the producer and consumer. The use of patio system may help reduction in production cost, hence, help in gaining the trust and preference of both quail farmers and consumers. Present study was conducted with the main objectives to study the advantages of patio system in Japanese quail and also provide basic information regarding future use of this technique in quails. It was further tried to understand the utility of different growth promoters in quail production with special emphasis on antibiotics and probiotics.

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