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Determination Of Heavy Metals In Various Types Of Candies And Chocolates Available In Local Markets Of Lahore

By: Muhammad Suleman Najib (2007-VA-307) | Dr. Naureen Naeem.
Contributor(s): Dr. Muhammad Nasir | Dr. Muhammad Adil Rasheed.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2015Description: 31p.Subject(s): Food Safety and Control | Department of Food and NutritionDDC classification: 2356-T Dissertation note: Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer practices, the usual thought is that food ought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer. Heavy metals are presentin sweets like candies, chocolates and gums, which are favorite food for children and pregnant women. Lead, Nickel and Chromium are major toxic heavy metals. Main source of lead exposure in children are food, air, water and soil.Accumulation of Lead in different parts of the body has adverse effects and causes many diseases.When chromium is ingested in excess amounts, it induces many toxicity symptoms in human body. At higher levels, nickel accumulates in the lungs and may cause bronchial haemorrhage. Other symptoms include nausea, weakness, dizziness, etc. In Pakistan food safety is on the verge chaos specially there is no sufficient data available on heavy metals in confectionary products. Therefore present study was designed to aware the consumer specially children about hazards of heavy metal in candies and chocolates. Both Local and imported Candies and Chocolates samples (n=120) were collected from local shops anddepartmental stores of Lahore. Samples were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrometer for heavy metals examination in Environmental Science DepartmentLaboratory of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Concentration of lead in imported candies (n=30) and local chocolates (n=30) found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of Punjab Food Rules 2011(PFR) while imported chocolates (n=30) and local candies (n=30) were not found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of PFR 2011. The variation of nickel was not found within permissible value 0.025 mg/kg of PFA in all (n=120) imported chocolates, local chocolates, imported candies and local candies. Concentration of chromium in all types of samples (n=120) was high as compared to limit value 0.02 mg/kg of PFR 2011.
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Item type Current location Collection Call number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
Thesis Thesis UVAS Library
Thesis Section
Veterinary Science 2356-T (Browse shelf) Available 2356-T
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Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. The tracks within this line of thought are safety between industry and the market and then between the market and the consumer. In considering industry to market practices, food safety considerations include the origins of food including the practices relating to food labeling, food hygiene, food additives and guidelines for the certification systems for foods. In considering market to consumer practices, the usual thought is that food ought to be safe in the market and the concern is safe delivery and preparation of the food for the consumer.
Heavy metals are presentin sweets like candies, chocolates and gums, which are favorite food for children and pregnant women. Lead, Nickel and Chromium are major toxic heavy metals. Main source of lead exposure in children are food, air, water and soil.Accumulation of Lead in different parts of the body has adverse effects and causes many diseases.When chromium is ingested in excess amounts, it induces many toxicity symptoms in human body. At higher levels, nickel accumulates in the lungs and may cause bronchial haemorrhage. Other symptoms include nausea, weakness, dizziness, etc.
In Pakistan food safety is on the verge chaos specially there is no sufficient data available on heavy metals in confectionary products. Therefore present study was designed to aware the consumer specially children about hazards of heavy metal in candies and chocolates.
Both Local and imported Candies and Chocolates samples (n=120) were collected from local shops anddepartmental stores of Lahore. Samples were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrometer for heavy metals examination in Environmental Science DepartmentLaboratory of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
Concentration of lead in imported candies (n=30) and local chocolates (n=30) found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of Punjab Food Rules 2011(PFR) while imported chocolates (n=30) and local candies (n=30) were not found within acceptable value 0.5 mg/kg of PFR 2011. The variation of nickel was not found within permissible value 0.025 mg/kg of PFA in all (n=120) imported chocolates, local chocolates, imported candies and local candies. Concentration of chromium in all types of samples (n=120) was high as compared to limit value 0.02 mg/kg of PFR 2011.



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