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Effect Of Phytase And Probiotic Supplementation On The Morphology Of Tibia Bone And Pectoralis Muscle In Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica)

By: Asad Hannan (2014-VA-02) | Dr. Saima Masood).
Contributor(s): Dr. Hafsa Zaned | Dr. Imtiaz Rabbani.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 44p.Subject(s): Department of Anatomy and HistologyDDC classification: 2463-T Dissertation note: The uniform provision of protein to the growing human population demands development of alternative resources for meat production. Among others, the quail farming presents graceful enterprise because of its better meat quality with greater profit margin. The faster growth rate, lower generation interval and greater resistance to disease is called the quail as righteous source for meat stuff. The domesticated Japanese quail can lay up to 300 eggs a year. Quail is acknowledged for its relatively low price, the typically convenient portions and no religious restrictions over its consumption. Bone and muscle are the organs that provide the structural support to birds and serve as a source of minerals and protein. Leg bone deformities and low growth cause economic losses. Phytase and probiotics as a growth promoter in the feed have beneficial effect on performance, bone and muscle health of Japanese quail. Two hundred day old quail chicks were arranged and kept at experimental shed, ART center, UVAS, Lahore. The shed was fumigated with KMnO4 and 10% Formalin before chick’s arrival. The birds were weighed and randomly divided into four groups (I, II, III, IV) and each group contained 50 birds with five replicates (n=10). The experimental design was a complete randomized design (CRD). Birds were fed starter and finisher commercial corn-based basal diet (BD) supplemented with probiotic (Bacillus cereus) and microbial phytase with ad-libitum access to fresh water for 28 days. Group- I was served as control and fed only basal diet, Group-II was given BD + 0.01% microbial phytase. Group-III was given BD + 0.1% probiotic (Bacillus cereus), Group IV was given BD + 0.01% microbial phytase + 0.1% probiotic (Bacillus cereus). On day 28, two birds from each replicate were slaughtered by cutting the carotid arteries with subsequent exsanguination. The left and right tibia of each quail were detached as drumstick. The drumsticks were labelled and boiled in water at 1000C for ten minutes and then drumsticks were cooled at room temperature. Flesh on Summary 36 drumsticks were removed and then for 24 hours, bones were air dried at room temperature. Concerning with histology of a muscles, pectoralis muscle segments were fixed in neutral buffered formalin (10%) soon after slaughtering. Tissues were dehydrated by transferring through a series of alcohol with increasing concentrations, placed into xylene and samples were prepared and processed through paraffin embedding technique. After this time period the paraffin blocks were cut at 5 μm thickness and then stained by standard Haematoxylin and Eosin procedure. All slides were examined under light microscope supplied with camera and connected with a computer. For Histomorphometry, a commercial program was used. Different parameters which were studied include body weight gain, weight and length of tibia bone, outside diameter, medullary canal diameter, wall thickness, weight/length index, bone ash contents, pH and water holding capacity of pectoralis muscles, fiber diameter, fiber cross sectional area, fascicle diameter, fascicle cross sectional area, number of muscle fiber per unit area and number of muscle fascicle per unit area. Results showed that body weight was increased in those groups supplemented with probiotic and phytase. Weight and length of tibia bone, bone ash contents of Japanese quail supplemented with probiotic (Bacillus cereus), Phytase and in combination had significant values than that of control group. There was no significant difference among the groups regarding pH and water holding capacity observed. Fiber diameter, fiber cross sectional area, fascicle diameter, fascicle cross sectional area, number of muscle fiber per unit area and number of muscle fascicle per unit area of pectoralis muscle of Japanese quail had significant differences than that of control group. It is concluded that probiotic (Bacillus cereus), Phytase and their combination improve the body weight, morphometric characters of bone and muscles in Japanese quail.
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The uniform provision of protein to the growing human population demands development
of alternative resources for meat production. Among others, the quail farming presents graceful
enterprise because of its better meat quality with greater profit margin. The faster growth rate,
lower generation interval and greater resistance to disease is called the quail as righteous source
for meat stuff. The domesticated Japanese quail can lay up to 300 eggs a year. Quail is
acknowledged for its relatively low price, the typically convenient portions and no religious
restrictions over its consumption. Bone and muscle are the organs that provide the structural
support to birds and serve as a source of minerals and protein. Leg bone deformities and low
growth cause economic losses. Phytase and probiotics as a growth promoter in the feed have
beneficial effect on performance, bone and muscle health of Japanese quail. Two hundred day old
quail chicks were arranged and kept at experimental shed, ART center, UVAS, Lahore. The shed
was fumigated with KMnO4 and 10% Formalin before chick’s arrival. The birds were weighed
and randomly divided into four groups (I, II, III, IV) and each group contained 50 birds with five
replicates (n=10). The experimental design was a complete randomized design (CRD). Birds were
fed starter and finisher commercial corn-based basal diet (BD) supplemented with probiotic
(Bacillus cereus) and microbial phytase with ad-libitum access to fresh water for 28 days. Group-
I was served as control and fed only basal diet, Group-II was given BD + 0.01% microbial phytase.
Group-III was given BD + 0.1% probiotic (Bacillus cereus), Group IV was given BD + 0.01%
microbial phytase + 0.1% probiotic (Bacillus cereus). On day 28, two birds from each replicate
were slaughtered by cutting the carotid arteries with subsequent exsanguination. The left and right
tibia of each quail were detached as drumstick. The drumsticks were labelled and boiled in water
at 1000C for ten minutes and then drumsticks were cooled at room temperature. Flesh on
Summary
36
drumsticks were removed and then for 24 hours, bones were air dried at room temperature.
Concerning with histology of a muscles, pectoralis muscle segments were fixed in neutral buffered
formalin (10%) soon after slaughtering. Tissues were dehydrated by transferring through a series
of alcohol with increasing concentrations, placed into xylene and samples were prepared and
processed through paraffin embedding technique. After this time period the paraffin blocks were
cut at 5 μm thickness and then stained by standard Haematoxylin and Eosin procedure. All slides
were examined under light microscope supplied with camera and connected with a computer. For
Histomorphometry, a commercial program was used. Different parameters which were studied
include body weight gain, weight and length of tibia bone, outside diameter, medullary canal
diameter, wall thickness, weight/length index, bone ash contents, pH and water holding capacity
of pectoralis muscles, fiber diameter, fiber cross sectional area, fascicle diameter, fascicle cross
sectional area, number of muscle fiber per unit area and number of muscle fascicle per unit area.
Results showed that body weight was increased in those groups supplemented with probiotic and
phytase. Weight and length of tibia bone, bone ash contents of Japanese quail supplemented with
probiotic (Bacillus cereus), Phytase and in combination had significant values than that of control
group. There was no significant difference among the groups regarding pH and water holding
capacity observed. Fiber diameter, fiber cross sectional area, fascicle diameter, fascicle cross
sectional area, number of muscle fiber per unit area and number of muscle fascicle per unit area of
pectoralis muscle of Japanese quail had significant differences than that of control group. It is
concluded that probiotic (Bacillus cereus), Phytase and their combination improve the body
weight, morphometric characters of bone and muscles in Japanese quail.

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