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Occurrence And Economic Losses From Theileriosis On Commercial Dairy Farm Of Holstein Friesian

By: Muhammad Rashid (2014-VA-503) | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Khalid Saeed | Dr. Liaquat Ahmad.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 64p.Subject(s): Department of ParasitologyDDC classification: 2515-T Dissertation note: Background: Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease and it is transmitted by the bite of ticks. Previous work on disease problems in the study area suggested that Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases (TTBDs) are the major constraints to cattle production. They cause economic losses to farmers in terms of cattle mortality, loss of body weight, loss of milk production and costs of control of TTBDs by use of acaricides. Theileria is one of the major threat to cattle as it causes anemia, weight loss, decrease production, mortality, treatment cost and cost for the control of theileria. The proper data for losses atributed to theileriosis is still not available in Pakistan. For this purpose a study was carried out in a commercial exotic dairy farm to evaluate losses associated with theileriosis Methodology: The study was done during the period of theileriosis to calculate its economic effect on animal health and production. A total of 150 animals were selected randomly using random number sample formula. The animal tag numbers were compared with random number table, comparing animals were slecteded for study. Thin blood smear was performed for diagnosis haemoparasite, further PCR was performed on those animals that were found +ve for intraerythrocytic bodies. Faecal examination, California mastitis test, teat abnormality and parturition history were recorded for the screening of these factors that decrease milk production. After final grouping, milk production was recorded to identify the effect of theileriosis on production. As theileriosis cause anemia due to destruction of RBC’s. body condition scoring was also performed. Physical examination (lymph node and body temperature) of animals were also performed to evaluate the clinical and subclinical theileriosis. Results: For the evaluation of theileriosis, microscopy was performed on all the animals’ blood samples. Haemoparasites were found in 28.67%. These were further processed by PCR for the CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY Summary 55 detection of theileriosis. Theileria was found in 27.90%. Screening of clinical and subclinical mastitis by Califirnia Mastitis Test and microscopy for gastrointestinal parasite were performed. On faecal examination, there found nematode, cestode and balantidium in 51.72%, 60.92% and 42.53%% respectively. After deworming with Valbazine and curafluke, nematode, cestode (monzia), balantidium and coccidiosis were found in 0%, 39.13, 43.48% and 4.35% respectively. Before grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were found in 5.38% and 24.62% respectively. After grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were evaluated by California mastitis test with two weeks interval. At 7th week clinical and subclinical mastitis were 3.85% and 7.69% due to improved management. The decrease in milk production for clinical and subclinical theileriosis was 87 lit./animal and 42.77 lit./animal. Costs for control, treatment and mortality were 0.12%, 0.20% and 13.09% respectively from overall farm expenditure. The prevalence of haemoparasite was 28.67%, while the prevalence of theileriosis was 8%. The new cases of theileriosis were recorded and incidence of theileriosis was found to be 2.25%. Overall losses due to theileriosis was 13.70%. Outcomes: We can conclude from our finding that theileriosis has drastic affect on the profitability of the farms. Then losses can be attributed to decreased milk production and mortality. Medications and control measure for theileriosis have added effect on the losses at exotic animal breed dairy farms. Perspectives: Cost analysis studies need to be done on different dairy farms of cattle of different breeds at different ecological/climatic zones of Pakistan so that investors would know the risks of establishing dairy farms.
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Background: Theileriosis is a tick-borne disease and it is transmitted by the bite of ticks.
Previous work on disease problems in the study area suggested that Ticks and Tick-Borne
Diseases (TTBDs) are the major constraints to cattle production. They cause economic losses to
farmers in terms of cattle mortality, loss of body weight, loss of milk production and costs of
control of TTBDs by use of acaricides. Theileria is one of the major threat to cattle as it causes
anemia, weight loss, decrease production, mortality, treatment cost and cost for the control of
theileria. The proper data for losses atributed to theileriosis is still not available in Pakistan. For
this purpose a study was carried out in a commercial exotic dairy farm to evaluate losses
associated with theileriosis
Methodology: The study was done during the period of theileriosis to calculate its economic
effect on animal health and production. A total of 150 animals were selected randomly using
random number sample formula. The animal tag numbers were compared with random number
table, comparing animals were slecteded for study. Thin blood smear was performed for
diagnosis haemoparasite, further PCR was performed on those animals that were found +ve for
intraerythrocytic bodies. Faecal examination, California mastitis test, teat abnormality and
parturition history were recorded for the screening of these factors that decrease milk production.
After final grouping, milk production was recorded to identify the effect of theileriosis on
production. As theileriosis cause anemia due to destruction of RBC’s. body condition scoring
was also performed. Physical examination (lymph node and body temperature) of animals were
also performed to evaluate the clinical and subclinical theileriosis.
Results: For the evaluation of theileriosis, microscopy was performed on all the animals’ blood
samples. Haemoparasites were found in 28.67%. These were further processed by PCR for the
CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY
Summary
55
detection of theileriosis. Theileria was found in 27.90%. Screening of clinical and subclinical
mastitis by Califirnia Mastitis Test and microscopy for gastrointestinal parasite were performed.
On faecal examination, there found nematode, cestode and balantidium in 51.72%, 60.92% and
42.53%% respectively. After deworming with Valbazine and curafluke, nematode, cestode
(monzia), balantidium and coccidiosis were found in 0%, 39.13, 43.48% and 4.35% respectively.
Before grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were found in 5.38% and 24.62% respectively.
After grouping clinical and subclinical mastitis were evaluated by California mastitis test with
two weeks interval. At 7th week clinical and subclinical mastitis were 3.85% and 7.69% due to
improved management. The decrease in milk production for clinical and subclinical theileriosis
was 87 lit./animal and 42.77 lit./animal. Costs for control, treatment and mortality were 0.12%,
0.20% and 13.09% respectively from overall farm expenditure. The prevalence of haemoparasite
was 28.67%, while the prevalence of theileriosis was 8%. The new cases of theileriosis were
recorded and incidence of theileriosis was found to be 2.25%. Overall losses due to theileriosis
was 13.70%.
Outcomes: We can conclude from our finding that theileriosis has drastic affect on the
profitability of the farms. Then losses can be attributed to decreased milk production and
mortality. Medications and control measure for theileriosis have added effect on the losses at
exotic animal breed dairy farms.
Perspectives: Cost analysis studies need to be done on different dairy farms of cattle of different
breeds at different ecological/climatic zones of Pakistan so that investors would know the risks
of establishing dairy farms.

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