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Detection of Antibodies For Mycobacterium Avium Sub-Specie Paratuberculosis in Sheep Population Along With Its Associated Risk Factors in District Rahim Yar Khan

By: Muhammad Arif Rizwan (2014-VA-228) | Dr. Waseem Yaqub.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Dr. Arfan Ahmad.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 36p.Subject(s): Clinical Medicine | CMS | Clinical medicine and surgeryDDC classification: 2519-T Dissertation note: Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants. The disease manifest itself in sense of trade restrictions production losses. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is manifested by an incubation period of several years. During subclinical stage of infection, paratuberculosis pass out in feces through which the disease get approaches to other animals in herd. It is also shed in the milk of infected animal, cannot be killed even on pasteurization and in human beings cause a disease (Crohn's disease). Johne’s disease is somewhat difficult to detect in animals having sub clinical infection. Moreover, the animals in the early stages of infection is often has an immune response that is detectable by ELISA which is not elicited by the animal in time. ELISA is affordable, efficient, one-step and in sheep and goats is very sensitive for the detection of antibodies. So, keeping in mind the economic and public health importance of this disease, present study was formulated with the purpose to detect the MAP in sheep in district in Rahim Yar Khan. 5 ml blood samples, total 100 (n=100 sheep) blood sample out of which 50 animals were selected on the basis of clinical signs (shooting diarrhea, decrease in milk production and weight loss in spite of good appetite) and 50 animals were selected from the surrounding exhibiting no clinical signs but on suspicion of being carrier from local animal markets, different slaughtering site of animals and in periphery of District, RahimYar Khan. The data regarding all the animals was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. Serum was separated by centrifugation and was stored in deep freezer having temperature (-400 C) until analyzed by indirect ELISA through commercial ELISA, Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Paratuberculosis Screening) and results was recorded through ELISA reader. The ELISA positive serum samples was processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis. Sero-detection of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium sub-specie paratuberculosis (MAP) was estimated based on indirect ELISA results. In present study the overall prevalence in sheep for mycobacterium avium sub specie paratuberculosis in district Rahim Yar Khan in different marketed and slaughtering animals irrespective of breed age and sex. When the serum samples of the suspected sheep were subjected to the serum biochemistry for analysis of total proteins in the body of sheep, it was overall decrease in the serum proteins of the sheep (p<0.05) which were infected with MAP while using the paired t-test statistics. On the other hand, it was found 92% malnutrition, 77% poor sanitation, 85% combine housing, 87% open grazing and 29% tick infestation they may act as a source of infection for spreading of paratuberculosis. Sheep than goats is high in the prevalence of the MAP. There is no doubt that Johne’s disease infected herds may suffer severely. However, as a whole, the economic loss to the sheep industry is of questionable significance. Johne's disease is zoonotic potential threat that it represents as a problem. The sheep industry is in an exceptional position, given its low incidence or occurrence of paratuberculosis to set in motion a strategy to confine or control the spread of malady. The national control of MAP will be a huge undertaking because of subtle nature of this disease and relatively poor performance of tests that are currently available. It is necessary to develop specific best management practices in the sheep industry, taking into account the biology and ecology of the disease. The implementation of the program against Johne's disease is an important proactive step.However, MAP has struck the sheep industry for many years and will probably continue to remain a major challenge for the foreseeable future.
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Johne’s disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, is a chronic enteric disease of ruminants. The disease manifest itself in sense of trade restrictions production losses. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis(MAP) is manifested by an incubation period of several years. During subclinical stage of infection, paratuberculosis pass out in feces through which the disease get approaches to other animals in herd. It is also shed in the milk of infected animal, cannot be killed even on pasteurization and in human beings cause a disease (Crohn's disease). Johne’s disease is somewhat difficult to detect in animals having sub clinical infection.
Moreover, the animals in the early stages of infection is often has an immune response that is detectable by ELISA which is not elicited by the animal in time. ELISA is affordable, efficient, one-step and in sheep and goats is very sensitive for the detection of antibodies. So, keeping in mind the economic and public health importance of this disease, present study was formulated with the purpose to detect the MAP in sheep in district in Rahim Yar Khan.
5 ml blood samples, total 100 (n=100 sheep) blood sample out of which 50 animals were selected on the basis of clinical signs (shooting diarrhea, decrease in milk production and weight loss in spite of good appetite) and 50 animals were selected from the surrounding exhibiting no clinical signs but on suspicion of being carrier from local animal markets, different slaughtering site of animals and in periphery of District, RahimYar Khan. The data regarding all the animals was collected on a predesigned questionnaire. Serum was separated by centrifugation and was stored in deep freezer having temperature (-400 C) until analyzed by indirect ELISA through commercial ELISA, Mycobacterium Paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit (IDEXX Paratuberculosis Screening) and results was recorded through ELISA reader. The ELISA positive serum samples was processed further for the estimation of serum protein analysis. Sero-detection of antibodies for Mycobacterium avium sub-specie paratuberculosis (MAP) was estimated based on indirect ELISA results.
In present study the overall prevalence in sheep for mycobacterium avium sub specie paratuberculosis in district Rahim Yar Khan in different marketed and slaughtering animals irrespective of breed age and sex. When the serum samples of the suspected sheep were subjected to the serum biochemistry for analysis of total proteins in the body of sheep, it was overall decrease in the serum proteins of the sheep (p<0.05) which were infected with MAP while using the paired t-test statistics. On the other hand, it was found 92% malnutrition, 77% poor sanitation, 85% combine housing, 87% open grazing and 29% tick infestation they may act as a source of infection for spreading of paratuberculosis.
Sheep than goats is high in the prevalence of the MAP. There is no doubt that Johne’s disease infected herds may suffer severely. However, as a whole, the economic loss to the sheep industry is of questionable significance. Johne's disease is zoonotic potential threat that it represents as a problem. The sheep industry is in an exceptional position, given its low incidence or occurrence of paratuberculosis to set in motion a strategy to confine or control the spread of malady. The national control of MAP will be a huge undertaking because of subtle nature of this disease and relatively poor performance of tests that are currently available.
It is necessary to develop specific best management practices in the sheep industry, taking into account the biology and ecology of the disease. The implementation of the program against Johne's disease is an important proactive step.However, MAP has struck the sheep industry for many years and will probably continue to remain a major challenge for the foreseeable future.

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