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Seroprevalence Of Brucellosis In Ruminants At Sale And Purchase Markets And Abattoirs In Three Selected Districts Of Punjab, Pakistan

By: Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-301) | Dr. Iahtasham Khan.
Contributor(s): Prof. Dr. Muhammad Younus | Dr. Syed Ehtisham-ul-Haque.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 38p.Subject(s): Epidemiology and Public HealthDDC classification: 2556-T Dissertation note: This is a representative study from Pakistan accompanied in three districts of Punjab i.e. Jhang, Layyah and Toba Tek Singh which are rich in livestock population. There is a lot of research work on livestock farms but the sale and purchase markets and abattoirs are neglected. Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock contribute a major share to agriculture in Pakistan GDP and its economy. Sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes contribute in the economy of Pakistani people by milk and meat production on majority basis. Livestock contribution to the agriculture value added is 56.3%, while it contributes 11.9% to the national GDP during 2014-15. More than 8.0 million rural families of the country are involved in raising livestock. But productivity of livestock is questioned by a lot of factors. Infectious zoonotic diseases are among these. Brucellosis is one of the major and unreported problem amongst livestock markets and abattoirs of our country. It results in losses to the economics of the farmers or owners in terms of poor health, abortions, long calving interval, production of weak offsprings and deprived quality of milk and meat. This disease is under investigated and hence people are unaware of this deceptive problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheaper tool to diagnose this problem. Determination of the seroprevalence is important to know the load of disease and pockets of infections in the area of Punjab, Pakistan. There is also a need to know which diagnostic antigen is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and control point of view. A total of 300 animals serum samples were collected from three districts of the Punjab province and tested by conventional screening test i.e. Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT) by using two antigens of different countries origin i.e. VRI (Lahore, Pakistan), IDEXX (Pourquier, France) and ID.vet, France and then tested with indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The data thus obtained regarding seroprevalence was analyzed using Chi-square SPSS version -19 (Nahar et al. 2009). Of the total 300 animals (77 male and 223 female), 1.3% male and 35.66% female were seropositive for anti-Brucella antibodies. Different risk factors were also included in study like sex, area, age, gender, abortion, reproductive problems and also history of orchitis in male. All of these risk factors were statistically analyzed to reveal the truth about ruminants brucellosis. Among the various risk factors studied, the risk factors including history of abortion (16.44%), orchitis (1.3%), retained placenta (26.47%), species cattle (35.55%) and in Toba Tek Singh (47.36%) were statistically significant which could be potential source of threat for humans and other animals. The testing was performed using conventional methods as well as using iELISA. It is concluded that iELISA is more sensitive and specific than conventional screening tests but molecular diagnosis is highly recommended for future studies. The current study will help to minimize and eradicate the low prevalence of ruminants brucellosis by creating awareness between the farmers and through vaccination and herd immunization. By implementing the policy of testing and culling of positive reactors will be pivotal to achieve the objectives. For confirmatory diagnosis all the sera were further tested with iELISA. For this purpose an exclusive commercially available iELISA Kit (ID.vet, France) was used which would be able to differentiate anti-Brucella antibodies of B. abortus and B. melitensis and this iELISA kit would be able to be used for multispecies including cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats.
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This is a representative study from Pakistan accompanied in three districts of
Punjab i.e. Jhang, Layyah and Toba Tek Singh which are rich in livestock population.
There is a lot of research work on livestock farms but the sale and purchase markets and
abattoirs are neglected. Pakistan is an agricultural country and livestock contribute a major
share to agriculture in Pakistan GDP and its economy. Sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes
contribute in the economy of Pakistani people by milk and meat production on majority
basis. Livestock contribution to the agriculture value added is 56.3%, while it contributes
11.9% to the national GDP during 2014-15. More than 8.0 million rural families of the
country are involved in raising livestock. But productivity of livestock is questioned by a
lot of factors. Infectious zoonotic diseases are among these.
Brucellosis is one of the major and unreported problem amongst livestock markets
and abattoirs of our country. It results in losses to the economics of the farmers or owners
in terms of poor health, abortions, long calving interval, production of weak offsprings and
deprived quality of milk and meat. This disease is under investigated and hence people are
unaware of this deceptive problem. Serological surveillance is a good and cheaper tool to
diagnose this problem. Determination of the seroprevalence is important to know the load
of disease and pockets of infections in the area of Punjab, Pakistan. There is also a need to
know which diagnostic antigen is more sensitive and specific from disease eradication and
control point of view.
A total of 300 animals serum samples were collected from three districts of the
Punjab province and tested by conventional screening test i.e. Rose Bengal Plate
Agglutination Test (RBPT) by using two antigens of different countries origin i.e. VRI
(Lahore, Pakistan), IDEXX (Pourquier, France) and ID.vet, France and then tested with
indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA). The data thus obtained regarding
seroprevalence was analyzed using Chi-square SPSS version -19 (Nahar et al. 2009).
Of the total 300 animals (77 male and 223 female), 1.3% male and 35.66% female
were seropositive for anti-Brucella antibodies. Different risk factors were also included in
study like sex, area, age, gender, abortion, reproductive problems and also history of orchitis
in male. All of these risk factors were statistically analyzed to reveal the truth about ruminants
brucellosis. Among the various risk factors studied, the risk factors including history of
abortion (16.44%), orchitis (1.3%), retained placenta (26.47%), species cattle (35.55%) and in
Toba Tek Singh (47.36%) were statistically significant which could be potential source of
threat for humans and other animals. The testing was performed using conventional methods
as well as using iELISA. It is concluded that iELISA is more sensitive and specific than
conventional screening tests but molecular diagnosis is highly recommended for future
studies. The current study will help to minimize and eradicate the low prevalence of ruminants
brucellosis by creating awareness between the farmers and through vaccination and herd
immunization. By implementing the policy of testing and culling of positive reactors will be
pivotal to achieve the objectives.
For confirmatory diagnosis all the sera were further tested with iELISA. For this
purpose an exclusive commercially available iELISA Kit (ID.vet, France) was used which
would be able to differentiate anti-Brucella antibodies of B. abortus and B. melitensis and this
iELISA kit would be able to be used for multispecies including cattle, buffaloes, sheep and
goats.

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