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Determination Of Heavy Metals In Milk, Feed And Water Samples From Selected Districts Of Punjab

By: Sadaf Afzal (2009-VA-508) | Dr. Sanaullah Iqbal.
Contributor(s): Dr. Azmatullah Khan | Dr. Saif-ur-Rehman Kashif.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: 2016Description: 61p.Subject(s): Food Safety and ControlDDC classification: 2632-T Dissertation note: Food safety is concerned mainly with the availability of safe food to every person. Quality and safety are related with one another. Food quality and hygienic issues are emerging day by day. Consumers in this era are more concerned with what they eat. Healthy and safe food is obtained by observing general hygienic conditions. Major issues emerging in food safety are related to its quality. Food borne diseases increased due to unhealthy or unsafe food. Some diseases directly affect the human health like in food poisoning it causes vomiting, diarrhea etc. Concentration of some hazardous elements increases after consumption of such food. These require a certain amount to onset the disease or may prove fetal if reported in elevated levels. Heavy metals are elements which when increased in concentration prove fetal. They accumulate as bio elements and mostly found as non-degradable elements. These elements enter to food chain via numerous ways. Food safety issues regarding heavy metals are emerging in many foods. In milk these comes through feed and water which animals consume. Feed and water contamination occurs in many ways like from waste water, from industrial effluents, from chemicals to enhance fertility of soils. In this study five heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Mn were determined in feed, milk and water samples collected from four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. In every area from 20 different Summary 55 locations 20 samples of each milk, feed and water were collected. Analyses reveal that all the selected areas are highly positive with respect to feed and water samples. Sheikhupura city was selected from Sheikhupura district and it was observed that feed samples collected from this area are highly positive with respect to above stated metals. Highest mean was observed for Mn (48.7ppm) followed by Zn (20.4ppm), Cr (3.01ppm), Cu (1.95ppm) and Pb (1.67ppm). Second highest mean is observed in Pindibhtaian city from district Hafizabad in the following sequence Mn (14.6ppm) > Zn (7.68ppm) > Cu (1.69ppm). Pb and Cr were found with same level 0.77 ppm. Barqi area from Lahore district and Pattoki city from Kasoor district were also selected. Barqi area was found high for Mn (10.3ppm) followed by Cr (1.66ppm) and Pb (0.67ppm) while Pattoki city was found high for Zn (6.85ppm) and Cu (1.65ppm). Milk samples were also collected along with feed samples and found positive with respect to subjected heavy metals. Highest mean was found for Mn (11.7ppm) in Sheikhupura city followed by Zn (7.55ppm) in Pindibhtaian city, Pb (3.48ppm) in Barqi area, Cu (0.80ppm) and Cr (0.72ppm) in Pindibhtaian city. Water samples collected shows different results as compared to milk and feed samples. In water samples highest mean were observed for Mn (0.18 ppm) followed by Pb (0.05ppm) and Cr (0.04ppm) in Pindibhtaian city, Cu (0.01ppm) in Barqi area, Zn (0.00ppm) in all selected areas. All of the selected areas were found significantly different as p value is less than 0.00. Also the samples collected in these areas were significantly different from one another as the same trend was not observed among feed, milk and water samples. The results reveal that high concentration of metals in feed also results in increase concentration in milk. High levels in feed reveal that soil used for irrigation purpose has high Summary 56 level of these elements. Very less contamination found in water samples as water sources are from ground pumps. Future Perspective  There is a strong need to conduct awareness trainings regarding the potential sources for heavy metals contamination. Systems should be mobilized on industrial level to lower the waste water by water treatments methods. Measures must be taken to train the farmers regarding the use of fertilizers and possible hazardous effects of them if used in excess amount.  Dairy is one of the most flourishing industries of Pakistan. People prefer to consume raw milk but now they also develop the habit to consume processed milk products. Healthy farming is very essential in the development of this industry. Farmers should place their animals at such areas where chances of industrial contamination are less. They should also aware about the adulteration or adulterants and their disaster effects on human health.  All these measures when taken properly will put the possible risks to minimum level and their effects on human health will be minimized.
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Food safety is concerned mainly with the availability of safe food to every person. Quality and safety are related with one another. Food quality and hygienic issues are emerging day by day. Consumers in this era are more concerned with what they eat. Healthy and safe food is obtained by observing general hygienic conditions.
Major issues emerging in food safety are related to its quality. Food borne diseases increased due to unhealthy or unsafe food. Some diseases directly affect the human health like in food poisoning it causes vomiting, diarrhea etc. Concentration of some hazardous elements increases after consumption of such food. These require a certain amount to onset the disease or may prove fetal if reported in elevated levels.
Heavy metals are elements which when increased in concentration prove fetal. They accumulate as bio elements and mostly found as non-degradable elements. These elements enter to food chain via numerous ways.
Food safety issues regarding heavy metals are emerging in many foods. In milk these comes through feed and water which animals consume. Feed and water contamination occurs in many ways like from waste water, from industrial effluents, from chemicals to enhance fertility of soils.
In this study five heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu and Mn were determined in feed, milk and water samples collected from four districts of Punjab, Pakistan. In every area from 20 different
Summary
55
locations 20 samples of each milk, feed and water were collected. Analyses reveal that all the selected areas are highly positive with respect to feed and water samples. Sheikhupura city was selected from Sheikhupura district and it was observed that feed samples collected from this area are highly positive with respect to above stated metals. Highest mean was observed for Mn (48.7ppm) followed by Zn (20.4ppm), Cr (3.01ppm), Cu (1.95ppm) and Pb (1.67ppm). Second highest mean is observed in Pindibhtaian city from district Hafizabad in the following sequence Mn (14.6ppm) > Zn (7.68ppm) > Cu (1.69ppm). Pb and Cr were found with same level 0.77 ppm. Barqi area from Lahore district and Pattoki city from Kasoor district were also selected. Barqi area was found high for Mn (10.3ppm) followed by Cr (1.66ppm) and Pb (0.67ppm) while Pattoki city was found high for Zn (6.85ppm) and Cu (1.65ppm).
Milk samples were also collected along with feed samples and found positive with respect to subjected heavy metals. Highest mean was found for Mn (11.7ppm) in Sheikhupura city followed by Zn (7.55ppm) in Pindibhtaian city, Pb (3.48ppm) in Barqi area, Cu (0.80ppm) and Cr (0.72ppm) in Pindibhtaian city.
Water samples collected shows different results as compared to milk and feed samples. In water samples highest mean were observed for Mn (0.18 ppm) followed by Pb (0.05ppm) and Cr (0.04ppm) in Pindibhtaian city, Cu (0.01ppm) in Barqi area, Zn (0.00ppm) in all selected areas.
All of the selected areas were found significantly different as p value is less than 0.00. Also the samples collected in these areas were significantly different from one another as the same trend was not observed among feed, milk and water samples.
The results reveal that high concentration of metals in feed also results in increase concentration in milk. High levels in feed reveal that soil used for irrigation purpose has high
Summary
56
level of these elements. Very less contamination found in water samples as water sources are from ground pumps.
Future Perspective
 There is a strong need to conduct awareness trainings regarding the potential sources for heavy metals contamination. Systems should be mobilized on industrial level to lower the waste water by water treatments methods. Measures must be taken to train the farmers regarding the use of fertilizers and possible hazardous effects of them if used in excess amount.
 Dairy is one of the most flourishing industries of Pakistan. People prefer to consume raw milk but now they also develop the habit to consume processed milk products. Healthy farming is very essential in the development of this industry. Farmers should place their animals at such areas where chances of industrial contamination are less. They should also aware about the adulteration or adulterants and their disaster effects on human health.
 All these measures when taken properly will put the possible risks to minimum level and their effects on human health will be minimized.

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