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1. To Study Influence Of Butyric Acid On The Performance Of Broiler Chicks

by Asiya Akbar | Dr.Abu Saeed Hashmi | Miss Shagufta Saeed | Prof.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Poultry have been on the earth for over 150 million years, dating back to the original wild jungle fowl. Poultry provide humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat and feathers. There is a large commercial chicken industry that provides us with eggs and meat. Because poultry products are in demand around the world and because chickens and other poultry can be reared in almost any part of the world, a renewed interest in poultry projects for schools, 4-H groups and in the home has developed. The butyric acid is an excellent growth promoter as it is an efficient nutrient for the intestinal mucosa increasing the density and length of villi, enlarging the adsorption surface of the intestine. It is also known as antibacterial agent against pathogenic microorganisms including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Brachyspira etc. and as modulator of the intestinal flora supporting useful microorganisms such as lactobacilli. Rice polishings was used as a substrate for the production of butyric acid and corn steep liquor as additive. Solid state anaerobic fermentation process was used for butyric acid production through C. tyrobutyricum according to the predetermined optimized conditions. Estimation of butyric acid was carried out by organic analysis method by Deniges (1918).This method is based on the catalytic oxidation of butyric acid into diacetic acid ,which gives red coloration with sodium nitroprusside. Effect of butyric acid on the performance of Broiler chicks was studied by conducting feeding trial on 132 day old broiler chicks purchased from commercial hatchery and was randomly subdivided into 12 units, 11 chicks each. Four diets "A", "B", "C" and "D" (table) were constructed whose composition is as follow. "A" diet was served as control, while the "B", "C" and "D" diets were supplemented with 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6 % butyric acid respectively. These diets were randomly assigned to the above chicks for a period of 42 days as feeding trial. The performance of birds was monitored in terms of weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency and dressing percentage. From the results obtained it is concluded that O.4 % butyric acid gave maximum gain in weight, feed efficiency ratio and dressing percentage. Hence it can be stated profoundly that the ration containing 0.4 % butyric acid has stimulated the gastric secretions which ultimately had improved the performance of broiler chicks. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1251,T] (1).

2. Production Of Methane Gas From Effluent Of A.B Murie By Methanobacterium Ruminantium

by Huma Shabbir | Dr.Abu Saeed Hashmi | Miss Saeeda | Miss Shagufta Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: There is extreme shortage of energy in our country. Homes, private sectors and industries are suffering a lot due to this shortage. There are different sources of energy like fossil fuels which include coal, petroleum and natural gas etc. Apart from it there are number of renewable sources but fact is that all these sources are getting diminished because of excessive use due to growing population of the world. In order to increase energy in our country it is imperative to utilize the industrial waste. At present a lot of industrial effluent is being wasted which can be used for the production of fuel in the form of methane gas. The production of methane was carried out by anaerobic fermentation by Methanobacterium ruminantium culturing on Effluent of A.B Murie. Before its production the proximate analysis of effluent was carried out to know its inherent nutritional potential. The fermented organism Methanobacterium ruminantium was isolated from feces of buffalo bull. The optimizing conditions of growth medium such as temperature, pH, ionic concentration of growth medium (Ca+2, Mg+2) and Carbon-Nitrogen ratio in the medium, for maximum methane production was determined on micro scale. Detection and estimation of methane was carried out by burning and by measuring pressure on pressure gauge. The optimum conditions thus determined on micro scale was applied on higher scale in a 3 liter flask. The pressure of methane gas obtained was 1.3 psi. It is therefore concluded that effluent of A.B Murie contain sufficient potential of methane production. The methane thus produced can be used as a fuel and light source for their own use. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1285,T] (1).

3. Estimation Of Heavy Metals In The Drinking Water Of Residential/Industrial Areas Of Lahore By Atomic Absorption

by Waheed Ahmad | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Sualeha | Miss Shagufta Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: Heavy metals are chemical elements with a specific gravity that is at least 5 times the specific gravity of water. The elements studied were mercury, lead, arsenic, cadmium and chromium. Heavy metals have no useful biological function in the body but might be highly toxic as they cause precipitation of proteins especially the enzymes. This investigation was therefore carried out to estimate concentration of these metals and their influence on biological system. For this purpose drinking water samples were collected in one litre polyethylene bottles adding 5 mL of concentrated HNO3 as preservative to adjust the PH<2.00 to maintain heavy metal concentrations during analysis. Samples were marked with unique numbers with dates for the study of Acid Extractable metals. Similarly samples were prepared and preserved for micro biological testing. The metallic ions were estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer of Perking Elmer Model A. Analyst; 2003 at recommended wavelengths for metal ion. Acetylene gas was used as fuel (at 8 psi) and air as an oxidizer. Statistical analysis was done. The calibration curves were prepared separately for all the metals by running suitable concentrations of the standard solutions. It was evident that concentration of chromium, lead, mercury, arsenic and cadmium were high in several drinking water sources in Lahore. This problem is particularly alarming for ground water sources. Almost all water sources are contaminated with lead. According to WHO maximum acceptable limit 10 ppb ,8 water sources had mean chromium concentration in water samples above maximum acceptable limit of WHO (50 ppb), 94 water samples were contaminated with cadmium according to WHO maximum acceptable limit (10 ppb), 13 water sources had arsenic concentration above maximum acceptable limit according to WHO (50 ppb) where as 7 water samples were having concentration of arsenic less than minimum acceptable limit according to WHO (10 ppb) and only 5 water sources meet the criteria of WHO for concentration of mercury, the acceptable limit of 2 ppb. Multitube Fermentation Technique/MPN Method as described by Mackie & McCartney was used for microbiological analysis i.e. Colifcrm bacteria. The results of this study revealed that both samples i.e. tap and ground water do not show conformity with the standards for safe portable water recommended by WHO. The most frequently encountered pathogen in this study was Escherichia Coli which was isolated more in ground water than tap water. It is therefore concluded that by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer concentration of heavy metals in water can be determined and thus on the bases of this work precautionary measures can be taken to prevent the health hazards of these toxic metals. Similarly microbiological analysis of drinking water has provided the evidence that most of the water sources are contaminated with microbes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1170,T] (1).



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