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1. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Anaplasmosis In Clinically Affected Small Ruminants Of Distric Lahore.

by Akhtar Ali | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani | Prof. Dr. Azhar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1610,T] (1).

2. An Insight Into Mutational Analysis Of B-Cell Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Gene And Its Involvement In Pets Cancer

by Asma Irshad | Dr. Muhammad Wasim | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Ms. Shagufta Saeed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: There are various type of tumors associated with dog (Canis familiaris) and cat (Feline catus) which are responsible for death of these pets. Bcl-2 proto-oncogene was firstly depicted as of the t(14;18) trans-location cut-off point inside human follicular B-cell lymphoma. The Bcl-2 protein is a core control device of planed cell death as well as is concerned within DNA transformation, cell-cycle and differentiation control. Bcl-2 expression within endothelial cells was described en route for enhance cancer metastasis. Mammary gland tumors are the mainly frequent neo-plasms happening into feminine dogs and cats and are malevolent inside more or less 50% of the cases. Bcl-2 expression is not merely interrelated through an enhanced expression but as well by means of an abridged aptitude on behalf of far-away immigration of mammary gland cancer cells. Metastasis to tissues like skin, nasal passage and oral cavity has also been reported in 5-6.9 percent of cases. Various parameters, used in the present study were aimed to analyze coding regions of Bcl-2gene to study the mutations involved in cancers. Blood samples of unrelated true representative of cancers were collected from Pet center, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. DNA was extracted with the standard protocol and amplification of the Bcl-2 gene was done with specially designed primers. Later on, analysis of the results was done by sequencing of amplicons. Sequences were analyzed through BioEdit software and then aligned with reference sequence using clustalW2 software. In the present study, analysis of mutations was done in Bcl-2gene isolated from Canis familiaris and Feline catus. But not a single nucleotide polymorphism was found in exon 1 and 2 of Bcl-2 gene isolated from blood of affected animals with different cancer types. In the conclusion, we report that no mutations were observed in the Bcl-2 gene isolated from different affected pets. It may be due to limited number of samples and/or require extraction of DNA from tumor tissue. There is a need to explore the other gene mutations causing cancers in population of pets that will ultimately help to develop genetic counseling strategies, gene therapies and prenatal diagnostic procedures for the population of Pets. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1612,T] (1).

3. Molecular Study Of Apolipoprotein E Gene In Hypercholesterolemic Families

by Nasir Ali | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Dr. Asif Nadeem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1630,T] (1).

4. Preservation And Developemental Study Of Bloody Fingerprints From Buried Substrates At The Crime Scene

by Shahid yousaf | Mr. Muhammad Akhtar Ali | Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Tahir | Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1751,T] (1).

5. Recovery Of Latent Finger Prints From Materials Immersed Om Aqiatic Environment: The Under Water Crime Scene Investigation

by Tahir Ismail | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Imran.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Finger prints evidence is regarded as the best means of personal identification. It can also distinguish between identical twins. The type of finger prints invisible to the naked eye is known as latent finger prints. Recovery of latent finger prints from materials depends on a number of factors such as type of material, environmental conditions and duration of exposure. Water comprises about 71% of the earth. As the number of people visiting water ways (rivers, canals, streams etc.) is increasing, the incident rate of crimes has been found to rise at these places. Moreover, criminals find it convenient to dispose of weapons and evidences in the water ways. Forensic science consists of a variety of techniques that are applied in order to answer the questions of interest to legal system. Cyanoacrylate fuming and dusting powder methods are used for the development of latent finger prints from materials immersed in aquatic environment. By examining the characteristics of latent finger prints, on materials thrown in to water, the forensic scientist may positively identify the perpetrator. This research activity was conducted to evaluate the effect of type of material, immersion medium and time length of immersion in aquatic environment, in a realistic setting, using materials that closely resemble the common evidences. The materials comprised stainless steel knives, aluminum foils, used brass cartridges, soft drink plastic bottles and glass slides. For every material, sample size was kept 196. The samples were labeled with permanent identification numbers. After deposition of finger prints by volunteers, the materials were placed in the tubs of immersion media, one tub for each type of material. Maximum immersion time was 35 days. 21 samples of each material were taken out of water at day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35. The taken out 21 samples and 7 controls were processed for latent finger prints development, with cyanoacrylate fuming and dusting powder methods. Cyanoacrylate fuming was performed in a zip lock transparent polythene bag. A china dish covered with aluminum foil and having NaOH treated cotton balls was introduced in the fuming chamber. Samples, controls and a beaker of hot water were also placed. Cyanoacrylate (ELFYTM) drops were put over the cotton balls and zip was closed immediately. The controls were observed for optimum development of latent finger prints. After development, each finger print was lifted using tape lifter, placed on a white finger print card and examined with the help of a magnifying glass. The finger prints were assessed using a scoring system, based on the visibility of finger prints, as adopted in various published studies. Similar results were obtained for up to 5 days immersion in all the immersion media. Differences arose from day 10. This time and onwards, finger prints could not be developed from brass cartridges immersed in any media. Canal water was noted to favor the retention of latent finger prints because suspended particles in canal water tend to adhere the latent finger prints. Detergents in sewerage water were found to quickly wipe the latent finger prints residue. Chlorine used as dis-infectant in swimming pools is acidic in nature. Under acidic conditions, development of latent finger prints becomes difficult. The data was analyzed for results by Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation using IBM SPSS 20.0 software. The study illustrated that there is correlation among type of material, immersion medium and time length of immersion in aquatic environment. It will provide valuable information for crime investigation agencies to establish a link between finger prints evidence recovered from various materials immersed in aquatic environment and the suspected person. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1763,T] (1).

6. Blood Spatter Classification As A Function Of Blood Droplet Dynamics And Their Forensic Implications

by Shahid Iqbal | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: A thoroughconsideration of blood dynamics and stain creation is avital necessityto the clarification of distinct bloodstain and the spatter patterns at the crime scene. In addition the results of experimental work including studies of falling and impacting blood droplets have been presented. The magnitude of blood stains and the amount of droppers and needles round the stain fringe relays on droplet impact velocity and droplet diameter. It is not unusual to find bloodstain patterns in a violent encounter and through proper interpretation they can provide very critical details about such an event. Accurate calculations and digital photography may estimate the release height of passive droplets, the characteristics of release surface and the forces involved in bloodshed.The spattered blood pattern is used routinely in crime scene for investigators/death scene investigators to evaluate blood spattering and blood droplet impact velocity. Examination could determine the maximum resolution of bloody spots. Four different forms of stains were produced and human blood was used with heparin as an anti-coagulant (Kargeret al.1998). The blood volumes usedwere: 10 l, 5 l, 1 l, 0.5 l, 0.25 land0.1 l. Pipette (Eppendorf) and precision syringe were used for measuring and releasing the blood spattering. Blood droplets were allowed to fall freely by hand by pressing the needle of the syringe very slowly so that drops separated from the tip of a stainless steel hypodermic needle at their own mass.Respectively,all volumeswererepeated for consecutive five times to create four forms of contact stains and spatter stains on various surfaces used in the study.The resulting stains were examined with and at the end were photographed through digital camera. The results were interpreted by applying Regression coefficient relationone way Anova and two ways Anova which showed significance statistically.It will aid the crime investigation agencies to explore the importance of blood spatter analysis in crime/ death scene investigationand to estimate the creditability of reportsdelivered by the observer, prey or a doubtful. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1764,T] (1).

7. Genetic Effect Of Leptin Gene Polymorphisms On Silent Estrus Behavior In The Nili-Ravi Buffalo

by Fatima Muccee | Ms. Maryam Javed | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab | Mr. Akhtar Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Buffalo is a high producing animal. But to exploit its full production potential is limited due to silent heat. Silent heat leads to improper diagnosis of estrus at the time of artificial insemination that causes low fertility in buffalo. Estrus is a quantitative polygenic trait controlled by environmental factors as well as polygenes. Among all the genes controlling estrus Leptin is the potential candidate gene for estrus trait and is positioned on chromosome 4q32. It stimulates production of GnRH and with FSH it controls production of estrogen thus affecting estrus behavior. The aim of the current study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 flanking sequence of exon 1 and coding region of Leptin gene and to find their association with silent estrus trait. One hundred blood samples of Nili-Ravi breed were collected from UVAS Pattoki Campus, Research Farm B and Buffalo Research Institute (BRI) Pattoki. Inorganic method was used for DNA extraction and products were precipitated and sequenced for analysis. For the analysis of sequence and to identify the polymorphism bioinformatics software FinchTV software and Bioedit software were used. The 5 flanking sequence and total 3coding regions of Leptin gene were amplified with specially designed primers. The 15polymorphic sites were observed of which one SNP was found in intron 1,9 SNPs in exon 2, 4 SNPs in intron 3 and 1 SNP in exon 3 of Leptin gene. A Bioinformatics analysis was performed with the help of "POPGENE 32" software to find the association of identified polymorphisms with silent estrus. Four SNPs were found to have significant association with silent estrus with P<0.05. SNPs were analyzed for their effect and five SNPs in exon 2 were found to be synonymous, they changed the sequence of amino acids in the Leptin protein. Population genetic analysis and allelic distribution at all loci was analysed. Out of total fifteen polymorphisms, six haplotypes were constructed on the basis of DNA sequencing of individual samples. Statistical analysis of these haplotypes was done by using SHEsis software. SignalP software was used to predict the signal peptide of the Leptin protein. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and Parsimony trees were constructed by using Mega4 Software which showed sharing of cluster by Nili-Ravi buffalo breed and cattle. This genetic characterization of Leptin gene may serve as a powerful genetic source for the development of DNA markers that can be used in association studies and for selection of animals with good heat signs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1785,T] (1).

8. Genetic Effect Of B-1, 4 Galactosyltransferase-I Gene Polymorphism On Milk Quality In Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Aamir Sohail | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Abu Saeed Hashmi | Mr. Akhtar Ali.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1820,T] (1).

9. Molecular Study For Anti-Hcv Activity Of Camellia Sinensis Embelia Ribes And Cichorium Intybus On Huh-7 Cells By Real

by Gulshan zaidi | Akhtar ali | DR.Tanveer hussain | Prof. Dr.Tahir.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1964,T] (1).

10. Detection And Analysis Of Traces Of Ignitable Liquids On Burnt Substeates

by Abdul basit | Akhtar ali | Dr. Abu Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Wasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2007,T] (1).

11. Detection Of Variants In Lipoprotein Lipase Gfne Affecting Milk Production In Nili-Ravi And Azakheli Buffalo Breeds

by Zukhruf baig | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Waseem Shahzad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2103,T] (1).

12. Development Of DNA Based Diagnosis Of Ancylostoma Caninumin Dogs And Its Specificity With Traditional Fecal Microscopy

by Abida Rehman (2012-VA-648) | Dr. WasimShehzad | Mr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: The blood feeding, canine hookworms have gained importance due to their potential to cause a variety of diseases in animals and human communities (Traversa 2012). Almost all types of canine hookworms are involved in causing zoonotic diseases(Traub et al. 2008), infecting more than half a billion people worldwide (Fenwick 2012), which result in ~65000 deaths annually (Plotkin et al. 2008). Ancylostoma caninum is the most prevalent and pathogenic intracellular obligate hookworm parasite of dogs (Bojar and Klapec 2012). In Pakistan, parasitic infection byA. caninum is widely prevalent with variable distributions in different parts of the country. A microscopic based study in the Lahore areashowed 59.1% ofA.caninuminfestation in dogs (Ashraf et al. 2008). Clinically,A. caninum has been responsible for often neglected disease ancylostomiasis in its host.In this condition, it principally attacks on the mucosal layer of small intestine through its buccal capsule for sucking blood (Marquardt et al. 2000). Secretory anticoagulant proteins of A. caninum help in this process by blocking a wide variety of blood clotting factors including Xa. The inhibition of blood clotting factors causes greater blood loss which ranges from 1-2ml/worm/day (Cappello et al. 1995; Georgi et al. 1969; Stassens et al. 1996). The disease is indicated by the symptomsof weight loss, lethargy, roughness of the hair coat,infected pale mucous membranes, tarry feces and excretion of eggs (Marquardt et al. 2000).In chronic situation,A. caninum producesa devastating condition of iron deficiency anemia with intestinal bleeding (Loukas and Prociv 2001).A. caninum infection in the dog isaccompanied by other life threatening pathological conditions, these includegastrointestinal infections, hypoproteinemia, mental retardation,pneumonitis andacute fatalities (Schwenkenbecher and Kaplan 2007).Especially, puppies are more suscepted to aforementioned diseases because of transmammary transmission,low levels of body immunity and higher egg count(Anderson 2000; Olsen 1986). The life cycle of A. caninumis almost same both in human and dog. Itis most complex and critical for them as compared to other members of its genus. The cycle starts with the production of eggs by adult worms within intestine of an infectedhost which are passed out with feces. These eggs survive in soil without damages by variable environmental conditions,can become a source of reinfection for host species. Theinfective filariform larvae (hatch from eggs) get their route ina host bodyby penetrating through hair follicles on skin contact. In puppies these are mostly transmitted through transmammary or prenatal routes. After penetration, these larvae take way to lungs through the blood or lymphatic circulation. From here, these can be swallowed towards intestine where they attached to feed on blood and mucous (Marquardt et al. 2000). They also migrate to skeletal muscles via somatic circulation where they depositedas hypobiotic larvae. Warm and moist conditions cause their reactivation and migration towards gut (Prociv and Luke 1995; Traub et al. 2014). It is seenthat a healthy pet doggetsA. caninuminfection mainly due to lackof proper veterinary care, large population of infected stray dogs, poor sanitation, and by contamination of public parks and streets (Klimpel et al. 2010; Zewduet al. 2010). Infective dogs are responsible for transmission of this parasite to humans either playing role aspets, stray or rescue animals (Jafri and Rabbani 1999; Szabova et al. 2007) by shedding millions of eggs(Epe 2009). Children areparticularly and frequently attacked byA. caninumbecause they used to play in open contaminated areas (Farooqi et al. 2014). Transmission of this parasite to humans is mostly by penetration through the skin, when it comes in contact with its filariform larval stages present in contaminated soil.Humans also get infection through larval ingestion, and larvae canbe transmitted from the fur coat ofinfected companion animals (Caumes 2000; Hochedez and Caumes 2007; Provic 1998). In human, penetration of A. caninumfilariform larvae causessevere cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). It is the most devastating hypersensitivity reaction, characterized by long follicular, pustular, ephemeral lesions at infection sites with intense itching and pain (Kirby-Smith et al. 1926; Little et al. 1983). These sites can be attacked by bacterial species leading tothe damages ofsoft tissues (Chaudhry and Longworth 1989). CLM caused by A. caninum has achievedmore attentionmainly due to associated pathological conditions. These include eosinophillic enteritis, pneumonitis, and growth defects, etc. (Bowmanet al. 2003; Garcia et al. 2008; Tu et al. 2008). In childrenheart problems and mental retardation also havebeen reported (Albonico et al. 1999; Crompton 2000). As, A.caninumiscausing serious healthhazards, so improved and proper control of its pathogenesis is mandatory.The accurate diagnosisof infection helps to prevent its transmission by selection of appropriate precautions and vaccines. Specific identificationis alsohelpful to minimizedthe chances of anthelminticdrugresistance by A.caninumas reported in different studies (Bethony et al. 2006; Kopp et al. 2007; Peeling et al. 2008; Roeber et al. 2013). Different diagnostic methods are used to identify parasitic hookworms. Currently, fecal microscopy is the widely applied diagnosticmethod for the identification of hookworm infection,which depends on morphological based analysis of eggs (Katz et al. 1972; Ngui et al. 2012b). The main advantage of this traditional approach is its tendency to analyze sampleboth qualitatively (floatation, sedimentation) and quantitatively (McMaster, FLOTAC, Katokatz)(Cringoli et al. 2011; Eberl et al. 2002). However, the identifications based on morphological characteristics may prone to inaccurate diagnosis, because eggs of many hookworms e.g. Ancylostoma, Trichostrongylus, Unicinariastenocephala, Oesophagostomum, Necator americanus and Terniden species are morphologically indistinguishable,thiscan variate specificity and sensitivity of microscopy (Bajwa et al. 2014; Monis et al. 2002;Tan et al. 2014). Improvement in microscopic detection can be made by usingcopro-culture and immunodiagnostic techniques especially when results are confounding. In the copro-culture method, eggs are raisedto larval stages in appropriate growth conditions in the laboratory andthen classified up to genus level (Reiss et al. 2007). But in this technique as microscopic examination, morphological similarities between larval stages of related species hampers specific identification. Moreover, it is time consuming (takes about 7-14 days) and requires experienced technicians to handle larvae. Similarly, it is very difficult to evaluate exact burden of worms as there is significant variations in the number of excreted eggs in chronic cases, which is another reasonable disadvantage ofthis diagnostic technique (Booth et al. 2003; Schar et al. 2013). Immunological assays, including ELISA,based on the detection of coproantigens in the feces or serum of the infected dog using captured IgG have been used to increase the sensitivity of analysis (Kwon et al. 2003;Loukas et al. 1992). These methodsallowed effective and quick detection of parasistes as compared to fecal microscopy and coproculture technique.But issue of cross reactivity with other antigens like of Strongyloides stercoralis in mixed infections isan associated problem (Lindo et al. 1994). Moreover, immunological assays failed to provide information about past or current infection and also do not differentiate between species in mixed infection (Basuni et al. 2011). All the problems of traditional methods can effectively addressed by the adoption of DNA based molecular approaches. These methods have beenproved as worthwhile alternatives to identify parasitic species in any developmental stage (Muldrew 2009; Ndao 2009; Vasoo and Pritt 2013). Specifically, these techniques are very feasible for specific identification of genusAncylostomabecause ithasambiguous features.Advanced highly sensitive DNA based diagnostic procedures have potential to identify the causative agentfromminute quantity of DNA (from 0.2g of egg), as in low worm burden with no symptom of disease(de Carvalho et al. 2012; Wong et al. 2014).Rapid detection of parasites can be made in only one day even in case of mixed infections(Gasser et al. 2009). There are various available approaches in DNA based methods which can be applied for the detection of Ancylostomaspecies, theseinclude PCR-RFLP (e Silva et al. 2006; Traub et al. 2004), copro-PCR (Sato et al. 2010), single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) (Gasser and Monti 1997; Monti et al. 1998),specific (conventional) PCR (Yong et al. 2007) and multiplex real time PCR (Jonker et al. 2012). The conventional PCR techniquehas worldwideapplications in specie specific identification of parasiticspecies(Gordon et al. 2011). For specific diagnosis,genetic markers have been identified in mitochondrial (cox1 gene) and nuclear genomes (internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1, ITS-2), 5.8S and 28S in ribosomal DNA (rDNA)) (Chilton 2004; Denver et al. 2000; Gobert et al. 2005; Ngui et al 2012a). Preferably, spacers are more suitable for diagnostic purposes because these regions havesequence variationsamong different species. Moreover, these are shorter in length (250-300) in comparison with mitochondrial DNA (Blouin 2002; van Samson-Himmelstjerna et al. 2002). Therefore, the availability of sequencing technologies,specific genetic markers and large amount of genetic data have increased the chances of implementation, development and effectiveness of DNA based diagnostic method for identification ofA. caninum(Taniuchi et al. 2011). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2262-T] (1).

13. Genetic Association Study Of Apolipoprotein A-V (Apoa5) And Sortilin (Sort1) Genes With Risk Of Coronary Artery Disease

by Irfan Basharat (2012-VA-802) | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Wasim Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In developed countries cardiovascular disorders are prominent cause of death. One third deaths in the world are due to cardiovascular disorders. Among cardiovascular disorders coronary artery disease responsible for one in five deaths in USA. Its main reason is the lipids values particularly cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. An estimation made by WHO indicated that 9 million people die per year due to hypercholesterolemia. 100 blood samples were collected from patients of coronary artery disease and from normal patients with no myocardial history. Allele specific primers for SORT1 gene and APOA5 genes were designed using Primer 3 software web facility. Genomic DNA will be amplified by PCR then genotyping will be carried out and DNA will also be sequenced. Hardy-Weinberg principle and Fisher Exact test were used to assess the allele frequency and significant variations from results When patient of MI and normal group were genotyped and sequenced we find out that there are 34 AA homozygous, 1 GG homozygous and 12 heterozygous persons in case of APOA5. The SORT1 person shows 24 GG homozygous and 3 AA homozygous and 13 heterozygous persons. Our study shows a definite association between APOA5 and SORT1 with respect to MI disease persons. This study shows a significant association of single nucleotide polymorphism in APOA5 and SORT1 genes with coronary artery disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2326-T] (1).

14. Genetic Effect Of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (Cetp) Gene In Coronary Heart Disease Patients

by Zakiya Bano (2013-VA-554) | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Dr. Waseem Shehzad | Dr. Muhammad Tayyab.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene takes part with certain reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway for the excess amount of accumulated lipid in peripheral tissues. The variations in this gene due to missense mutations on different exonic, intronic or on promoter regions alter CETP activity as well as impair the RCT pathway. By which, lipid metabolism also effects and causes atherosclerosis in vessels which trigger the blockage of blood flow and induces the imbalance for the supply of oxygen to the heart. So this atherosclerosis directly involves in addition of risk factor for coronary heart disease. Preferable study was made to highlight effect of CETP gene at molecular level by comparing control group with the selected patients having coronary heart disease. This study was appreciably made possible by targeting two reported polymorphisms, one in the intron 1 region Taq IB (rs708272) and on exon 14 region I405V (rs5882) of this CETP gene. The study was relatively speculated by the extraction of genomic DNA from all selected blood samples. By selecting two primers, certain segments were amplified for both rs708272 and rs5882 polymorphisms. Analysis of allelic frequencies distribution was calculated by Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium which showed no significance among control and CHD group and there was no association was analyzed in our population by using Fisher’s Exact Test. This is because of small number of samples studied in our population. But maximize concentrations of lipid parameters such as TC, LDL and TG with minimum variation in HDL-C concentration in CHD group as compared to control group that showed the effect of these polymorphisms on the activity of CETP gene with coronary heart disease. These determined missense mutations in CETP gene was helpful molecular tool for the screening purpose in coronary heart disease patients. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2345-T] (1).

15. Molecular Exploration Of Zbed6 Gene For Growth Trait In Lohi Sheep

by Usman Sagheer (2014-VA-03) | Dr. Maryam Javed | Dr. Akhtar Ali | Prof. Dr. Tahir Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: ZBED6 gene is a central transcription factor. It is as a repressor of IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor II) interpretation in skeletal muscle myogenesis and development. It is essentially included in organism development, signaling, cell to cell collaboration, hepatic fibrosis, clathrin intervened endocytosis and tight intersection signaling falls. Chromatin immune precipitation (ChIP) sequencing utilizing C2C12 cells recognized around 2,500 ZBED6 binding locations in the genome, and the derived accord theme gave an immaculate match with the set up tying site in IGF2. Silencing of ZBED6 in myoblast cells influences IGF2 expression, wound healing, cell proliferation and myotube arrangement. Genes connected with ZBED6 binding sites demonstrated a very huge advancement for certain Gene Ontology groupings, including improvement and transcriptional regulation. Forty two blood samples were collected. DNA extraction was done by using organic extraction method. Primers for PCR amplification designed using Primer3 software. PCR products were sequenced and then analyzed by using BioEdit software. Expasy translational tool for translation and POPGENE 32 software for analysis of population genetics at all the loci were used. Using this software the overall allele frequency, heterozygosity, probability using Chi-square test and Likelihood ratio test and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, genotype distribution at all SNP position, summary of genetic variation statistics for all loci and association were calculated. After this, for the association one way ANOVA was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism within ZBED6 could be potential candidate gene to be serving as genetic marker for the selection of animals with higher tendencies towards weight gain. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2539-T] (1).

16. Development Of Novel mtDNA Metabarcodes For Species Differentiation Of Class Mammalia

by Rabia Latif (2014-VA-952) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Saadat Ali | Dr. Akhtar Ali.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The Folmer COI mtDNA universal primers that are considered standard for DNA barcoding of life contain so many mismatches against the target sequences of vertebrate origin that they often end in failure to amplify many of vertebrate DNA extractions. This discrepancy favors for the selection and designing of new metabarcode primers that can be used to identify all individuals of vertebrates or at least all individuals represented in a class of Vrtebrata such as Class Mammalia. The current study embarks on such an endeavor. In this study development of new mtDNA metabarcode (16SrRNA) that can be used as universal primers to amplify almost all species of Class Mammals for different forensic and molecular biodiversity analyses. Mitochondrion, the energy coins for the cell, performs the function of the oxidative phosphorylation and the formation of ATP also called energy coins for the cell. Mammalian mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is a double stranded, circular, covalently closed molecule of approximately size of 16.4 kb. The mtDNA is inherited from the mother as a haploid and heteroplasmy has been found hardly.This fact makes it potentially relevant in the identification of maternal relationships, absence of recombination and the fast rate of evolution Blood/tissue samples were collected from Class Mammals (one specimen from every order reported to be present in Pakistan). DNA was extracted from the collected specimens through standard organic method, qualified and quantified and then PCR-amplified using novel universal primers selected from aligned mtDNA sequences originating from all mammalian mitochondrial DNA genomes submitted to different online sequence databases such as NCBI nucleotide database. The sensitivity of PCR also be assessed using a range of DNA concentrations. The amplified products were sequenced on ABI Genetic Analyzed following Sanger’s dideoxy method of Summary 67 sequencing. The correctness of obtained mtDNA sequences were examined visually in Chromas Lite 2.1 software and then alignment of these sequences were performed against highly similar DNA sequences in NCBI nucleotide databases using BLAST in order to identify the origin of unknown mtDNA sequences. Both sequencing experiments and phylogenetic studies confirmed the specificity of the universal primer set developed and present a novel metabarcode found in this region of genome (16SrRNA) for species level identification of large number of mammalian species. So, in future, this barcode can be used for species identification in various fields of study such as meat adulteration, illegal trade, food mislabeling and molecular estimation of biodiversity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2618-T] (1).

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