Effect Of Nigella Sativa On Embryonated Eggs Experimentally Infected With Newcastle Disease Virus
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: In Agriculture Industry of Pakistan poultry sector plays a vigorous, animated and a well
known role. There are more than 1.5 million peoples whose financial gain and employments are
related directly or indirectly to this sector which provides livelihood to about 60 % rural
inhabitants. Meat and eggs are the products of poultry industry. In Gross Domestic Products its
constant cost factor is 1.2%, in livestock is 10.4% and in agriculture it contributes 5.76%.In the
total meat production quantity of the country, poultry meat contribution is 26.8 % (Anonymous
The member of family Paramyxoviridae, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) contains six genes,
single stranded RNA genome without segment and have different strains arranged as virulent
which is velogenic, intermediate virulent mesogenic and less virulent lentogenic. The Newcastle
disease or pseudo-fowl pest is complete destructive having high death ratio in poultry. The NDV
attacks on respiratory system causes distress, produce nervous disorders, disturb gastrointestinal
tract and causes hemorrhagic lesions in intestine, downward change in level of egg production
and high mortality (Alexander 2000).
In embryonated eggs the cells attached with allantoic cavity help to grow and develop the
NDV virus which is inoculated for the purpose of propagation. In approximately 24 hours post
inoculation the virus reach higher concentration. First of all the virus destroys the live cells in
which it is growing and then it is widely spread by the allantoic fluid. If the inoculated strains of
virus are virulent i:e velogenic, embryos die within two days post inoculation mostly. The
embryos which are dead or alive show histopathological and gross changes remarkably caused
by the inoculated NDV (Al-Garib et al. 2003).
To evaluate the value or determine the pathogenicity of the virus or to propagate Newcastle
disease virus the embryos of chicken have been usually used. The NDV strains which are
virulent means velogenic, kill the embryo within 48 hours, and lentogenic or less
virulent(mesogenic) take 5 to 7 days to kill either the embryos or may not kill at all (Lam et al.
It always had an inherited pattern of thoughts to advance the progress in the process of
healing by using herbal plants in all the civilizations. All over the world, to provide treatment for
diseases in daily life medicinal herbal plants and seeds have been used since hundreds of year
ago and in ahead of times. Plants play important role and serves as a base in the development of
drugs (Ates and Turgay 2003).
For the promotion and well being of health of both animals and humans, since thousands of
year ago black cumin seeds which is commonly known as black seed are used. It is stated by
Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) that black seeds are treatment for every disease except the final
state the death. Its scientific name is Nigella sativa and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae.
The black seeds contain the main active and wider in scope ingredient named as crystalline
nigellone. The composition of other ingredients which are present in these seeds are proteins,
vitamins B1, B2, B3, oleic acid, myristic acid, linolic acid, folic acid, thymoquinone, palmitic
acid, beta sitosterol and stearic acid. In black seed the main elements are phosphorous, iron, zinc,
calcium, and copper. Anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, immunestimulator,
anti-inflammatory and anti-histamine are the main effects of black cumin seeds
(AitMbarek et al. 2007).
Black cumin seeds are a hypothetical remedy for all ills, diseases and disorders, but not to
stop growing old and death from happening. In Bible it is identified as black cumin and tending
to restore health (Worthen et al. 1997).
The antiviral drugs are not usually used in poultry industry due to economic problems
and may cause toxicity, but some drugs shows effect against virus which effect poultry. The
antiviral drug Ribavirin was used to compare its effect with a herbal plant to see which one is
effective. Higher doses produce toxicity and also were the cause of death. The 20μl/ml dose
showed the significant effect and the embryoes remain live after experimentally infected with
Newcastle disease virus (Omer et al. 2014).
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Pathobiological Studies On Bovine Ephemeral Fever Infected Cattle In District Swabi
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Among the non-contagious diseases Bovine ephemeral fever is important disease of cattle the course of the disease is usually three days due to which it is called “three days sickness”. This is transfer to other cattle through insects Culicoides (biting midges a group that include many kinds of flies) and mosquitoes. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) has been collected from Culicoides coarctatus, Culicoides brevitarsis, and Anopheles bancroftii (Walker et al. 2012). Cattle and buffaloes are the main species affected from Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) which gives huge economic losses to the dairy sector. The etiologic agent, Bovine ephemeral fever virus belong to Rhabdoviridae family, enveloped (negative sense) ssRNA virus. It generally recur in Australia, Asia, and Africa also in the Middle East (Walker 2005).
The theme of the present study was detection of BEF virus through Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction from the cattle suspected for bovine ephemeral fever virus on the basis of clinical signs. Hematological profile and serum calcium level were checked in the confirmed positive samples for BEFV.
A total of 50 blood samples were collected from the suspected animals in aseptic condition using a sterilized disposable syringe and were preserved in vacutainers (Anticoagulant added n = 50, without anticoagulant n = 50). The 10 blood samples were collected from healthy animals in vacutainers (Anticoagulant added n = 10, without anticoagulant n = 10).
Buffy coat were separated from blood samples and from this the RT-PCR was performed and successfully diagnosed the BEFV infected cattle. Hematology and serum calcium were performed for both confirm positive and healthy animals.
The result showed that BEF virus was diagnosed with the help of RT-PCR in samples suspected for BEFV infection, and there was no virus detected in samples taken from healthy animals. Comparison of hematology between BEFV infected cattle and healthy animals were performed there was no changes in the RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and MID (it include monocyte, eosinophils, and basophils) except Neutrophils, which number was increases and lymphocytes which was decreased in BEFV infection, while in healthy animals there was no change in the whole hematology. Serum calcium was also determined there was decrease in serum calcium level of BEFV infected cattle, while in the healthy animal samples there was no change in the serum calcium level.
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