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1. Effect Of Nigella Sativa On Embryonated Eggs Experimentally Infected With Newcastle Disease Virus

by Arif Ullah Khan (2013-VA-561) | Dr. Muhammad Yasin Tipu | Dr. Raheela Akhtar | Dr. Ali Ahmad Shiekh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: In Agriculture Industry of Pakistan poultry sector plays a vigorous, animated and a well known role. There are more than 1.5 million peoples whose financial gain and employments are related directly or indirectly to this sector which provides livelihood to about 60 % rural inhabitants. Meat and eggs are the products of poultry industry. In Gross Domestic Products its constant cost factor is 1.2%, in livestock is 10.4% and in agriculture it contributes 5.76%.In the total meat production quantity of the country, poultry meat contribution is 26.8 % (Anonymous 2013). The member of family Paramyxoviridae, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) contains six genes, single stranded RNA genome without segment and have different strains arranged as virulent which is velogenic, intermediate virulent mesogenic and less virulent lentogenic. The Newcastle disease or pseudo-fowl pest is complete destructive having high death ratio in poultry. The NDV attacks on respiratory system causes distress, produce nervous disorders, disturb gastrointestinal tract and causes hemorrhagic lesions in intestine, downward change in level of egg production and high mortality (Alexander 2000). In embryonated eggs the cells attached with allantoic cavity help to grow and develop the NDV virus which is inoculated for the purpose of propagation. In approximately 24 hours post inoculation the virus reach higher concentration. First of all the virus destroys the live cells in which it is growing and then it is widely spread by the allantoic fluid. If the inoculated strains of virus are virulent i:e velogenic, embryos die within two days post inoculation mostly. The embryos which are dead or alive show histopathological and gross changes remarkably caused by the inoculated NDV (Al-Garib et al. 2003). Introduction 2 To evaluate the value or determine the pathogenicity of the virus or to propagate Newcastle disease virus the embryos of chicken have been usually used. The NDV strains which are virulent means velogenic, kill the embryo within 48 hours, and lentogenic or less virulent(mesogenic) take 5 to 7 days to kill either the embryos or may not kill at all (Lam et al. 1995). It always had an inherited pattern of thoughts to advance the progress in the process of healing by using herbal plants in all the civilizations. All over the world, to provide treatment for diseases in daily life medicinal herbal plants and seeds have been used since hundreds of year ago and in ahead of times. Plants play important role and serves as a base in the development of drugs (Ates and Turgay 2003). For the promotion and well being of health of both animals and humans, since thousands of year ago black cumin seeds which is commonly known as black seed are used. It is stated by Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) that black seeds are treatment for every disease except the final state the death. Its scientific name is Nigella sativa and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. The black seeds contain the main active and wider in scope ingredient named as crystalline nigellone. The composition of other ingredients which are present in these seeds are proteins, vitamins B1, B2, B3, oleic acid, myristic acid, linolic acid, folic acid, thymoquinone, palmitic acid, beta sitosterol and stearic acid. In black seed the main elements are phosphorous, iron, zinc, calcium, and copper. Anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, immunestimulator, anti-inflammatory and anti-histamine are the main effects of black cumin seeds (AitMbarek et al. 2007). Black cumin seeds are a hypothetical remedy for all ills, diseases and disorders, but not to stop growing old and death from happening. In Bible it is identified as black cumin and tending Introduction 3 to restore health (Worthen et al. 1997). The antiviral drugs are not usually used in poultry industry due to economic problems and may cause toxicity, but some drugs shows effect against virus which effect poultry. The antiviral drug Ribavirin was used to compare its effect with a herbal plant to see which one is effective. Higher doses produce toxicity and also were the cause of death. The 20μl/ml dose showed the significant effect and the embryoes remain live after experimentally infected with Newcastle disease virus (Omer et al. 2014). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2255-T] (1).

2. Pathobiological Studies On Bovine Ephemeral Fever Infected Cattle In District Swabi

by Sahibzada Waheed Abdullah (2013-VA-560) | Dr. Muti Ur Rehman Khan | Prof. Dr. Asim Aslam | Dr. Ali Ahmad Shiekh.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Among the non-contagious diseases Bovine ephemeral fever is important disease of cattle the course of the disease is usually three days due to which it is called “three days sickness”. This is transfer to other cattle through insects Culicoides (biting midges a group that include many kinds of flies) and mosquitoes. Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) has been collected from Culicoides coarctatus, Culicoides brevitarsis, and Anopheles bancroftii (Walker et al. 2012). Cattle and buffaloes are the main species affected from Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) which gives huge economic losses to the dairy sector. The etiologic agent, Bovine ephemeral fever virus belong to Rhabdoviridae family, enveloped (negative sense) ssRNA virus. It generally recur in Australia, Asia, and Africa also in the Middle East (Walker 2005). The theme of the present study was detection of BEF virus through Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction from the cattle suspected for bovine ephemeral fever virus on the basis of clinical signs. Hematological profile and serum calcium level were checked in the confirmed positive samples for BEFV. A total of 50 blood samples were collected from the suspected animals in aseptic condition using a sterilized disposable syringe and were preserved in vacutainers (Anticoagulant added n = 50, without anticoagulant n = 50). The 10 blood samples were collected from healthy animals in vacutainers (Anticoagulant added n = 10, without anticoagulant n = 10). Buffy coat were separated from blood samples and from this the RT-PCR was performed and successfully diagnosed the BEFV infected cattle. Hematology and serum calcium were performed for both confirm positive and healthy animals. Summary 31 The result showed that BEF virus was diagnosed with the help of RT-PCR in samples suspected for BEFV infection, and there was no virus detected in samples taken from healthy animals. Comparison of hematology between BEFV infected cattle and healthy animals were performed there was no changes in the RBC, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and MID (it include monocyte, eosinophils, and basophils) except Neutrophils, which number was increases and lymphocytes which was decreased in BEFV infection, while in healthy animals there was no change in the whole hematology. Serum calcium was also determined there was decrease in serum calcium level of BEFV infected cattle, while in the healthy animal samples there was no change in the serum calcium level. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2284-T] (1).

3. Antibiotic Resistance Profiling Of Enterococcus Faecium Recovered From Retail Chicken Meat From Lahore City

by Amina Habib (2010-VA-313) | Dr. Ali Ahmad Shiekh | Dr. Fareeha Akhtar | Dr. Wasim Shehzad.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Enterococcus faecium is gram positive bacteria which are normal intestinal flora of warm blooded animals and humans beings. It is responsible for various types of diseases such as neonatal meningitis, endocarditis, urinary tract infections and intra-abdominal or pelvic wounds. Retail chicken could be a source of Enterococcus faecium. Irrational use of antibiotics in chicken rearing can lead to emergence of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecium. The chicken meat gets contaminated at the time of slaughtering and resistant bacteria may transfer to human beings through food chain. In present study prevalence of E. faecium recovered from retail chicken meat samples collected from various areas of Lahore city was estimated. A total 43 chicken sample (leg or wing) were processed for isolation of E. faecium. Identification of E. faecium was made using standard culturing and biochemical reactions. Out of 43 samples, 30 samples (69%) were found positive for Enterococcus faecium. Antibiotics resistance profiling showed that the isolates were resistant to following antibiotics mentioned as below: Ampicillin (100%) >Tetracycline (73%) > Erythromycin (53%) > Ciprofloxacin (46%) > Chloramphenicol (40%) > Rifampicin and Vancomycin (36%) > Teicoplanin (33%) > Doxycycline (20%) > Fosfomycin (0%). From the study it is concluded that retail chicken is the carrier of antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecium and could transfer resistance to humans. Efforts should be made to use antibiotics wisely and hygienic practices should be followed during slaughtering and processing of chicken meat to avoid bacterial spread from animal source to human beings. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2489-T] (1).

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