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1. Dynamics Of Membrane Changes And Generation Of Reactive Oxygen Species During Bovine Sperm Death

by Mushtaq Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1430,T] (1).

2. Effect Of Duck Egg Yolk Plasma In Extender On Post Thaw Quality Of Buffalo Bull Spermatozoa

by Furqan Tehseen | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Hafsa Zaned | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1603,T] (1).

3. Reproductive and Productive Performance of Dairy Animals Maintained at Mulitary Dairy Farm Lahore Cantt.

by Abrar Ahmed | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2012Dissertation note: NILI RAVI BUFFALOES Average age at maturitywas 829.11 ± 30.34 days. Heiferscalved in1999 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Heifers calved during the winter and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Mean birth weight of calves was found 28.16±2.8 kg. The effect of birth weight on age at maturity was found to be significant and it was observed that 1 kg increase in birth weight resulted in 16 days decrease in age at maturity. Average age at first conception was 923.37 ± 30.34 days. Heifers calved in 1996 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Heifers calved during the winter and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Average age at first calving was 1295.66 ± 62.91 days. Heifers calved in 2002 and 2008 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Heifers calved during the dry summer andautumn season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Average service period was 164.1 ± 30.15 days. Maximum and minimum service period was in year of 2002 and 2008, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 11th and 10thlactation, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively.Average services per conception were 1.95 ± 0.23. Maximum and minimum services per conception were in 2005 and 2008, respectively. In humid summer and autumn season, services per conception were maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 9th lactation, the services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. Average gestation period was 310.90 ± 3.07 days. Maximum and minimum gestation periodwas in 2000 and 2009 2009 respectively. In humid summer and dry summer season, gestation period? was maximum and minimum respectively. In 12th and 8th lactation, the gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average calving interval was 474.59 ± 29.88 days. Maximum and minimum calving interval was in 2005 and 2001, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, calving interval was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average milk yield was 1973.15 ± 53.23 liters. Maximum and minimum milk yield was in 2010 and 2002, respectively. In winter and spring season, milk yield was maximum and minimum respectively. In 4th and 11th lactation, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average lactation length was 295.23 ± 64.30 days. Maximum and minimum lactation length was 2001 and 2000, respectively. In spring and humid summer season, lactation length was maximum and minimum respectively. In 10th and 11th lactation, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average dry period was 184.93 ± 30.99 days. Maximum and minimum dry period was in 2005 and 2001, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, dry period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. CROSSBRED COWS Average age at maturity was 828.33 ± 20.39 days. Heifers calved during the year of 1998 and 1997 were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. Heifers calved during the humid summer and winter season were found to have maximum and minimum age at maturity, respectively. In 15/16 and 1 /2 crossbred level, age at maturity was maximum and minimum, respectively. Mean birth weight of crossbred cow calves was found 23.35 ± 2.8 kg. The effect of birth weight on age at maturity was found to be significant and it was observed that 1 kg increase in birth weight resulted in 07 days decrease in age at maturity. Average age at first conception was 944.18 ± 30.42 days. Heifers calved in 2004 and 1996 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. Heifers calved during the humid summer and dry summer season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first conception, respectively. In 15/16 and 1 /2 crossbred level, age at first conception was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average age at first calving was 1245.29 ± 40.96 days. Heifers calved in 2008 and 1995 were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. Heifers calved during autumn and winter season were found to have maximum and minimum age at first calving, respectively. In 7/8 and 5/8 crossbred level, age at first calving was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average service period was 252.83 ± 32.56 days. Maximum and minimum service period was in year of 2006 and 2010, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, service period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 10th and 8th lactation, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 7/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, service period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average services per conception were 2.13 ± 0.31. Maximum and minimum services per conception were in 1999 and 2002, respectively. In winter and dry summer season, services per conception were maximum and minimum respectively. In 9th and 8th lactation, the services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. In 15/16 and 5/8 crossbred level, services per conception were maximum and minimum, respectively. Average gestation period was 278.90 ± 4.36 days. Maximum and minimum gestation period was in 2010 and 2003 respectively. In autumn and winter season, gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 2nd and 7th lactation, the gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 7/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, gestation period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average calving interval was 507.03 ± 33.61 days. Maximum and minimum calving interval was in 2006 and 2000, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, calving interval was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 10th lactation, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 5/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, calving interval was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average milk yield was 2141.05 ± 90.10 liters. Maximum and minimum milk yield was in 2008 and 2003, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, milk yield was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 1st lactation, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 15/16 and 3/4 crossbred level, milk yield was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average lactation length was279.31 ± 8.33 days. Maximum and minimum lactation length was 2001 and 2003, respectively. In dry summer and autumn season, lactation length was maximum and minimum respectively. In 11th and 5th lactation, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 3/4 and 15/16 crossbred level, lactation length was maximum and minimum, respectively. Average dry period was 238.64 ± 33.93 days. Maximum and minimum dry period was in 2006 and 2000, respectively. In winter and humid summer season, dry period was maximum and minimum respectively. In 5th and 11th lactation, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. In 5/8 and 15/16 crossbred level, dry period was maximum and minimum, respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1624,T] (1).

4. Prevalence Of Brucellosis In Dairy Animals And Their Handlers In District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa

by Azmatullah Khan | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Hassan | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1641,T] (1).

5. Effect of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) on the Follicular Dynamics, Estrus Eepression, Ovulation and Pregnancy Rate in Control Internal Drug Release (CIDR) Based Estrus Synchronization Protocol in NIli-Ravi Buffalo.

by Muhammad Ilyas Naveed | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Muhammad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Buffalo is unique to livestock and dairy industry in Pakistan as its share is major (65%) in milk production major. Reproduction is crucial for profitable production in dairy sector. Buffalo reproduction is hampered due to small size ovaries, poor ovarian reserves, and less pronounced estrus intensity, ultimately leading to substandard fertility. Synchronization technology including CIDR based protocols are well established in cows and gaining popularity in buffaloes. However, this needs modifications based on estrous cycle physiology in buffaloes. It is hypothesized that addition of eCG at the time inducing luteolysis in CIDR based synchronization protocol will promote follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of addition of eCG to a CIDR based synchronization protocol on ovarian follicular dynamics, estrus rate, ovulation, and pregnancy rates in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Lactating multiparous suckled Nili-Ravi buffalo (n=63) milked twice daily were assigned in a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone Pfizer Co, USA) synchronization regimen. Animals were divided randomly to receive either saline (n=31) or 1000 IU eCG i.m. (n=32) (Chronogest PMSG, Intervet, Holland) concurrent with PGF2á (Dalmazine, cloprostenol, Fatro, Italy) treatment of the CIDR protocol (Day 6). Fixed time, two inseminations were performed at 48 and 60 hours after CIDR removal (Day 7). Number of follicles of variable size recruited at CIDR removal, dominant follicle size, its growth rate and ovulation time did not differ significantly between the groups. The estrus response was not higher significantly (P>0.14) in eCG group than control group but estrus intensity was significantly higher (P>0.001) in eCG group. Ovulation rate and 26 pregnancy per AI was higher (P>0.05 & 0.004) in buffaloes in eCG group. Therefore, It is concluded that eCG is helpful to improve estrus expression, ovulation rate and pregnancy per AI in FTAI program in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1653,T] (1).

6. Effect Of Biostimulation During Estrus Synchronization Protocols On Pregnancy Rate In Buffalo

by Abdul Nasir | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Aqeel | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1666,T] (1).

7. Association Between Numbers Of Ovarian Follicles And Fertility In Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

by Qaisar Shahzad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: 6.1: Back Ground: The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important animal of livestock species. It has an essential role in the economy of developing countries. Buffalo is being used as dairy, beef and draught purpose. Despite so many qualities, the reproductive potential of the buffalo is lower than cattle. One of the reasons for low reproductive potential is smaller ovaries and low number of ovarian follicles. Due to these reasons superovulation and embryo transfer has not been much successful in buffaloes. There is no tool through which reproductive performance of buffaloes can be phenotyped. Antral follicular count can be a tool on the basis of which reproductive performance of buffaloes can be phenotyped 6.2: Hypothesis: Higher the antral follicular count higher will be the fertility in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. 6.3: Methodology: Ten Nili-Ravi heifers were used in the study to measure repeatability of antral follicular. Each heifer was scanned on alternating days from day 1 of estrous cycles to day 9 of the successive estrous cycle. Antral follicles were counted in different follicular waves and repeatability of antral follicles was assessed. In the 2nd experiment of the study 10 heifers were used to count antral follicles from day 1 to day 10 of the estrous cycle, on the basis of antral follicular count animals were divided into three groups, Low (1-4), Intermediate (5-8) and High (?9).Blood sampling was done on 7th day of estrous cycle to measure progesterone concentration of 3 animals from each group and an association was developed between antral follicular count and progesterone concentration. In the 3rd experiment, 25 Nili-Ravi buffaloes were used to antral follicles from day 1 of estrous cycle to day 10 of estrous cycle. , on the basis of antral follicular count animals were divided into three groups, Low (1-4), Intermediate (5-8) and High (?9). In the next heat animals were artificially inseminated and were checked for pregnancy on 36th and 60th day by using ultrasound. Animals pregnant on 60th day were considered as pregnant. After that association was developed between antral follicular count and fertility. 6.4: Results: Buffalo can be phenotyped on the basis of antral follicular count. Follicular counts are highly repeatable in different follicular waves of same estrous cycle (0.83) and different estrous cycles (0.85) within individual animals. Follicular counts are highly positively correlated (0.91) with progesterone concentration. Higher the antral follicular count, higher should be the progesterone concentration. Antral follicular count is highly positively associated with (0.99) with fertility. Higher the antral follicular count higher will be the fertility. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1734,T] (1).

8. Effect Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (Bht) As Antioxidant On Semen Quality Of Naked Neck Chicken

by Waseem Abbass | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1746,T] (1).

9. Effect Of Cholesterol Addition On Cryopreservation Of Spermatozoa And Field Fertility Of Nili Ravi Buffalo

by Abdul Razzaq | Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1821,T] (1).

10. Effeect Of Ascorbic Acid And Moulting On Semen Quality In Native Chickens

by Adnan Jabbar | Dr Amjad Riaz | Prof Dr | Prof Dr Mian Abdual Sattar | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1860,T] (1).

11. A Study On Superovuation Protocol For The Development Of Embryo Transfer Technique In Mice

by Muhammad Ameen jamal | Dr. Amjad riaz | Dr. Aamir | Prof. Dr Mian abdul sattar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1900,T] (1).

12. Effect Of Butylated Hydroxytoluene (Bht) On Beetal Buck Semen Following Cryopreservation

by Abdul Rehman | Prof.Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1977,T] (1).

13. Effect Of Rbst Treatment On Antral Follicular Count Plasma E2 P4 Profile And Esteus Behavior In Postpartum Nili Ravi Buffaloes

by Sadia naz | Dr. Amjad riaz | Dr. Jawad nazir | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2055,T] (1).

14. Effect Of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (Bst) On Antral Follicular Population Plasma Igf-1 Concentration

by Omer Waqas | Dr. Amjad Riaz | DR | Dr. Aijaz Ali Channa.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2116,T] (1).

15. Follicular Dynamics During Estrous Cycle In Sahiwal Cows

by Muhammad Yasir Arfat (2007-VA-102) | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Jawad Nazir | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Pakistan by default is an agricultural country. Livestock is mainstay of the farming communities and has exclusive position in national agenda of the development. It plays an important role in poverty alleviation and can uplift the socioeconomic condition of our rural masses. Livestock contribution to agricultural GDP is 55.9 % and its contribution to National GDP is 11.8 % (Anonymous,2013-2014). Total cattle population of Pakistan is 39.7 M (Anonymous, 2013-2014). Livestock, especially cattle, play an important role in agriculture economy of Pakistan in form of milk, meat and draught power. Milk is one of the cheapest sources of nutrition and is beneficial for the human health in all stages of life. Despite the nutritional importance of milk, its per capita availability and consumption is low in our country. This inadequacy is due to suboptimal performance of indigenous dairy cattle due to lack of modern technologies in cattle farming. Pakistan is blessed with the finest breeds of dairy cattle such as Sahiwal, Cholistani and Red Sindhi. Sahiwal cattle breed initially named as Montgomery breed (Bos indicus) is one of the important breeds of indigenous cattle in Pakistan having dairy characteristics. The average milk yield is about 1500 liters per lactation with 4% butter fat. But still its potential of milk production is far less as compared to the exotic breeds e.g. Holstein Friesian etc. This is primarily due to compromised feeding and management and little attention in the past for the selection and breed improvement in Sahiwal cows. Moreover, late age at maturity and longer calving interval (Makuza and McDaniel 1996) are major reproductive issues in Sahiwal cows. Introduction 2 Physiology of oestrus cycle has been extensively studied in Holstein cows ( ). With the advent of ultrasonography in early 1980’s it became possible to study follicular and luteal dynamics during the estrous cycle in detail in Bos taurus (Fortune 1994; Lucy et al. 1992; Savio et al. 1988; Wolfenson et al. 1995), and some beef breeds of Bos indicus cattle (Bó et al. 2003; Figueiredo et al. 1997) and in buffalo (bubalis bubalis) as well (Warriach and Ahmad 2007). The benefit of these studies was that the information on follicular dynamics in Bos taurus breeds has been used to manipulate the estrous cycle in order to improve estrus synchronization (Thatcher et al. 1993; Twagiramungu et al. 1995; Wolfenson et al. 1994) fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI) (Pursley et al. 1997; Schmitt et al. 1996a; Schmitt et al. 1996b; Twagiramungu et al. 1995) and embryo transfer procedure (Mapletoft et al. 1994; Roberts et al. 1994). Sahiwal is one of the established zebu cattle (bos indicus) milk breeds of tropical and subtropical region. It is known for its remarkable power of endurance for hot climate, resistance to ticks and other diseases and has high producing ability under harsh environment and low cost of maintenance as compared to the Bos indicus and Bos taurus crossbreds. Due to its promising dairy characteristics and better adaptation to tropical environmental conditions, both the semen and female of this breed have been exported from Pakistan and in Africa and Australia. Differences on the reproductive characteristics between Bos taurus and few breeds of Bos indicus cattle have been reported like luteal tissue characteristics (Pathiraja et al. 1986), Graafian follicle (DF) diameter (Figueiredo et al. 1997) and estrous cycle duration (Castilho et al. 1996). However, surprisingly, there has been no thorough study on the reproductive physiology of the estrous cycle in Sahiwal cows. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to determine the Introduction 3 follicular dynamics, luteal tissue development and regression, estrous cycle length, timing of ovulation, estrus signs and fertility. It is hoped that these data will be helpful for improved assisted reproductive technology e.g. AI, ET etc. (Andrabi and Maxwell., 2007), timing of the treatment of the various hormones (Krininger et al., 2003) and development of new technologies like fixed time A.I, estrus synchronization, super ovulation, embryo transfer in Sahiwal cows. Ultimately, these can increase herd reproductive, productive performance and for preservation of Sahiwal cattle breed. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2183,T] (1).

16. Optimization Of Strontium Chloride For Parthenogenetic Activation Of Mouse Oocytes

by Arslan Mahmood Ahmad (2007-VA-67) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Aqeel Javeed | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: There are two main methods by which activation can be performed: (i) physical methods and (ii) chemical methods. Physical methods include electrical stimulation, temperate and mechanical ways, whereas the chemical methods comprise of different artificial chemical agents, including strontium chloride, calcium ionophores, ethanol that promote to rise in intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, cycloheximide, that inhibit protein synthesis and 6-DMAP (6-dimethyl amino purine) which inhibit protein phosphorylation. The contribution of both maternal and paternal genomes is required for thedevelopment to full term of mammalian embryos. However, the percentage of parthenogeneticallyactivated embryos developing to blastocyst stage is lower as compared to normal fertilized embryos. (Renard et al. 1991).In mouse, strontium chloride has been successfully employed in manydifferent studies to induce artificial oocyte activation. The role of strontium to induce calcium oscillations appears to be more physiologically sound than alternativemethods of oocyte activation that produce a monotonic rise in calcium.Strontium chloride (SrCl2) is recognized as one of the most popular parthenogenetic agents for mouse oocytes activation and induces calcium oscillations leads to improved activation rate and blastocyst formation. (Locham-kaplan et al. 2003) (Satoshi et al. 2006). The diploid parthenogenetic oocytes have more developmental competence as compared to haploid form(Liu et al. 2002). A substancecytochalasin B (CB) prevents the release of the second polar body after activation of mammalian oocyte which results in diploid form of embryo (Fukui et al. 1992) and it may also contribute to prevent fragmentation and degradation of embryos ( Yi and Park 2005). Parthenogenetic oocyte activation technique is mainly used in cloning and is a key step for nuclear transfer for cloning. The technique is also useful for understanding of physiological mechanisms of fertilization and early embryonic development. Embryonic stem cells can be derived from fertilized embryos. The stem cells which are produced by parthenogenetic activation have the same totipotency and proliferation as formed by normal sperm-egg fertilization..( Ju et.al 2008). Resultantly, parthenogenetic activation technology has become a target of reproductive biology. This technology can also be used to establish embryonic stem cell lines (Mizutani et al. 2004) and embryonic stems cells are the fundamental source in field of regenerative medicine; used to treat many diseases such as diabetes, beta thalassemia, heart infarction etc by providing patient specific replacement cells. Mouse is one of the most commonly animal models used for parthenogenetic activation. The other animals which have been used for parthenogenetic activation include rabbits, cattle, sheep, horses, monkeys and pigs. Parthenogenetic embryos are failed to develop to term, due to genomic imprinting, an epigenetic change of certain genes, depending on the parent of origin.(Uranga and Arechaga 1997). The studies pertaining to parthenogenetic activation technology for mouse oocytes is extremely limited at present (Mizutani et al. 2004). Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2188,T] (1).

17. Effect of Gold Nano Particles on Parthenogenetic Activation of Mouse Occytes By Strontium Chloride

by Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-169) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Shamaila Shahzadi | Dr. Ijaz Ali Channa | Dr.Muhammad Yasir Zahoor.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: No items available

18. Effect of Gold Nano Particles on Parthenogenetic Activation of Mouse Occytes By Strontium Chloride

by Muhammad Tahir (2008-VA-169) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Shamaila Shahzadi | Dr. Ijaz Ali Channa | Dr.Muhammad Yasir Zahoor.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Blank CD. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2238-T] (1).

19. Comparison Between Aspiration And Slicing Methods For Retrieval Of Oocytes In Bovine

by Muhammad Husnain (2008-VA-281) | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. Qaiser Shahzad | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Livestock contribution to agriculture stood at 55.9 percent while it contributes 11.8 percent to the national GDP during 2013-14. Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat population in Pakistan is 34.6, 39.7, 29.1 and 66.6 million numbers during 2013-14. Total milk production from buffalo and cattle as major milk producing animals is 31,252 and 18,027 (000 tons) (Economic Survey of Pakistan 2013-14). Advanced biotechnologies coming from different areas of biological sciences exhibit great promise to enhance the efficiency of livestock production. From these technologies one such biotechnology is the use of in vitro maturation of follicular oocytes and in vitro fertilization for production of livestock embryos in laboratory. Proper oocytes recovery and their selection in the laboratory are of great importance for successful in vitro embryo production. Total one hundred and forty four ovaries (n=144) from cattle (72 ovaries) and buffalo (72 ovaries) were collected and 223 oocytes were retrieved from these ovaries. Average oocytes per ovary were 1.66 + 0.43 oocytes per ovary were obtained via aspiration and 1.89 + 0.00 average oocytes per ovary through slicing method from cattle ovaries. Average 1.55 ± 0.55 oocytes per ovary via aspiration and 1.53 ± 0.20 oocytes per ovary through slicing from buffalo ovaries. Overall grade-A oocytes were 28 (40) percent with aspiration in cattle and 25(36.76) through slicing method. In buffalo overall grade-A oocytes retrieval was obtained in percentage as 20 (44.44) and 26 (52) through aspiration and slicing methods respectively. Grade-B oocytes recovery obtained was in percentage as 23 (33.82) with slicing and 19 (31.67) through aspiration technique from cattle ovaries. Summary 26 Commonly used methods of recovery of oocytes from slaughterhouse animals are aspiration and slicing. Recovery rate of oocytes is different from slaughterhouse ovaries. Aspiration is the best method for retrieval of good quality oocytes from slaughterhouse bovine ovaries because it gave more good quality oocytes in less time than slicing method. In this study, it is found that weight of ovary and no. of follicles/ovary in cattle have strong correlation of 71% existed between weight of ovary and no. of follicles /ovary in buffalo was observed. Correlation between average number of follicles on ovary and weight /ovary was stronger in cattle. The more the number of follicles present on the ovaries and more weight of the ovary, the more will be the recovery of oocytes. In cattle average number of follicles was 10.09 ± 0.30 and when it was checked in buffalo, differed significantly and it was found as 7.16 ± 0.19 on an average per ovary. Likewise weight of buffalo in this study was differed significantly from cattle 4.04 ± 0.10 and 7.62 ± 0.15 respectively. It is suggested that oocytes retrieval should be done in buffalo using aspiration method to retrieve better quality oocytes. It is concluded that aspiration is the suitable method for retrieval of good quality oocytes from slaughterhouse buffalo ovaries because it gave more good quality oocytes in less time than slicing method. But both methods have minor difference between recovery rates but aspiration is more convenient than slicing and it yields more quality oocytes. It is also found that there is very strong correlation existed between average weight of ovary and number of follicles per ovary and the both parameters play a great help for more quality and quantity oocytes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2279-T] (1).
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20. Effect Of Taurine Supplementation On Post-Thaw Quality Of Sahiwal Bull Semen

by Muhammad Irfan (2013-VA-599) | Dr. Aijaz Ali Cheema | Dr. Muhammad Younas | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: It is well recognized that cryopreservation of bovine semen results in decreased spermatozoal viability due to cryodamages. Oxidative stress is produced due to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) during freez-thaw process.Extreme production of ROS during cryopreservation has been associated with decreased post thaw %age motility, viability, and membrane integrity and sperm fertility capability. Basically antioxidants works to reduce or, taking up the formation of ROS. In recent years, taurine has been used as anti-oxidant in semen extenders and has been used in the cryopreservation of sperm from many species to improve post-thaw quality of spermatozoa by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and protecting cells against accumulation of ROS. Therefore, supplementation of taurine in semen extendercontaining 0,15,30,45 and 60mM concentration was used to decrease the harmful effects of cryopreservation on Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. Three Sahiwal bulls (4-8years) were used in the present study. The bulls were maintained at Semen production unit, Qadirabad and were offered good quality seasonal fodder (at the rate of 10% body weight), supplemented with concentrates (2-4kg/day). The semen was collected from each bull twice a week. Initially the semen was assessed for volume, motility, and concentration. Then the semen was pooled from all bulls and divided into 5 aliquots (150 ul each). Each aliquots diluted with 5groups extender which contain 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60mM taurine concentration. The semen was filled in 0.5ml straws cooled to 5c for 4 h, then frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196c). Post-thaw motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome and DNA integrity was evaluated and statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. The group supplemented with 60mM concentration of taurine decreased all parameters of post thaw quality ofSahiwal bull spermatozoa. However the group supplemented with 15mM concentration of taurine show higher significantly (p<0.05) results than control and other groups. The post-thaw motility of the group supplemented with 15mM taurine concentration (54.50±2.1) higher significantly (p<0.05) than control (45.50±0.90) and other groups. The treatment group of 15mM taurine concentration show signifantly (p<0.05) higher viability (58.60±1.58 vs50.80±0.70) , plasma membrane integrity (57.10±1.43 vs 49.00±0.65) acrosome integrity (56.80±0.59 vs48.10±1.66) and DNA integrity (98.80±0.23 vs 97.54±0.39) as compared to the control and other groups. It is concluded that the maximum beneficial effect of addition 15mM taurine in tris-based egg yolk extender gives better post-thaw parameters. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2269-T] (1).

21. Combine Effect Of Ionomycin And Strontium Chloride To Induce The Parthenogenetic Activation Of Mouse Oocytes

by Muhammad Ashraf (2013-VA-13) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Mushtaq Ahmad | Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Parthenogenesis is a phenomenon in which the development of oocyte oocur without fusion of male gamete. During fertilization spermatozoa trigger intracellular Ca+2 oscllation in M-II stage oocyte which initiates the embryonic development. The rises of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) ions is the basic step for the parthenogenesis. During parthenogenetic activation calcium channel open from endoplasmic reticulnum or depletion of calcium store and facilitate the calcium (Ca2+) from extracellular environment. Parthenogenetic technique is applied in cloning and production of embryonic stem cell lines for used to treat different diseases. Many scientists used different chemicals agents for artificial activation such as strontium, Ionomycin and Ethanol. Strontium chloride has been used widely for parthenogenetic activation of mouse oocyte, but its result to blastocyst development is poor. The objective of present study is to improve parthenogenetic activation and embryo development by combination of Ionomycin with strontium. Hypothesis of my study was Addition of Ionomycin in Strontium based activation protocol improves embryonic development. The present study was conducted in embryology lab of department theriogenology, university of veterinary and animal sciences, Lahore.Six to eigth week old female mice (n=100) were super ovulated with intra-peritoneal injections of eCG (5iu) followed by hCG injection (5iu) at 48 hrs interval. 14 hrs post hCG, the cumulus oocyte complexes were collected from oviduct of the mice. In experiment 1, the oocytes were activated by using Ionomycin with concentration of 5, 10 and 15 µmol/l for 5 and 10 followed by this activation with strontium chloride (10mmol/l). In experiment: 2, The oocytes were activated by activation medium having strontium (10 mM/l) and Ionomycin (5, 10 or 15 µmol/l) in combination. CZB medium were used for oocyte cultured in CO2 incubator of 5% CO2 at 37°C. Number of activated oocytes were analyzed by cleavage rate to blastocyst stage. In-vitro developmental potential of the activated oocytes were assessed by blastocyst. In experiment: 3, Zygotes were collected 18 h post-hCG and treated with the optimum concentration to check the toxicity effects on embryo development. In experiment 1, There were insignificant results observed on the bases of cleavage rate in each groups and time of activation as compared to control group. The tendency of morula and blastocysts formation rate was higher (p<0.05) in the 15µM for 10 min activation time as compared to other treatment groups and control group. In experiment 2, The tendency of cleavage rate was significantly higher in the 10 µM and 15µM groups as compared to other treatment group. The blastocyst formation rate was no statistically difference in all treatment and control group. While the toxicity experiment, there was no toxic effect of Ionomycin with Strontium Chloride. In conclusion, there was higher cleavage rate, 4 cells, morula and blastocyst formation rate in 15µM concentration of Ionomycin for 10 min with Strontium Chloride, there was no toxic effect of Ionomycin with Strontium Chloride on embryos and Ionomycin improved the activation rate and embryo development in combination with strontium chloride. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2319-T] (1).

22. Effect Of Molting On Reproductive Performance Of Indigenous Aseel Chicken

by Bashir Ahmad Khan (2013-VA-447) | Dr. Aijaz Ali Channa | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Athar Mahmud.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The native breeds of Aseel chicken are playing vital role by producing organic meat and eggs. The Aseel chicken breed has some advantage as compared to other native breeds like, Lyallpur Silver black and Desi for their growth traits. However the growth and production traits need to be enhanced. There is no commercial farming system of Aseel chicken due to its poor fertility and hatchability. To overcome these problems the breeding roosters must be physiologically elite having excellent semen quality for better growth and egg production. The objective of this study was to enhance the semen quality, fertility and hatchability of Aseel roosters by the process of induced molting. For this purpose molting was induced in the 3 old males. There were three groups of Aseel Lakha cockerels’ i.e. molted, non-molted and fresh. The research was performed at Indigenous Genetic Resource Center (ICGRC), Department of Poultry Production, Ravi Campus, Pattoki. To evaluate the impact of induced molting on semen quality, fertility and hatchability followed by natural mating of females to get better fertility and hatchability in eggs. Six Aseel roosters up to 60 weeks of age having 3.5 to 4kg body weight were divided into two groups’ as molted and non-molted. Third group of fresh birds more than 30 weeks of age were selected in this experiment as control. In one older group molting was induced by feed restriction. After completion of molting, two weeks rest was given to birds to recover body weight. These birds were trained for semen collection by abdominal massage method for two weeks. Semen was brought to the laboratory for evaluation after collection in all three groups. The significant difference (P < 0.05), was observed for volume, concentration, motility, livability and morphological defects in molted, non-molted and fresh groups. Eggs collected from the females mated with three groups were stored at 40C for two weeks. After that these Summary 26 fertility, infertile eggs, and dead germs, dead in shell and hatchability% were recorded in three experimental groups. There was significant difference (P < 0.05), between fertility % infertile eggs % dead germs % and hatchability %. It is concluded that the semen quality is improved by the process of induce molting. Further egg sets from the females mated with induced molted males’ yielded better fertility (77%) and hatchability (54.1%) in indigenous Aseel chicken so induced molting is a better tool for the old males after 60 weeks of age for their reproductive performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2423-T] (1).

23. Effect Of Trehalose And L-Cysteine On Post Thaw Semen Quality, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity And Fertility In Nili Ravi Buffalo Bulls

by Sajid Iqbal | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Syed Murtaza Hassan Andrabi | Dr. Syed Murtaza Hassan Andrabi | Prof. Dr. Nasim Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Addition of various antioxidants in semen extender is one of the vital strategies being applied in reproductive biology for attaining functionally/structurally integral sperms and hence an appropriate conception rate. It is well established that chilling of buffalo semen results in decreased semen quality which is highly associated with decreased antioxidant activity and higher ROS production. Furthermore, buffalo bull spermatozoa are more susceptible to oxidative damage as compared to cattle bull spermatozoa. It is believed that this difference is due to higher contents of polyunsaturated phospholipids present in plasma membrane of buffalo bull spermatozoa. Freezing process accelerates the production of ROS molecules which may decrease the viability of buffalo bull spermatozoa during storage. Therefore, supplementation of antioxidants in semen extender is required to decrease the ROS-mediated damages to buffalo spermatozoa. The present study had, hence, been designed to monitor the effects of trehalose and L-Cysteine on the semen quality, antioxidant enzyme activity and fertility of Nili Ravi Buffalo bulls. Semen samples (n= 20) from 4 buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid based extender having different concentrations of trehalose (0.0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) and frozen in French straws. At post dilution, profile of sperm catalase (U/mL) was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15, 30 and 45 mM of trehalose as compared to control. While profiles of superoxide dismutase (U/mL) and total glutathione (μM) were higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 15 and 30 mM of trehalose as compared to control. At pre freezing, sperm catalase, superoxide dismutase and total glutathione profiles were higher (P < 0.05) in all the treatment groups as compared to control. At post thawing, the profiles of catalase and total glutathione were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30 mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. Whereas, profile of superoxide dismutase was higher (P < 0.05) in extenders containing 30, 45 and 60 mM of trehalose as compared to control and 15 mM group. Post thaw total sperm motility (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30 mM trehalose as compared to control and 15 and 60 mM groups. While sperm progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity (μm/s), straight linear velocity (μm/s), curvilinear velocity (μm/s), plasma membrane (structural and functional, %), acrosome (%) and DNA (%) integrity were higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing 30 mM trehalose as compared to other treatment groups and control. The fertility rates (61% vs. 43%) were higher (P < 0.05) in buffaloes inseminated with semen doses cryopreserved in extender containing 30 mM of trehalose than the control. It is concluded that addition of 30 mM trehalose in extender improves the semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post thaw quality, and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Similarly Semen samples from 4 buffalo bulls were diluted in Tris-citric acid based extender having different concentrations of L-cysteine (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mM) and frozen into 0.5 ml French straws. The antioxidative enzymes [catalase, super oxide dismutase and total glutathione (peroxidase/reductase)] were significantly higher (P< 0.05) at pre freezing and post thawing in extender containing 2.0 mM L-Cysteine as compared to other groups. Post thaw total motility (%), progressive motility (%), rapid velocity (%), average path velocity(μm s-1), straight line velocity (μm s-1), curvilinear velocity (μm s-1), beat cross frequency (Hz), viable sperm with intact plasmalemma (%), acrosome and DNA integrity (%) were higher with addition of 2.0 mM L-cysteine as compared to other groups (P < 0.05). The fertility rates (59 vs. 43%) were higher (P < 0.05) in buffaloes inseminated with doses containing 2.0 mM of L-cysteine than the control. In conclusion, addition of 2.0 mM L-cysteine in extender improved the SUMMARY 77 antioxidant enzymes profile, post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of Nili Ravi buffalo bull spermatozoa. Conclusion It was concluded that addition of 30mM Trehalose and 2.0mM L-Cysteine in semen extender has significantly improved semen antioxidant enzymes activity, post thaw quality and fertility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2550-T] (1).

24. Effect Of Day Of Estrous Cycle On Superovulatory Response And Embryo Quality By Using Fsh In Balb/C Mice

by Umair Ashfaq (2009-VA-138) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Ali Husnain | Dr. M. Hassan Mushtaq.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: The inconsistent superovulatory response to gonadotropins is a challenge in biological experiments using mice as a research model. In mice, limited superovulatory response to gonadotropin may be related to the initiation of gonadotropin treatment as suggested in domestic animals. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of stage of estrous cycle on the superovulatory response and embryo quality after treating with FSH or eCG in in BALB/c mice. In experiment 1, relative ratios of vaginal epithelial cells and leukocytes were used to characterize the stages of estrous cycle in mice (n=10). In experiment 2, effect of stage of estrous cycle on no. of oocytes/cleaved embryos at 36 h post hCG, no. of cells in blastocysts at 84 h post hCG and no. of somites in embryos at dpc 9.5 were determined by treating mice (n=62) with eCG or FSH at each stage of estrous cycle. A total of twenty eight mice (n= 7 per stage) were treated with single dose of eCG (5 IU; IP). A total of thirty four mice (n=7-10 mice per stage) were treated with FSH (2.5 IU per does; SC) in four equal doses at every 12 h. All mice were given hCG (5IU, I.P) 48h after eCG or 12h after last injection of FSH. Results revealed that the relative ratios of parabasal cells, cornfield cells and leukocytes were 84, 13, 3% in proestrus, 2, 95, 3% in estrus, 6, 37, 57% in metestrus, and 4, 5, 91% in diestrus, respectively. The mean interval between two consecutive estrus stages was 4.9 ± 0.3 days. Despite the inconsistent transitional pattern among the stages, the duration of proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 24.0±2.7, 28.6±3.7, 17.3±2.9 and 52.6 ±3.7 h, respectively. In FSH-treated mice, stage of estrous cycle did not affect the total no. of oocytes/embryos. However, in eCG-treated mice, proestrus and estrus had higher (P< 0.05) number of oocytes/embryos. Similarly, the number of cleaved embryos were not different (P> 0.05) among Summary 47 stages in FSH-treated mice while eCG-treated mice had higher (P< 0.05) no. of cleaved embryos in proestrus. Differential staining 84 hours post hCG revealed that proestrus stage of eCG treatment has blastocysts of highest total number of cells, number of trophectoderm cells and number of inner cell mass cells. At 9.5 dpc there was no significant difference in number of somites in embryos of all groups. In conclusion, superovulatoion by eCG at proestrus yielded higher number of good quality oocytes/embryos as compared to FSH. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2575-T] (1).

25. Effect Of Bovine Somatotropin On Productive Performance In Nili Ravi Buffaloes During Mid Lactation

by Muhammad Imran (2006-VA-16) | Dr. Muhammad Qamar Shahid | Dr. Muhammad Saad Ullah | Dr. Amjad Riaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Agriculture being the backbone of economy contributes 21% of GDP in which major share 55.5 % is of Livestock sectorin the agriculture value added and 11.9 percent of National GDP.Total milk production in Pakistan is 52 million tons per year. Buffalo is playing a leading role in the national economy by producing more milk.Out of total milk produced in the country, buffalo contributes about 68%(Anonymous,2012). Nili Ravi is the best performing animal producing more milk than other buffalo breeds in the world (2500 liters per lactation) but daily average milk production per animal is 7-8 liters. Increasing population in the World as well as Pakistan has resulted in higher demand of milk and milk by products. Animalresearchers are trying to devise different ways through which they can fulfill the increasing demand of milk and meat. Milk and meat production enhancement through different biotechnologies are thought to be important for the developing countries. Synthetic Bovine Somatotropin Hormone (bST) is one of biotechnological product which can help to increasethe production of animals. The current study was conducted atLivestock Experiment Station Bhunikey, Pattoki to determine the effect ofbSTon DMI, body weight, milk production, milk composition, body condition score and production efficiencyin lactatingNili-Ravi buffaloes.Fifty Nili-Ravi lactating buffaloes were selected from the herd at LES Bhunikey, Pattoki. The buffaloes were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) with 25 in each group.All the buffaloes offered silage ad libitum, water access round the clock and supplemented with concentrate @ 1 kg for 2 liter of milk production. Group A was administered with 500mg bST at 14 days interval for 5 months and group B was as control. Dry matter intake was recorded on weekly basis and milk production measured twice a day (morning and evening). Body weight of buffaloes measured on monthly basis. Milk samples were collected after every 2 weeks for fat, lactose, proteins, solid-not-fats and total solids contents using milk analyzer in the Farm and Health Laboratory, Buffalo Research Institute, Pattoki. Body condition score of buffaloes on 5-point scale recorded before bST administration during adjustment period then during bST treatment in middle of experiment and finally when withdraw of bST administration. Data obtained was statistically analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) using proc GLM procedure of SAS. Treatment was considered as fixed effect and start milk was used as covariate to avoid any bias. Milk production, DMI and mastitis incidence significantly increased in lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes with bST administration. Body condition score decreased significantly but body weight change was non significant in bST treated buffaloes. bST treatment increased milk production in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.However, the mastitis incidence and antibiotic treatment increased in bST treated animals. Antibiotic residues in milk are major cause of antibiotic resistance in humans which is a huge challenge to humanity in 21st century. So bST treatment is not a viable approach for enhancing milk production. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2571-T] (1).

26. Comparison Of Estradiol Benzoate And Gnrh In Cidr Based Superovulation Protocols For The Initiation Of Follicular Wave Emergence In Exotic And Crossbred Cattle

by Khalid Mahmood (2005-VA-114) | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Prof. Dr. Mian Abdul Sattar | Dr. M. Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Background: Livestock is a major contributor to the national (11.9%) and agriculture (55.4%) economy in Pakistan. Milk and meat are major livestock products of Pakistan, which is ranked fourth largest milk-producing country in the world. The growth rate of dairy sector is growing very fast for last several years, however, the genetic potential of elite cows is continuously deteriorating due to unavailability of reproductive biotechnologies such as embryo transfer. Normally one calf per year can be obtained from elite mothers. Maximum number of offspring can be obtained by superovulation. This will helpful in production of genetically superior offspring in limited time thus resulting in maximum exploitation of genetic potential of elite cows. In Pakistan more than 80% farmers are small holder having 2-3 animals with low genetic potential. The use of elite mothers by these farmers is limiting due to high cost. Superovulation is a strategy that can be used to make low cost embryos available for small holders. This will result in maximum spread of genetic potential of superior females. Use of follicular wave emergence based super stimulation and timed ovulation with help of CIDR can improve the results of super ovulation protocols and may be an effective tool to improve the per unit time embryo production. Hypothesis: Use of EB or GnRH in CIDR based superovulation protocols may result in improved super ovulatory response in cattle. Methodology: This study was conducted at Centre of Excellence for Bovine Genetics Embryo Transfer Wing Okara. Seventy Donor cows (mix of crossbred and Holstein Frisian) were selected. Animals coming into natural heat, were randomly assigned into one of the following superovulation protocols; (A) In first group (n=37), which was considered as control, on 8th day after heat animals were palpated for presence of a good quality CL and super ovulatory treatment CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY 38 i.e. twice daily FSH injection were started on “Day 11” of its cycle for four consecutive days. On day 3rd of FSH treatment PGF2α was injected both in the morning and evening. Animals were inseminated in the morning and evening on the 5th day of superovulation treatment and next day morning based on detected heat. Embryos were collected from the animal on 7th day after first insemination. A PG injection was administered to the animal three days after embryo collection. (B) In second superovulation protocol (n= 15), the animals were palpated for the presence of a good quality CL on “Day 8” and a CIDR was placed after the confirmation of CL. An injection of 2mg EB (Estradiol Benzoate) was also administered on the same day. Super ovulatory treatment was initiated by “Day 11” of its heat cycle as narrated in first superovulation protocol with only difference of CIDR removal along with 7th dose of FSH. Animals were inseminated with a single straw of semen if on heat in the next day morning (Day 16 after natural heat) or with double straw at “3 pm” if not on heat in the morning. Animals were also inseminated on next day morning if heat sustained till next day morning. Animal were collected by non-surgical flushing seven days after first insemination at super estrus. A PG injection was also given to the animals three days after embryo collection. (C) In third superovulation protocol (n=18), the animal were palpated for the presence of a good quality CL on “Day 8” and a CIDR was placed after the confirmation of CL. An injection of “2ml Dalmaralin” was administered on the same day. Super ovulatory treatment was initiated by “Day 11” of its heat cycle in similar sequence as narrated in second superovulation protocol. At least 5 animals of each category (i.e. Crossbred and Holstein Frisian) were treated with each super stimulatory protocol. In conclusion, CIDR plus GnRH or CIDR plus EB protocols are better than normal superovulation protocol for embryo production in cattle. Summary 39 Outcomes: This study remained helpful to improve the existing superovulation protocols for bovines with promising results which will help the genetic improvement programs of bovine in Pakistan. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2636-T] (1).

27. Development Of Novel Mtdna Metabarcodes For The Species Differentiation Of Class Amphibia

by Rehmatullah (2011-VA-365) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. M. Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Amjad Riaz.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The Folmer COI mtDNA universal primers that are considered standard for DNA barcoding of life contain so many mismatches against the target sequences of vertebrate origin that they often end in failure to amplify many of vertebrate DNA extractions. This discrepancy favors for the selection and designing of new metabarcode primers that can be used to identify all individuals of vertebrates or at least all individuals represented in a class of Vertebrata such as Class Amphibia. The current study embarks on such an endeavor. In this study development of new mtDNA metabarcode (16SrRNA) that can be used as universal primers to amplify almost all species of Class Amphibia for different forensic and molecular biodiversity analyses. Tissue samples were collected from order Urodela of Class Amphibia (Toads , Bull frog and skittering frogs sample were collected from Punjab, Pakistan). DNA was extracted from the collected specimens through standard organic method, qualified and quantified and then PCRamplified using novel universal primers selected from aligned mtDNA sequences originating from order Urodela mitochondrial DNA genomes submitted to different online sequence databases such as NCBI nucleotide database. The sensitivity of PCR also be assessed using a range of DNA concentrations. The amplified products were sequenced on ABI Genetic Analyzer following Sanger’s dideoxy method of sequencing. The correctness of obtained mtDNA sequences were examined visually in Chromas Lite 2.1 software and then alignment of these sequences were performed against highly similar DNA sequences in NCBI nucleotide databases using BLAST in order to identify origin of unknown mtDNA sequences. With the help of sequencing and phylogenetic studies specificity of the universal primer set confirmed and Summary 67 presented as a novel metabarcode (16SrRNA) for species level identification of large number of Amphibian species. In summary, we present universal method for species classification of Amphibia using a targeted parallel sequencing approach. Both sequencing and phylogenetic studies experiments confirm specificity of universal primer set. Although promising results were obtained with current settings, rapid improvement of bench top instruments will further develop method with less hands-on, fewer sequencing errors and lower detection limit. So, in future, this barcode can be used for species identification in various fields of study such as meat adulteration, illegal trade, food mislabeling and molecular estimation of biodiversity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2874-T] (1).

28. Eye Color Prediction Using Snps Of Oca2 And Herc2 Genes In Different Eye Color Groups From Pakistani Population

by Iqra Baig (2015-VA-813) | Dr. Muhammad Yasir Zahoor | Dr. Saadat Ali | Dr. Amjad Riaz.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The outward appearance of living organism that can be visualized is known as External visible characteristic (EVCs). These are related to the interaction of different genes among themselves and with their environment. Through this technique police investigators or other forensic investigators determine perpetrators which are completely unknown to investigating authourities or to pinpoint missing persons utilizing biological samples in those situations where all other evidences of query, along with conventional DNA profiling give non-uniformities. Eye color is a multiplex trait controlled by many genes but the two major genes which play crucial role to determine eye color are OCA2 and HERC2 genes. 74% eye color of human is under the control of OCA2 gene and its function is influenced by HERC2 gene. These are present on chromosome 15. Eye color trait has miscellaneous inheritance pattern which does not obey simple pattern of Mendelian inheritance. Blood samples of 40 volunteers along with photographs of iris collected from local population of Pakistan by categorizing different eye colors. DNA was extracted using organic extraction method. Then amplified using PCR with primers of SNP rs1800401 of OCA2 gene and SNP rs12913832 of HERC2 gene. Primers were designed through primer 3 software. Amplicons were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Samples were sequenced by Sanger sequencing and chromatograms were analyzed by pairwise and multiple alignment tools. We mapped five polymorphic sites in OCA2 gene including SNPs rs1800401 and rs10300271. Polymorphic sites of OCA2 are 89406 C>T, 89401 G>T, 894019 A>T, 89422 A>C and 89435 C>A. Six polymorphic sites of HERC2 also analyzed including SNP rs12913832 at 206678 T>C and other polymorphic sites are 206617delA, 206631delA, 206683 T>A, 206688delA and 206713delA. These polymorphic sites were further analyzed by applying t-test which shows no significant association between retrieved polymorphic sites and eye color except polymorphic site 89422 with genotype A>C in OCA2 gene (novel) and polymorphic site 206678 with genotype T>C in HERC2 gene (already reported) both are associated with non-brown eye color variation in our study. In conclusion, more research to DNA based human appearance prediction is recommended using large sample size as there are more SNPs also involve that would be very useful for identification or investigative leads in forensic future aspects. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2902-T] (1).

29. Sequence Analysis Of Comt Gene As Suceptibility Factor For Aggression In Domestic And Wild Cats

by Maham Nawaz (2011-VA-455) | Dr. Asif Nadeem | Dr. Saadat Ali | Dr. Amjad Riaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Behavior that is directed to injure living beings and damage their neuroconductual processes without any incitement, represents the aggressive behavior. COMT gene is of much importance in determining violent act in both animal and human.The present study is designed to molecular characterize the gene with following objective: to screen out polymorphism (SNPs) in exonic region of COMT gene in cats and tiger and to associate the identified polymorphism in cats and tiger. Aggression questionnaire was filled by honors of all domestic and wild cats included in our study.Blood sample of 5 Stray cat, 5 Persian cat and 5 Siamese cat and 5 Bengal tigers were collected from Lahore Zoo, UVAS PET Centre, Private Pet Clinics and Safari Zoo Lahore for SNP analysis. DNA were extracted from blood by organic method, 5 sets of primers were designed by primer 3 software for the amplification of the COMT genes. The amplified PCR products were precipitated and sequenced bi-directionally on ABI 3130XL Genetic analyzer, for the identification of SNPs.Alignment of sequences were done with the help of blast2 sequences. For sequence data analysis, Bioedit and Clustal W were used to complete the study.Results of sequencing were analyzed using BioEdit software. Sequence alignment tool like Clustal W was used for SNPs identification. 3 intronic and 1 exonic SNPs were observed and confirmed by Clustal W. Exonic SNP was linked to aggression. However, intronic SNPs were not found to be associated with self-reported aggression. SNP observed in exon 2 is reported to be involved in psychiatric and depressive disorders.Our study highlighted the role of COMTgene polymorphisms in aggression in animals (Cats and tiger). Different breeding Policies and Pet plains are now working and we can screen out the susceptibility of aggression in cats and tiger. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2901-T] (1).

30. Development Of Novel MTDNA Metbarcodes For Species Differentiation Of Class Pisces

by Hira (2010-VA-476) | Dr. Muhammad Imran | Dr. Saadat Ali | Dr. Amjad Riaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The Folmer COI mtDNA universal primers that are considered standard for DNA barcoding of life contain so many mismatches against the target sequences of vertebrate origin that they often end in failure to amplify many of vertebrate DNA extractions. This discrepancy favors for the selection and designing of new metabarcode primers that can be used to identify all individuals of vertebrates or at least all individuals represented in a class of Vertebrata such as Class Pisces. The current study embarks on such an endeavor. In this study development of new mtDNA metabarcode (16SrRNA) that can be used as universal primers to amplify almost all species of Class Aves for different forensic and molecular biodiversity analyses. Fins/tissue samples were collected from Class Pisces (one specimen from every order reported to be present in Pakistan). DNA was extracted from the collected specimens through standard organic method, qualified and quantified and then PCR-amplified using novel universal primers selected from aligned mtDNA sequences originating from all Pisces mitochondrial DNA genomes submitted to different online sequence databases such as NCBI nucleotide database. The sensitivity of PCR also be assessed using a range of DNA concentrations. The amplified products were sequenced on ABI Genetic Analyzer following Sanger’s dideoxy method of sequencing. The correctness of obtained mtDNA sequences were examined visually in Chromas Lite 2.1 software and then alignment of these sequences were performed against highly similar DNA sequences in NCBI nucleotide databases using BLAST in order to identify origin of unknown mtDNA sequences. With the help of sequencing and phylogenetic studies specificity of the universal primer set confirmed and presented as a novel metabarcode (16SrRNA) for species level identification of large number of Piscean species In summary, we present universal method for species classification of Pisces using a targeted parallel sequencing approach. Both sequencing and phylogenetic studies experiments confirm specificity of universal primer set. Although promising results were obtained with current settings, rapid improvement of bench top instruments will further develop method with less hands-on, fewer sequencing errors and lower detection limit. So, in future, this barcode can be used for species identification in various fields of study such as meat adulteration, illegal trade, food mislabeling and molecular estimation of biodiversity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2899-T] (1).

31. Mutational Analysis Of Atp7b Gene Responsible For Wilson’s Disease And Its Homology Analysis In Primates And Mouse

by Amama Ghaffar (2011-VA-375) | Dr. M. Yasir Zahoor | Prof. Dr. Huma Arshad Cheema | Dr. M. Imran | Dr. Amjad Riaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Copper being an essential element to carry out different cellular processes normally is maintained through proper regulation mechanisms to avoid its accumulation in the body. ATP7B gene that codes for ATP dependent P type ATP7B protein controls the regulation of copper in the body. It is required for the proper delivery of copper to apoceruloplasmin and its excretion through bile in the form of feces. Therefore, mutation occurring in the ATP7B gene can cause excessive cellular copper accumulation which results into Wilson’s disease. Variation in ATP7B gene related to copper transportation leads to Wilson’s disease and transmitted in generation through recessive pattern of inheritance. For this study blood samples of fifteen Wilson’s disease affected patients along with normal individuals of the same family were collected from Children's Hospital & Institute of Child Health, Lahore. DNA was extracted from blood through organic extraction method followed by DNA quantification. Amplification of exons 8, 13, 14 and 18 of ATP7B gene was performed after designing specific primers for these specific regions. Sequencing of amplified products was done through dideoxy chain termination method. A disease causing mutation of ATP7B gene c.3155 C>T; p1052 Proline (CCC) to Leucine (CTC) has been mapped on exon 14 in family with Wilson’s disease. This mutation can be used for genetic testing, prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. No mutation was found in exons 8, 13 and 18 which mean that further study needs to be done to find more local mutation(s) that can be used for fast direct genetic testing of Wilson’s disease patients or the carriers with heterozygotic conditions who can develop this disease at any age of their life. Results 87 MUSCLE and Clustal Omega were used for homology analysis of ATP7B gene nucleotide and protein sequences that revealed Gorilla to be closest to human regarding coding sequences, while Clustal Omega output file showed all the species varied highly in their protein structure homologies. Through the prediction of secondary structure homologies it was seen that marmoset was closest to humans. This study helped in providing prenatal diagnosis and genetic screening services in the country. It has facilitated in selecting animal models for further study and research on ATP7B gene and molecular pathogenesis of the Wilson’s disease leading to prevention and cure of disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2892-T] (1).

32. Qualitative And Quantitative Assessment Of Fertile Period In Bitches

by Anam Mushtaq (2009-VA-388) | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: The estrous cycle of the bitch consists of 4 phases including proestrus, estrus, diestrus and an obligatory anestrus. Most of the owners normally assess the fertile period on the base of qualitative parameters and mate their bitches on predetermined days. This is the major cause of apparent infertility in bitches. The most reliable assessment for timing of mating is through quantitative assessment through vaginal cytology and progesterone assay. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of qualitative and quantitative assessment of fertile period in bitches. Furthermore, the effect of assessment method was studied on fertility (number of pregnant bitches) and prolificity (number of pups in a litter). This study was conducted on 148 referral cases of bitches brought to Theriogenology Laboratory. The data of qualitative assessment by the owners was collected by a questioner while quantitative assessment was based on vaginal cytology and progesterone assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS and logistic regression to compare the fertility (number of pregnancies) and prolificacy (number of pups) among groups. In qualitative group, only 32% bitches were diagnosed pregnant. In contrast, the quantitative group showed a significantly higher fertility (83%) as compared to qualitative group (P<0.05) with odd ratio of 3 times higher fertility. Similarly, in qualitative group, 58% bitches had litter of 1-4 pups while the rest had a litter ranging in 5-10 pups. In contrast, quantitative group showed significantly (P<0.05) higher prolificity with 79% bitches having a litter of 5-10 with 4 times higher odd ratio. Meanwhile, the percentage of bitches having a smaller litter (1-4 pups) was considerably low (21%). In conclusion, the quantitative assessment of fertile period is more accurate and results in significantly higher fertility and prolificity. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2946-T] (1).

33. Effect Of Antibiotic Treatment During Ovulation Synchronization In Repeat Breeder Holstein Friesian Cows

by Masood Shabbir (2010-VA-120) | Dr. Muhammad Zahid Tahir | Dr. Amjad Riaz | Dr. Muhammad Avais.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Repeat breeding is one of the major causes of reproductive, productive and economic losses in dairy sector. The main causes of repeat breeding include sub-clinical infection of reproductive tract, age of the animal, error in the detection of estrus, endocrine dysfunction and nutritional deficiencies. In Pakistan, a very high incidence of repeat breeding has been documented (Kakar et al. 1997). In the past, intrauterine infusions have successfully been used with a variety of antiseptic and antibiotic solutions. Meanwhile, therapeutic use of GnRH and PGF2α has also been demonstrated to result in improved pregnancy rates. In particular, Ovsynch protocol leads to an increase of 6-17% in conception rate. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive efficiency with antibiotic treatment during ovulation synchronization in repeat breeder Holstein Friesian cows. This study was conducted on 30 pure bred Holstein Friesian cows kept under standard farm conditions of feeding and management at Hussain Cattle and Dairy Farm, Kasur. The reproductive efficiency of treated and control animals was based on ovulation rate, non-return rate, conception rate, pregnancy rate, embryonic losses and luteal function. Results were analyzed by independent T-test. A probability level of 95% was consider as significant (P<0.05). All the experimental animals were screened to confirm non-pregnant and normal genitalia. Both the treatment and control groups were synchronized using ovsynch protocol. Following first injection of GnRH, the treatment group was subjected to intrauterine antibiotic infusion for five days. On Day 7 of protocol both groups received an injection of PGF2α. At day 9 of ovsynch protocol before second injection of GnRH both groups were scanned for ovarian status. Follicles and CL measurement were noted and mapped by using 7.5 MHz trans-rectal probe (Honda 22 Summary Model HS-1600) in both groups and second injection of GnRH was given. Timed artificial insemination was performed after 16-20 hours of second injection of GnRH in both groups. After 8 hours of artificial insemination again ultrasonography was conducted to check the ovulation rate in both groups, there was no significant difference between control and treatment, 60% and 75% of the animals in control and treatment groups ovulate respectively. At day 11 blood samples were collected for progesterone assay. Non-return rate was visually observed at day 18 to 21 of artificial insemination. Blood was collected at day 18 for progesterone assay by puncture of tail vein. After D28 andD42 of artificial insemination first and second pregnancy test were conducted by using 7.5 MHz trans-rectal probe (Honda Model HS-1600) in control and treatment group. There was a significant difference of pregnancy among the control and treatment group by independent T-test. 3 rd and 4 th blood samples were collected for progesterone assay at day28 and 42 of artificial insemination in both groups respectively. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2951-T] (1).



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