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1. Passive Immunization Against Canine Parvovirus In Dogs

by Umer Ahmad | Dr. Masood Rabbani | Dr. Asim Khalid | Dr. Khushi Muhammad | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2003Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0836,T] (1).

2. Comparative Study Of Flank Vs Midline Approach For Overiohysterectomy In Cats

by Mudassir Ahmad Rana | Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Nature of contents: biography; Literary form: Publisher: 2005Dissertation note: Ovariohysterctomy is one of the most commonly performed operation in cats and is indicated for both medical and behavioral reasons. The most common indication of ovariohysterectomy is elective sterilization which avoids all objectionable sexual behaviors and over population. Ovariohysterectomy is the treatment of choice for most uterine diseases and it greatly reduces risk of mammary neoplasia. The method of performing ovariohysterectomy in cats must be affordable, safe, reliable & convenient. In the past different approaches have been tried for ovariohysterctomy in cats viz. linea alba(ventral midline) and vertical flank. But the relative efficacy of the approaches has not been determined in the past in our conditions. The objective of our study is to compare and evaluate these two approaches in our environmental conditions. The Flank approach was found to be relatively better than the Ventral midline approach in our conditions in terms of convenience, reliability, safety with rapid recovery and less postoperative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0917,T] (1).

3. A Study On The Occurrence Of Enteric Protozoa Of Pet Dogs

by Dr. Khalid Qasir | Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Asim Khalid | Prof. Dr. H.A. Hashmi | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2004Dissertation note: This study was designed to record the occurrence of enteric protozoan parasites of pet dogs. A total of 150 faecal samples of pet dogs of different age, breed and sex were collected. These dogs were equally divided into three age groups i.e. group A (< 6 months of age), group B (> 6 months and < 1 year of age) and group C (> 1 year of age). These faecal samples were examined by direct smear method, Sheather's sugar flotation technique and zinc sulfate flotation technique. Information regarding the clinical status of animals, age, breed and faecal consistency were also recorded. The overall prevalence of enteric protozoan parasites was 35.3 percent. Prevalence of various species belonging to Genera Giardia, Isospora, Cryptosporidium Entamoeba and Balantidium was 18.66, 14.66, 5.33, 1.33 and 1.33 percent. Prevalence of enteric protozoan was higher (44%) in pet dogs of group A, followed by 36.0 and 26.0 percent in group B and group C, respectively. The prevalence of gastro-intestinal protozoan in domestic dogs passing normal faeces was 33.65% and passing abnormal faeces was 39.13%. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 0935,T] (1).

4. Prevalence Of Cestodes And Comparative Efficacy Of Niclosamide, Mebendazole And Fenbendazole In Pet Dogs

by Muhammad Shahid | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan | Faculty of Veterinary Sciences.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2010Dissertation note: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cestodes infestation in pet dogs in district Lahore and to evaluate the efficacy of niclosamide, mebendazole and fenbendazole against them. For this the samples were collected from three different clinics in Lahore for a period of 3 months. A total of 400 samples were collected. Three types of cestodes were identified (E.granulosus, T.hydatigena and D.caninum). The highest prevalence revealed was that of T.hydatigena and the lowest was of D.caninum in pet dogs. For the drug trials, 32 dogs were divided into four groups named group A (niclosamide), group B (mebendazole), group C (fenbendazole) and group D (positive control). The sampling was performed on day 0, 7 and 21 & the treatment with each drug was made on 0 and 7 days. Later on the reduction in EPG and the calculation of efficacy revealed that mebendazole is the best drug among the three drugs used and the efficacy of fenbendazole was found to be very poor. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1164,T] (1).

5. Prevalence And Chemotherapy Of Ear Mite Investiation In Cat

by Tariq Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Kamran | prof. Dr. M. Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cates are a common companion animal and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million. The ear mite O. cynotis is the most common mange mite of dogs and cates. In the presence tudy, the prevalence of Otocdectes cynotis was reorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with O. cynotis were divided into four groups. In group A, ivermctin was applied topically in the ears at the dos rate of 500 ug/kg B.W (0.05ml) twise a week in the form of drops. The efficacy of ivermectin was observed by collecting the sample on day 7, 14 and 28 after the commencement of treatment. Similarly, in Group B, Fipronil (0.5ml) and in Group C, cypermethrin at the dose of 0.5ml/each ear were employed however, Groiup D was kept as control and was not given any treatment. The data obtained was statistically analysed under analysis of variance technique. Results showed that prevalence was 45.34%, 6.17% and 25.71% in Persian, Siamese and Local breeds of the cats respectively. Age wise prevalence i.e., biorth to 12 months, 1-5 years and 5 plus age group was 40.38%, 27.97% and 17.5% respectively. Insecticides used in study i.e, Iveremectin (A) and Fipronil (B) showed 100% efficacy while, Cypermethrin (c) was 75% in its performance. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1238,T] (1).

6. Prevalence Of Dermatophytosis In Domestic Dogs And In-Vivo Evaluation Of Topical Anri-Fungal Agents

by Muhammad Mudassar Aziz | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. khalid Saeed | Dr. Muhammad Hassan Saleem.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The pet dog is a domesticated animal, belonging to the family Canidae and it comes within the order Carnivora. The given nomenclature is used for all varieties of pet dogs. Earlier, this pet animal was used for different purposes which include hunting, fighting and also different types of work had been taken from it. Dermatophytosis is the common skin infection in dogs especially in the young ones. A total of 300 samples were collected. The 36 samples were found positive and then divided into 3 groups. In group K, Ketoconazole was applied topically twice a week. Later on the efficacy of Ketoconazole was observed by collecting the samples on day 7, 14 and 21 after the commencement of treatment, which was 20%, 60% and 90% respectively. Similarly, Group L was treated with Lime sulphur and the efficacy of Limesulphur against M.canis infection, was found to be 60%, 80% and 100% on day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. Group M was treated with Miconazole. The efficacy of miconazole against M.canis was found to be 50%, 75% and 100% on day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. At the end, it was concluded that Lime sulphur was the best drug of choice among the three drugs used and the efficacy of ketoconazole was lesser than the others. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1304,T] (1).

7. Efficacy Of Antifungal Agents Against Dermatophytosis In Cats

by Muhammad Irfan Saleem | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: The cat is commonly kept as pet all over the world. The dermatophyte Microsporum canis is the most common fungal agent of dogs and cats. In the presence study, the prevalence of Microsporum canis was recorded in pet cats in the area of district Lahore. The animals found positive with Microsporum canis were divided into three groups named, group A (griseofulvin), group B (ketoconazole) and group C (terbinafine). All the drugs were given orally and the efficacy of each drug was observed by collecting the samples on 15 days interval after the commencement of treatment until the mycological cure was achieved up till day 90th. Prevalence of M. canis infestation was 31%. The breed wise prevalence was highest in Persian cats as compared to Siamese and local breed and the prevalence were also higher in young ones as compared to old age cats. Later on the calculation of efficacy revealed that griseofulvin was the best drug among the three drugs used. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1305,T] (1).

8. Prevalence Of Gryptosporidiosis In Per Dogs And Comparative Efficacy Of Azithromycin, Clindamycin And Tylosin

by Muhammad Jameel | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Prof.Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Format: print Publisher: 2011Dissertation note: Cryptosporidiosis is one of the important parasitic diseases of dogs and other canine and feline species which is of special concern with reference to the immuno-compromised individuals. Several trials have been run to estimate the prevalence and treatment of the said disease in different regions of the globe, in immuno-competent and in immuno-compromised patients as well. The aim of this study was not only to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidiosis in pet dogs in the Lahore district but to evaluate the comparative efficacy of Azithromycin, Clindamycin, Tylosine and combination of Clindamycin and Tylosine as well. For this purpose, in first phase of the trial, oocyst enumeration was performed in 300 samples collected from three different clinics in Lahore district. The prevalence was found to be 21.33%. In the second phase, 32 Cryptosporidiosis positive dogs were selected and were randomly divided into four equal groups. These four groups of dogs were given afore-mentioned dosages of the above mentioned drugs and oocyst count was done on d 7, d 14 and d 21. The results revealed that Azithromycin proved itself as the most successful drug in elimination of Cryptosporidium in dogs as it showed 79.26% efficacy as compared to the combination of Clindamycin and Tylosine (43.58%), Clindamycin (26.53%) and Tylosine (16.03%). It should be stated that the future trials may manipulate the dose rates and the period of therapy to achieve even better results. The efficacy results for the combination of Clindamycin and Tylosine also suggested a positive innovation in its regimen in future studies. And last but not least, the efficacy percentages of Clindamycin and Tylosine (as individual drugs) demonstrated them poor drugs to be used against Cryptosporidiosis specifically in dogs atleast in context of the dosage regimens and therapeutic periods employed in the current study. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1344,T] (1).

9. Study Of Canine Parvovirus In Dogs And Its Chemotherapy

by Saeed Ahmad | Prof. Dr. Mohammad Sarwar Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Nasim.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: drama Publisher: 2013Dissertation note: There were one hundred cases of dogs showing the clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection like bloody diarrhea, vomiting and emaciationwhich were selected randomly. All the cases were confirmed by HA and HI test. Disease occurrence was found to be 55%. There were 55 samples found to be positive and 45 samples were found to be negative for canine parvovirus. The incidences of the disease in German shepherd was highest (38%) followed by other breeds Labrador, Rottweiler, Pointer, Cross, Russian and Local breeds which were 8%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4% and 3% respectively. Similarly, disease occurrence in non-vaccinated dogs was higher thanvaccinated.The disease was more prevalent in non-vaccinated dogs as compared to the vaccinated dogs. So, vaccination provides sufficient immunity against canine parvovirus. Male dogs were more affected by canine parvovirus than female dogs. Occurrence of the disease in the age of 1-3 months was the highest. Pups were more affected than the older dogs. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in the male and female were found to 60% and 43.5% respectively. Disease occurrence of canine parvovirus in September, October and November was found to be 55%, 52.5% and 56% respectively. Blood samples were collected at day 0(before the treatment) and on the day 5 (after the treatment) and analysis was done in UDL, Lahore. Four different kinds of treatment protocols were compared on the basis of hematological improvement, days of hospitalization and the cost of treatment. Of the four groups hyperimune serum when used with normal saline was found to be more effective. It was found that improvement in the leucocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocytes and platelets with P <0.05. SAFI syrup with supportive therapy was the second effective treatment with P >0.05. Supportive treatment alone was not effective for hematological recovery P > 0.05. It had also increased the cost of treatment, and duration of treatment for canine parvovirus infection. So, hyper immune serum and normal saline is the effective treatment for canine parvovirus infection. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 1757,T] (1).

10. Effect Of Cholesterol Loaded Cyclodextrins (Clc) On Post-Thaw Quality In Canine Spermatozoa

by Junaid khan | Prof. Dr.Nasim ahmad | Dr. Asim khalid | Prof. Dr. Mian abdul sattar.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2005,T] (1).

11. Frozen Tectonic Corneal Grafting For Repair Of Perforating Corneal Ulcers In Dogs

by Abid Hussain | Dr. Asim khalid mehmood | Dr. Zia ullah | Prof. Dr. Aneela zameer durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2069,T] (1).

12. Avian Fracture Healing Using Intramedullary K- Wire And Hydroxy Apatite Bone Cenent

by Tanzeem ul Hassan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood | Dr. Muhammad | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2014Dissertation note: Abstract Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2172,T] (1).

13. Evaluation Of Anthelmintic Resistance In Gastrointestinal Tract Nematodes Of Goats In Malakand Agency, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

by Abdul Qadeer (2013-VA-859) | Dr. Muhammad Lateef | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Endoparasites are among the major obstacles posed to the development of small ruminants industry of Pakistan. A number of endoparasites are prevalent in Khyber Pakhtun Khwa province and district Malakand. Anthelmintic resistance(AR) is a very important emerging issue in the control of parasites. The current project was designed to study the point-prevalence of various gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in Kot Manzaray BaBa of Malakand Agency and to determine the presence of AR in the parasites prevalent there. Keeping in view the importance of small ruminants in our country and due to the routine use of dewormer, the present project has been designed to achieve our objective. For this purpose Eight Teddy goat farms were selected from different localities of Kot Manzari Baba District Malakand for studies on AR using faecal egg count reduction test and egg hatch test to further confirm the results of the FECRT. Information regarding flock management and worm control practices was collected through a well-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled out by 20 (each) goat farmers, quacks (traditional healers), qualified veterinarians and veterinary assistants through interviews and/or group discussions. Results revealed that majority of the goat flocks were found to have nematode populations resistant to oxfendazole and levamisole. None of the goats were found to have nematode populations resistant to ivermectin accept the Haemonchus contortus which showed a little bit indication of resistance in the study. Majority of the goat flocks were found to have nematode populations susceptible to ivermectin. The frequency of resistance was comparable among Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teladorsagia circumcincta. Veterinary assistants look after for maximum number of flocks for their healthcare. Awareness level of the healthcare personnel about the parasitic diseases was the highest among veterinary Summary 75 officers and vice versa. People treat their animal on the basis of sign and symptoms and used modern anthelmintics and not on the basis of faecal examination. Among the anthelmintics, levamisole was found to be used most frequently followed by oxfendazole and ivermectin. Interestingly, in the field the veterinary assistants were the highest users of traditional dewormer in contrast to their training in modern medicine. Low dosing/under-dosing had a main contributory role in the development and a tendency for the development of AR against all the anthelmintics included in the present study. In a year high treatment frequency had a associated contributory role in the development and tendency for the development of resistance against all the anthelmintics included in the present study. Combined or Mixed livestock farming, especially sheep and goats together, was contributive towards development of resistance against all the anthelmintics classes included in this study. None or partial rotation of pasture was also discovered to take part in the development of resistance against all the anthelmintics included in the study. CONCLUSIONS • There is a serious threat of either developed or a tendency for development of anthelmintic resistance against levamisole, oxfendazole and ivermectin in nematode populations of Teddy gaots in the study area. • The factors that assist to the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations of Teddy goat flocks recorded in the present study can be divided in to operational, inherited, and medicinal, which need to be addressed together as a part of a potent worm control program. • The level of alertness, awareness and technical know-how is unsatisfactorily poor among all the farmers concerned in small ruminant farming. Therefore, there is no dewormer schedule for Summary 76 worm control practices in place at present, which describes a severe fear on the future of sheep and goats production on the one hand and permits an immediate attention on the problem of anthelmintic resistance on the other. • A combined approach based on the application of plants extract with modern anthelmintics appear to be promising for the management of anthelmintic resistance in small ruminants. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2396-T] (1).

14. Cross Sectional Study Of Newcastle Disease Virus In Wild Captive Peacocks (Pavo Cristatus) In Zoological Gardens Of District Lahore

by Faisal Sher (2007-VA-11) | Dr. Mamoona Chaudhry | Dr. Shakera Sadiq Gill | Dr. Asim Khalid Mehmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is RNA virus.It is the member of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1).Its genus is Avulavirus genus. The incubation period ranges from 2-15 days. NDV strains are classified into velogenic, mesogenic and lentogenic categories. Newcastle disease is a virus disease of birds characterized by variable combinations of gastroenteritis respiratory distress and nervous signs. A cross sectional study was conducted for the duration of 3 months in order to identify the prevalence of Newcastle disease in five zoological gardens of Lahore district. Peacocks were restrained by the trained persons and oropharyngealsamples were collected from apparently healthy Peacocks present in the zoological gardens in Lahore. Sampling of 200Peacocks was done by convenience sampling and stored in freezer at -80°C for further analysis.Virus isolation by egg inoculation was performed to isolate virus and confirmationof (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was done by conducting HI test with specific antisera.Samples were inoculated in 10 days embryonated hen’s eggsand allantoic fluid was collected and tested for haemagglutination (HA) activity. Positive samples were confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Frequency distribution through age, sex, breed, origin, date and site of collection were examined by standard statistical methods to determine the prevalence by virus isolation method in that specified population. The data was analyzed by using two way contingency tables with Chi-square test for association. Test was performed to check the association of NDV with age, sex, breeds, origin, and specimen type. The significance level was kept at p<0.05. 2 samples were found positive. Overall prevalence in wild captive peacocks was 1% (95 CI=.1-3.6). 200 samples were screened by spot HA test and 198 samples were found negative in four zoological gardens while 2 samples that were positive found in private zoo samples. Significant association was found between positive samples for NDV and zoological gardens. Prevalence estimates of (NDV) Newcastle disease virus was generated for Peacock population. Associated factors were identified through this study. Results were shared with international community working for the control and eradication of Newcastle disease. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2411-T] (1).

15. Total Ear Canal Ablation With And Without Lateral Bulla Osteotomy In Dogs

by Muhammad Ismail (2013-VA-603) | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Zia Ullah | Dr. Waseem Yaqoob.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: The dog is one of the ancient pet animals which man is keeping for centuries. There are a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases from which the dogs suffer. Ear as an important part of the body also suffers from many diseases such as otitis externa, otitis media and otitis interna. The inflammatory ailment of external ear canal is called as otitis externa. In small animal practice 10-20% of the admitted dogs are reported with problem have the problem of otitis externa. There are different techniques for the treatment of otitis externa such as medicinal and surgical procedures. Among the surgical procedures the one procedure is total ear canal ablation. Total ear canal ablation is procedure in which both horizontal and vertical ear canals are surgically removed. In case of unresponsive condition of the skin, there is preference of TECA over lateral ear resection and should be done in combination with a lateral bulla osteotomy. The present study was conducted on 16 clinical cases of Pet Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore. The dogs were divided into two groups A and B, each group with 8 dogs. Group A was surgically operated for total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) and was further divided into two groups (A-I, A-II), in which 4 dogs were surgically treated by TECA-LBO along with surgical placement of a passive drain system (Group A-I) and remaining 4 dogs were treated by TECA-LBO without placing the drain (Group A -II). Group B was surgically operated for total ear canal ablation without lateral bulla osteotomy, it was further divided into two groups (B-I, B-II), in which 4 dogs were surgically treated by TECA along with surgical placement of a passive drain system (Group B-I) and remaining 4 dogs were treated by TECA without placing the drain (Group B -II). Summary 38 Out of total 16 dogs from all 4 subgroups having 4 dogs in each, wound infection was present in total 1, 2 and 1 dog of group A-I, B-I and B-II respectively, while there was no wound infection in all dogs of group A-II. Out of the total 16 dogs from all 4 subgroups having four dogs in each wound was healed in total 3, 4, 2 and 3 dogs in group in A-I, A-II, B-I and B-II respectively, while there was no healing of wound in total 1, 2 and 1 dog of group A-I, B-I and B-II respectively. The results of white blood cell count for present study showed that out of total 16 dogs from all 4 subgroups having 4 dogs in each, white blood count was different from normal range in total 1, 2 and 1 dogs of group A-I, B-I and B-II respectively indicating the infection while white blood cell count was in normal range of total 3, 4, 2 and 3 dogs in group A-I, A-II, B-I and B-II respectively. The result of present study for the wound complications showed that out of total 16 dogs from all 4 subgroups having 4 dogs in each, there were presence of complications in total 1, 2 and 1 dog of group A-I, B-I and B-II respectively, while there was no wound complication in all dogs of group A-II. It can be concluded from the results of wound infection, wound healing time, white blood cell count and wound complications for the present study, total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy is a comparatively better technique then total ear canal ablation alone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2409-T] (1).

16. Comparison Of Oral And Ventral Laryngotomy Approaches Of Vocal Cordectomy In Dogs

by Zohaib Khan (2013-VA-612) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Phonation is a way of communication for dogs and it quite normal for dog to bark under certain conditions but sometimes due to mismanagement and negligence too much phonation may become the worst part of dog keeping causing nuisance. There are different techniques that can be adopted to treat this problem. One of these techniques is surgical devocalization. Devocalization refers to the partial or complete excision of vocal cords that emit sound. The present study was conducted on 10 clinical cases of dogs divided into 2 groups, each with 5 dogs. One group was operated for vocal cordectomy through oral approach while the other group was operated for vocal cordectomy through ventral laryngotomy approach. The parameters of this research were studied for the period of 2 months. The study results were analyzed using Chi-square test on SPSS version 17.0. The results showed that in early post surgical period there was no significant difference of phonation after both surgical techniques however, a significant difference of phonation was observed between dogs operated through oral and ventral laryngotomy surgical techniques of vocal cordectomy during late post surgical period means 10 days after surgery. On the basis of the results of this study it was concluded that ventral Laryngotomy approach is better than oral approach for vocal cordectomy in terms of better controlled of hyper phonation however, ventral laryngotomy approach is likely to be associated with a higher chances of post surgical complications Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2414-T] (1).

17. Comparative Efficacy Of Autograft And Synthetic Bone Graft For The Repair Of Bone Defects

by Amjad Islam | Dr. Zia Ullah | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Aneela Zameer Durrani.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Bone graft was considered as the most commonly transplanted tissue to enhance ability to heal fractures, fracture complications and bone defects. Autologous (or autogenous) bone grafting involves utilizing bone obtained from the same individual receiving the graft. Autogenous bone graft was considered to be the gold standard for replacement of lost tissue. New bone graft substitutes have been devised in recent decades such as synthetic bone graft i.e. poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA), demineralized bone matrix (DBM), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), calcium phosphate (CP), calcium sulfate (CS), hydroxyapatite (HA), highly purified bovine and xenograft , but clinical evidence of their efficacy varies among clinical and experimental studies. Autograft (along with full cerclage wiring) was a better technique than poly methyla methacrylate (PMMA) for repair of bone defects in animals. A total of 16 rabbits were divided into two groups i.e. group I and group II, 12-14 weeks of average age having average body weight of 1.5 kg were selected randomly and maintained at Pet Centre, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, UVAS, Lahore. Then, a defect were experimentally created having dimension 4.5 mm wide and 8 mm deep using a lateral surgical approach in left femur in all the animals of each experimental group. Post-operative evaluation was done on the basis of radiological findings, degree of lameness and histopathology findings for the comparison of autograft and synthetic bone graft. Summary 68 Conclusion It was concluded from the present study that autograft was superior to poly methyl methacrylate by radiological findings, degree of lameness and histopathological findings. Autografting was the gold standard for fracture healing to be biocompatible, osteogensis, osteinductive and osteoconductive. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2407-T] (1).

18. Sedative And Analgesic Effects Of Xylazine, Ketamine And Diazepam In Ducks

by Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad (2013-VA-856) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2015Dissertation note: Mostly of the drugs given intramuscularly are ineffective in producing anesthesia in ducks. There are some combinations which have a synergistic effect for producing good sedation and analgesia. This combination includes ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-xylazine-diazepam. This study was conducted on ducks which are divided into two groups (A, B). The group A was given xylazine (5 mg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) and the birds of group B was given ketamine hydrochloride (15 mg/kg), xylazine (2.5 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5mg/kg) cocktail. Anesthesia is the desensitization of body through nerve blockage. It is the reversible state of analgesia and loss of responsive-ness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes, decreased stress response, or all of these simultaneously. The average body temperature of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 105.02±0.12, and 104.97±0.18 oF, respectively. The average heart rate of ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was 103.75±3.18, and 98.63±2.24 beats/min, respectively. The average respiratory rate of ducks treated with KX and KXD was 19.2±1.62, and 16.11±0.52 breaths/min, respectively. The onset of sedation in ducks anesthetized by KX, and KXD was recorded in 2.11±0.75 and 1.14±0.04 minutes after drug administration. The duration of sedation in the ducks anesthetized was 87.33±6.74, and 127.42±18.60 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from sedation was recorded in 89.53±6.22, and 128.56±18.52 minutes. Onset of analgesia in ducks anesthetized by KX and KXD was recorded in3.22±0.54, and 1.67±0.77 minutes after drug administration. The duration of analgesia in the ducks anesthetized with KX and KXD was 39.76±3.89 and 81.15±11.17 minutes, respectively. The recovery of ducks from analgesia was recorded in 43.37±4.42 and 82.82±11.15 minutes, when anesthetized with KX and KXD respectively. The onset of sedation, onset of analgesia, duration was relatively delayed in KX SUMMARY 36 group; recovery from sedation and analgesia was observed in ducks anesthetized with KX group is early than KXD group. These effects can be obtained from a combination of drugs to achieve very specific combinations of results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sedative and analgesic effects of xylazine- ketamine and diazepam in different combinations. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2422-T] (1).

19. Morphometry Of Udder, Teat And Milk Vein In Nili Ravi Buffalo (Bubalis Bubalis) And It’s Relationship With Milk Yield.

by Mirza Muhammad Usman (2003-VA-138) | Dr. Hafsa Zaneb | Dr. Saima Masood | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: SUMMARY Morphological and physiological properties of mammary system are affecting the milk production in dairy animals and the quality and quantity of milk produced by them is dependent on its health particularly the health of its udder. Nili Ravi (Bubalis bubalis) buffalo is a native breed of Pakistan found in irrigated plains of Punjab and is also referred to as black gold because of its vital role in national economics. About two third of the total milk produced nationally comes from the buffalo milk and these animals also contribute to production of meat and draught power. Like for other dairy animals, morphometry of the udder is considered an important tool in the selection of our local buffaloes but the scientific reports regarding the difference of udder morphometric parameters in high and low yielding animals are still lacking. Keeping in mind the importance of this local breed and its huge contributions in fulfilling the daily milk needs of Pakistan, present study was designed to document the differences in the morphometric parameters of udder in two groups of Nili Ravi Buffaloes. Forty healthy Nili Ravi buffalos having a minimum BCS of 2.5, and in second or above lactation were selected. The animals were housed in a semi closed housing system. Buffalos free from udder pathologies were selected and were hand-milked. These were then equally divided into two groups according to their average daily milk production MP 1 group (4–6.9 liters per day), MP 2 group (7–9.9 liters per day). The morphometry of the udder, teat and milk vein was recorded twice, two hours before and two hours after milking. Teat length, udder depth and udder horizontal circumference were measured with the help of measuring tape. External teat diameter and milk vein diameter were measured with the help of vernier caliper. The external teat diameter and the internal diameter of the milk vein were measured with the help of Summary 24 ultrasound. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version 13.3 and presented as mean ± SE. Normal distribution of the data was checked by Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Statistical differences within the group were analyzed by paired T test. The significance of the parameters among the groups i.e., MP 1 & MP 2 made on the basis of low and high milk yield respectively was studied by Independent T test. All the differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Results revealed that ejection of milk did not affect the length of teats within the group for both MP 1 and MP 2 groups except in case of right fore-teats of MP 2 group (showing an increase after milking). When the similar parameter was compared between the groups we could not observe the effects of milking on TL. External teat diameter showed a decrease after milk ejection in both the groups except in right hind teat of the low producing group and teats of left sides in high producing animals. However we could not observe the difference of this external teat diameter between two groups of Buffaloes based on milk production. Teat cistern diameter (TCD) did not differ before and after milking, when compared between the high and low yielding Buffalos and within the group of high yielding animals. The TCD within MP 1 group showed variable results for left and right fore- teats. Depth of the udder and udder horizontal circumference did not show any significant difference before and after milking within as well as between the two groups. Milk vein diameter was greater in both the groups before milking, however, the diameter of the milk vein remained unchanged when compared between the high and low yielding animals. Diameter of the milk vein measured with the help of ultrasound remained statistically same between and within the two groups of buffaloes. In conclusion, this study showed that most of the morphometric parameters of the udder including teat length, external teat diameter, teat cistern diameter, udder depth and diameter of the milk vein were not different between the groups of Nili Ravi buffalo selected on the basis of difference in their milk production. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2467-T] (1).

20. Study On Autologous And Homologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Surgical Wound Healing Promoter In Rabbits

by Muhammad Shahid Tahir (2012-VA-996) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Khan.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complex process in which tissue repairs itself with the complete or incomplete regeneration. During recent years, new advances have been employed in the monarchy of tissue healing by initiation of use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) as a wound healing promoter in both soft and hard tissue surgeries. Platelet rich plasma is highly potentiated with growth and healing factors that can lead to marked acceleration in the tissue adaptation, repair and healing as compared to PRP non-facilitated healing process. This study was conducted on 16 adult healthy rabbits contributing 2 different groups, each group with 8 rabbits. Rabbits of both groups were surgically operated for skin autogenous grafting. Group A received an application of autologous PRP subcutaneously and in the surroundings of the graft defect, while group B received homologous PRP. Efficacy of both autologous and homologous PRP was evaluated on the basis of selected macroscopic and microscopic (histopathological) parameters of tissue repair and healing. The results, obtained in form of grades, were statistically analyzed by graphical representations. A successful use of autologous and homologous PRP with the desired results did not only boost up the surgical success rate in the specie under study but it opened a new vista on the same lines for other species to bring a better wound healing process. This study uprooted the conventional methods of managing wounds associated with injuries and helped the animals to get confidently satisfactory health status. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2452-T] (1).

21. Comparative Efficacy Of Polypropylene And Polyester Mesh For The Repair Of Abdominal Wall Defect In Pigeons

by Muhammad Naveed Ali (2007-VA-114) | Dr. Hamad Bin Rashid | Prof. Dr. Muhammad Arif Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Polypropylene is a widely used biomaterial for the treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias. It exhibit pain, prominent inflammatory response and foreign body reaction. Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of polypropylene and polyester meshes for the treatment of abdominal defect. Both are non-absorbable meshes. Polypropylene mesh is available in Pakistan with the trade name of Prolene® (Ethicon,Johnson & Johnson, USA). Polyester mesh is not available inPakistan and was acquired from Al Zahrawi Medical, a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brandname of (Parietex®, Covidien, France). The experimental study was conducted on 16 (sixteen) healthy pigeons presented for massive abdominal defect repair. All birds were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before study. The birds were allocated into two different groups, viz. Group A and Group B with 8 birds in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The Polypropylene mesh (Prolene®, Ethicon) was used for the treatment of abdominal repair for group A. The birds of group B was treated with Polyester mesh (Parietex®, Covidien). Ventral abdominal wall repair was performed in both groups using Polypropylene and Polyester mesh respectively. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both meshes were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation. During experiment, it was observed that polypropylene mesh resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fibre. It was observed that Polyester mesh resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. Polyester mesh showed remarkable advantages over polypropylene mesh in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that polyester mesh is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2495-T] (1).

22. Crop Repair Using Different Ingluviotomy Techniques In Pigeon

by Rashid Hussain (2007-VA-138) | Dr. Naveed Hussain | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Waseem Yaqub.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Crop is the pivotal organ of the birds’ body. The primary function of the crop is the storage of food. When the crop is full,it becomes more prominent as well as slight pendulous and more prone to trauma. Such wounds lead to the crop fistula formation in birds. Fortunately crop has a good blood supply and heals well. Ingluviotomy performed by making an incision on left lateral cervical region over the crop to minimize disruption of vasculature and complications associated with tube feeding in recovery period. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).Thirty Pigeons weighing between 275 gm to 350 gm were managed from nearby area of Lahore and were kept in experimental cages of Surgery Section (CMS) of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The present study was conducted to compare the different suturing techniques along with glue for Ingluviotomy in pigeons (Columba livia domestica).These pigeons were divided into three experimental groups i.e. Group A, B and C comprising ten pigeons each. In group A comprising of ten (10) pigeons underwent single layer closure with the help of absorbable suture material (Vicryl®) 4-0 using simple continuous suture pattern. Temperature, pulse and respiration were observed at different days from day 1 to day 30 in all groups. The pigeon of group A (single layer closure), showed more variation in temperature, pulse and respiration as compared with the group B ( double layer closure) and C (closure with glue). The bird of group B showed less variation in temperature, pulse and respiration and was normal after few days of surgery. The birds of group C also showed fever and rise in temperature but it was less than the birds of group A and showed more variation in temperature, pulse respiration than birds of group B. Pigeons in Group A (single layer closure) showed poor healing in overall period. At day 30 only 30% of the birds showed complete healing while 40% bird were still in healing phase, the dead percentage was 30. While in term of leakage at day 20, zero percent of the birds SUMMARY 49 showed leakage while no leakage percentage was 70% and the dead percentage was 30. Pigeons in Group B (double layer closure) showed significant good healing during the research period. At day 30 total of 80% of the birds were completely healed while 20 % bird in healing phase, percentage of no wound healing and the dead was zero. In term of leakage, at day 20 total of 100% of the birds were showed no leakage, leakage percentage was zero percent and the dead percentage was zero. In group C ( closure with glue) At day 30 , 50% of the birds were completely healed, 20% birds were in healing phase, no wound healing percentage was 10% , dead percentage was 20 and wound dehiscence was zero percent. While in term of leakage, at day 20 only 50% of the birds showed no leakage, leakage percentage was 30% and the dead percentage was 20 %. In term of postmortem changes it was noticed that fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen was less in double layer closure birds it showed good healing. In birds treated with single layer closure showed more fibrosis and narrowing of crop lumen while in group where glue is used less narrowing of crop lumen and more fibrosis was seen which showed poor healing. Conclusion The verdict based explanations for better and reliable closure technique for ingluviotomy in pigeons using double layer closure is that this procedure enables proper apposition of crop edges and in addition, there is less tension at apposed site. Besides this, there is more vascular supply in the crop area,that enhances faster and reliable healing of crop repair. As the double layer closure stands to be novel procedure for crop repair, it should be used by avian surgeons worldwide. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2518-T] (1).

23. Effects Of Partial And Complete Splenectomy On Blood Parameters Of Rabbit

by Waleed Iqbal (2009-va-151) | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Hammad bin Rasheed.

Material type: book Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: A comparative study of 2 procedures i.e. partial and complete splenectomy was performed to assess their clinical application. For this, 16 experimental rabbits were divided into 2 groups i.e. A and B with 8 rabbits in each group. In Group A, complete splenectomy whereas in group B, partial splenectomy was performed. The parameters evaluated for the success of splenectomy procedure were erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet count and readings were observed on day 0 (before surgery) and day 10, 20 and 30 (after the procedure). Erythrocyte count The values of all the 8 rabbits in group A, when recorded on day 0, were falling in the physiological range of erythrocyte count (5-8 x 106/uL), as all the rabbits were healthy and non-operated. This is in accordance with the physiological findings as depicted by Merck in 2015. Later on, when the second reading was obtained at day 10 (after surgery), a decrease in the level of erythrocytes was noted (within normal range) in 6 rabbits of this group. This is in compliance with the findings of Mole (1925) who observed an immediate drop in erythrocytes after complete splenectomy. Similarly Dellenback et al. (1969) has also reported a decrease in haemoglobin concentration after splenectomy procedure though his study was on beagle dogs. On the other hand, Lorber et al. (1958) has also reported obvious change in erythrocyte count after such procedure. This decrease in erythrocyte count immediately after splenectomy might be partly due to haemorrhage at the operation site and partly due to the removal of spleen which may replenish the loss of erythrocytes. Furthermore this removal of spleen must temporarily upset the balance of the haemopoietic system. However anemia was recorded in only 2 rabbits i.e. rabbit no. A2 and A4 where the erythrocytes value had dropped below the normal range. Chaudhary et al (1997) has also reported anemia in dogs after complete splenectomy and related it to the loss of spleen-iron regulatory function. The iron storage was impaired temporarilyand furthermore there is loss of iron from kidneys. This might result in decreased erythrocyte count as well as synthesis of erythrocyte was also impaired due to depletion of iron from body (Waldmann et al., 1960). . The third reading was taken on day 20 post-operatively and it was noted that the value of erythrocyte concenteration dropped further in rabbit no. A1, A3, A5, A6, A7 and A8 though the values were still in normal range, indicating that the body homeostasis had not managed to bring the erythrocyte count back to its day 0 normal level. Similar findings were reported by Mole on 21 days and Bolbol et al. in 1981 had reported the same findings but his study was in sheep. On the other hand, the two rabbits which showed anemia on day 10 started recovering at day 20 and their erythrocyte level showed improvement though it was lower than its original value but was falling in normal range indicating the restoration of erythropoiesis in body. When the last reading was taken on day 30, the erythrocyte levels of all rabbits were almost near to 0 day normal values. Our finding is in compliance with Mole (1925) who stated that this increase in erythrocytes after day 10 to day 30 was due to a persistence of the old erythrocytes which would otherwise have been destroyed in the presence of the spleen. The drop in erythrocyte count at day 10 and 20 was significant (P < 0.05). But the ultimate value on day 30 returned to the normal range and differ non-significant with 0 day value. In group B, unlike group A, the drop in erythrocyte level was also recorded but drop was non-significant which ultimately returned near to 0 day value on day 30. When group A was compared with group B, a non-significant drop in erythrocytes was recorded (P > 0.05) on day 10, 20 and 30, though there were fluctuations. Mole (1925) found similar results in his partial splenectomized rabbits. Leucocyte count When the leucocyte count was evaluated in group A, contrary to the findings of erythrocytes in this group, a significant increase in no. of leucocytes was recorded, with the highest value recorded at day 10 in all rabbits except A6 where there was a consistent drop recorded on day 10th, 20th and 30th. This unusual depression in leucocytes in A6 might be due to stress but these values were still within normal range. Similar findings were reported by Lifshitz in 1937 and Bessler in 2004 in rats. Increase in these leucocytes after complete splenectomy is due to the susceptibility of body for intermittent and transient type of nonspecific septicemia as stated by Weinstein et al. in 1983. Lifeshitz (1937) also concluded that one of the functions of spleen is to exert an inhibitory effect on leucopoietic centers When leucocyte values were recorded in group B rabbits, a similar significant increase was recorded in all the rabbits of this group and the values in B1, B2, B3, B4 and B7 were more than the physiological ranges whereas the increase was within physiological rabge in B5, B6 and B8. Thereafter the leucocytes number started dropping on day 20 and ultimately came to physiological range on day 30. But the level was still higher than 0 day values and a significant difference was recorded. When leucocyte count of group A was compared with partial splenectomised rabbits of group B, a significant increase (p < 0.05) was noted in group B on day 10, which kept falling uniformly in all rabbits except B5, where the values dropped abruptly from 11.10 to 7.89 on day 30. Palmer also observed marked leucocytosis after partial splenectomy but his study was on rats and he stated that this marked leucocytosis after partial splenectomy is due to inflammation at surgery site which didn’t produced in complete splenectomy. A significant increase of leucocyte number was recorded on day 30 in group B as compared to group A. Platelet count: The third parameter recorded was platelet count which revealed a significant thrombocytosis (P < 0.05) on day 10, 20, and 30 of each rabbit of group A and final values on day 30 were more than the normal range. In 2006, Bidus et al. also observed thrombocytosis after complete splenectomy however his study was performed on humans. Thrombocytosis may be related to the removal of whole splenic tissue which is the storage organ for platelets (Mole. 1925). Balz and Minton (1975)also performed splenectomy in patients and found an acute increase in platelet count. Contrary to this, in group B, platelet number significantly increased on day 10 but thereafter kept on dropping on day 20 and 30 and the final values were in normal ranges except in rabbit B6 in which platelet count kept on increasing on day 20 and then dropped to near 0 day value on day 30. Similar pattern was seen in partial splenectomised rabbits in the study of Mole (1925). Decrease in platelet count from 10th day to 30th day post-splenectomy indicated that left over splenic tissue has started its normal physiological function of restoring platelets. However, overall platelet count fluctuations in partial splenectomized rabbits were non-significant (P>0.05). Using repeated measurement ANOVA test, when the overall comparison of group A and B was made in terms of erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet count, considering the values on day 0 and day 30, a non-significant difference was observed in erythrocyte count (P=0.154) and platelet count (P=0.984) between both the groups. However significant difference found in leucocyte level (P=0.013), between both groups (figure 4.5, 4.6 and 4.7). Mean value of leucocyte count in group A was 9.410 (S.D=0.504) as compared to group B in which mean was 11.445 (S.D=0.504) indicating that complete splenectomy is better than partial splenectomy. Compiling the overall results, keeping in view the values of all parameters in both groups, we concluded that partial splenectomy procedure has no superiority over the complete one. Both the procedures have almost similar results except some temporary fluctuations in studied parameters. Wherever, the splenectomy is required, one can go for either procedure. However, complete splenectomy is better choice of procedure due to difficulties seen during removing partial spleen. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2548-T] (1).

24. Identification Of Isospora Species In Domestic Cats And Its Chemotherapy

by Waseem Hassan (2008-VA-137) | Prof. Dr. Kamran Ashraf | Dr. Haroon Akbar | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Dogs and cats are kept as pet animals in and around Lahore area. Along with other problems, parasitic problems are common in these animals. Isospora felis and Isospora rivolta are the most commonly seen parasites in cats in many parts of the world. No data existed about its prevalence, possible risk factors and therapeutic control of Isospora infection in cats in Lahore, Pakistan. Hence the present study was aimed to assess the associated risk factors, prevalence and best therapeutic remedy for Isospora infection. A total 100 faecal samples were collected from Tollinton market, pet clinics of Lahore and pet center of University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore. Epidemiological parameters taken into consideration included sex (Male n=61, Female n=39), breed (Persian n=54, Siamese n=18, Himalayan n=16 and local or cross bred n=12), age (kittens n=21, adults n=79), environment (captive n=60, household n=40). Samples were examined by using direct smear technique. Species of Isospora were differentiated on the basis of their size by micrometry and by oocyst shape. Oocysts were counted by Mc-Master counting technique. Oocysts were counted on day of sample collection and day 10 post treatment. Positive samples were subjected to two chemotherapeutic agents; Amprolium and Furazolidone. Chi square test was applied to assess the prevalence and its relation with other risk factors was applied on pre-treatment and post treatment oocysts reduction count. Higher (P < 0.05) prevalence of Isospora was found in cats from captive system (65%) as compared to cats from household (10%) system. Persian breed was found to be more prone (42.59%) to the infections with Isospora species. Age group was not associated as a risk factor. Positive cats were divided into 2 groups for therapeutic trials. Group I (n=16) was treated with Amprolium 150 mg/kg/day for 5 days while group II (n=16) with Furazolidone 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Amprolium reduced the oocysts by 100% while Furazolidone causes 87.5% reduction of oocysts. 41 So it can be concluded from the present study that Isospora is highly prevalent in Lahore area and Amprolium is better chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of coccidiosis in cats than Furazolidone. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2541-T] (1).

25. Clinico-Epidemiological And Therapeutical Study On Giardiasis In Sheep And Goat

by Syed Ans Mujtba (2014-VA-233) | Dr. Wasim Yaqub | Dr. Jawairia Ali Khan | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: In small ruminants parasitic infestation is one of the major constraints to the livestock industry in developing countries. It adversely affects economic performance, mainly by retarded growth rates, lower FCR, and reduced milk and meat production. Beside this the animal housing is also an issue, as the farmers are mostly of low financial status animals are often kept in houses where the parasites find favourable environment for their survival and propagation. A number of parasitic species and other associated risk factors have been defined in transmitting various protozoan parasites to the sheep and goat. However there is lack of published and explained data regarding the above mentioned risk factors in different zones of Patoki. So in this phase of study risk factors recording and prevalence of giardia were performed for sheep and goat. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia in small ruminants, its treatment and blood examination before and after treatment. Giardia species are involved in causing giardiasis, that is ultimately responsible for immense of the economic losses by retarded growth, lowered FCR and reduced milk and meat production under varying housing conditions in sheep and goat (Hypothesis). This present study was conducted at Pattoki clinic of University of Veterinary and Animal sciences (UVAS) Lahore. Animals from public as well as from private farms were also included in this study. A total of 700 animals (n=350 sheep, n=350 goats) were examined for screening of Giardiasis by faecal sampling. The data regarding animals breed, age of animal, clinical history, feeding, housing and various treatment protocols as well as feedback was entered in the questionnaire. 5 gms of faecal from each animal (N=700) collected. Samples were stored at 4 C for further processing. The affected animals were divided into 3 groups i-e A, B, and C. For the therapeutical study Metronidazole, Albendazole and Ishq Pecha Extract to the group A, B & C respectively. In the haemotological examination CBC was performed followed by the collection of 5 ml of the blood aseptically. Animals from areas of poor sanitary system and suspected area, having poor BCS, diarrhoea, anorexia, rough hair coat were included in the study. A total of 64 positive animals were selected, which further divided into 3 groups A, B, and C, Each group having 16 animals and 2 sub group. In Group A, Metronidazol 25 mg/kg orally for 5days, Group B, Albendazol 10 mg/kg bid for 5 days orally were given while Group C, Ishq Pecha Extract (Liquid) was given. Efficacy of the treatment determined on the basis of absence of CPG via Zinc Sulphate faecal flotation method. After the 5 days consecutive treatment of positive goats, the samples were drawn days from the relative groups to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for lowering the CPG. The data thus collected was analyzed statistically by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this study that 75 samples were found positive indicating the prevalence of giardia i-e 10.7. And the efficacies of different drugs as Metronidazol 48.67%, 68% and 85.77% on day 3rd, 7th and day 14th respectively, Albendazol , indicated its efficacy was 27.88%, 0% and 69.52% on day 3rd, day 7th and day 14th. While, Ishq Pecha Extract showed an efficacy of 15.6%, 31.54% and 52.95% against Giardiasis. It is apparent from the above mentioned findings that Metronidazole has highest efficacy than albendazole. Therefore the use of metronidazole against giardiasis in sheep & goats has been preferably recommended. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2537-T] (1).

26. Effect Of Platelet Rich Plasma On Full Thickness Skin Transplant In Dogs

by Ali Raza (2009-VA-154) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Wound healing is a complicated mechanism that includes inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling stages. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a small volume of blood plasma fortified with platelets and growth factors that enhance the healing by stimulating proliferation of blood vessels and formation of granulation tissue. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of autologous and homologous platelet rich plasma on full thickness skin transplant reconstructive surgery in dogs. The dogs were divided in two groups A and B, each with four clinical cases. In groups A and B, autologous and homologous PRP was used respectively as skin graft healing promoter. The macroscopic parameters of the study included colour, edema, exudation and microscopic parameters acute inflammation, fibroblast proliferation and granulation tissue formation. All these observations were made on 3, 7 and 14 days post-operatively. Conclusion On the basis of findings of this study: it was concluded that autologous PRP is a better wound healing promoter as compared to homologous PRP with minimal post operative complications. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2555-T] (1).

27. Comparative Efficacy Of Chemical And Surgical Sterilization In Dogs

by Muhammad Ahtisham Qamar (2009-VA-062) | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Sahar Ijaz.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2016Dissertation note: Overpopulation of stray dogs poses serious problems found in the community of Pakistan from a public health point of view, since these stray dogs are primarily responsible for the transmission of mortal diseases like rabies, leptospirosis and various others to human beings and animal population in urban and rural areas. The present study was conducted on 12 mongrel male dogs divided into 3 groups, each with 4 dogs. One group was sterilized through intratesticular administration of 20% CaCl2 solution, second group was sterilized through surgical procedure (orchiectomy) while the third one was kept control group in which intratesticular normal saline was administered. The parameters of this research were studied for the period of 30 days. The study results were analyzed using Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) on SPSS version 22.0. The results showed that there was no significant difference in both sterilization techniques. On these results it was concluded that chemical sterilization is a better procedure than surgical orchiectomy. Chemical sterilization is as good and effective as orchiectomy and is a quick, simple and very economical procedure to achieve sterilization in dogs. Chemical sterilization can easily performed on mass scale level for the sterilization of the stray dogs. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2592-T] (1).

28. Comparative Efficacy Of Prazequantel, Niclosamide And Pumpkin Seeds Against Dipylidium Caninum In Dogs

by Ayesha Arif (2015-VA-22) | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Dypilidium caninum is a hermaphrodite Cestode (flatworm) consisting of a scolex, neck region and repeating segments and lacking mouth, intestine and body cavity. It has an indirect life cycle. The adult form of the tapeworm is acquired by definitive host through the ingestion of intermediate host which contains the larval metacestode stage. The major aftermath of such infections is the shedding of eggs and proglottids. It is a serious economic and zoonotic health threat. Life-threatening disease in humans, dogs and cats can be resulted by the presence of the of tapeworms immature (metacestode) stages occurring in various tissues. The dogs clinically suspected for Dipylidium caninum and dogs having flea infestation were subjected to fecal analysis/EPG for D. caninum. Thirty dogs positive for D. caninum were divided randomly into 3 groups of 10 i.e. A, B and C. The dogs in group A were treated with praziquantel at the dose rate of 5 mg/kg orally while the animal in group B were given niclosmiode at the dose rate of 100 mg/kg per oral. The members in the group C were given pumpkin seeds powder at the dose rate of 5 gram orally. The fecal samples from dogs in each group were collected at day 0 (pretreatment) and then at day 7, 14 and 21 (post treatment). Standard fecal flotation technique was performed for identification of Dipylidium caninum eggs using saturated salt solution. McMaster counting chamber was used for the counting of eggs. The study results were analyzed using one way ANOVA on SPSS version 17.0. The results showed that in a post-treatment sampling of group A, the EPG count was significantly Summary 37 reduced. Group B smplings also showed a good reduction in EPG but with the second dose whereas group C results were unsatisfactory. On the basis of the results of this study it was concluded that Praziquantel is much more effective against Dypilidium caninum as compared to Niclosamide and pumpkin seeds, but high cost and no availability in Pakistan makes it difficult to be effectively used against Dypilidium caninum while niclosaamide is easily available and low in price. Niclosamide is effective against Dypilidium caninum but not up to the extent of praziquantel. Pumpkin seeds have poor effect on Dypilidium caninum Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2856-T] (1).

29. Comparative Efficacy Of Prazequantel, Niclosamide And Pumpkin Seeds Against Dipylidium Caninum In Dogs

by Ayesha Arif (2015-VA-22) | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Prof. Dr. Waseem Shehzad.

Material type: book Book Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Dypilidium caninum is a hermaphrodite Cestode (flatworm) consisting of a scolex, neck region and repeating segments and lacking mouth, intestine and body cavity. It has an indirect life cycle. The adult form of the tapeworm is acquired by definitive host through the ingestion of intermediate host which contains the larval metacestode stage. The major aftermath of such infections is the shedding of eggs and proglottids. It is a serious economic and zoonotic health threat. Life-threatening disease in humans, dogs and cats can be resulted by the presence of the of tapeworms immature (metacestode) stages occurring in various tissues. The dogs clinically suspected for Dipylidium caninum and dogs having flea infestation were subjected to fecal analysis/EPG for D. caninum. Thirty dogs positive for D. caninum were divided randomly into 3 groups of 10 i.e. A, B and C. The dogs in group A were treated with praziquantel at the dose rate of 5 mg/kg orally while the animal in group B were given niclosmiode at the dose rate of 100 mg/kg per oral. The members in the group C were given pumpkin seeds powder at the dose rate of 5 gram orally. The fecal samples from dogs in each group were collected at day 0 (pretreatment) and then at day 7, 14 and 21 (post treatment). Standard fecal flotation technique was performed for identification of Dipylidium caninum eggs using saturated salt solution. McMaster counting chamber was used for the counting of eggs. The study results were analyzed using one way ANOVA on SPSS version 17.0. The results showed that in a post-treatment sampling of group A, the EPG count was significantly Summary 37 reduced. Group B smplings also showed a good reduction in EPG but with the second dose whereas group C results were unsatisfactory. On the basis of the results of this study it was concluded that Praziquantel is much more effective against Dypilidium caninum as compared to Niclosamide and pumpkin seeds, but high cost and no availability in Pakistan makes it difficult to be effectively used against Dypilidium caninum while niclosaamide is easily available and low in price. Niclosamide is effective against Dypilidium caninum but not up to the extent of praziquantel. Pumpkin seeds have poor effect on Dypilidium caninum Availability: No items available

30. Study On Whole Blood Xenotransfusion In Domestic Cats

by Ihtesham Yousaf (2015-VA-17) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Raheela Akhtar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Cat is the most domesticated pet all over the world. However, there are numerous clinical emergency situations of cats which require immediate blood transfusion but due to limited availability of cat blood donors;it becomes challenging for practitioners to save the patient’s life.In case ofdire need of blood transfusion when feline blood is unavailable; xenotransfusion with canine blood can be attempted. Xenotransfusionrefers to thetransfusion of blood from one species to another species. The present study was conducted on 20 rescue domestic cats divided into two groups: i.e. Experimental group and control group, each with 10 cats. In experimental group blood of 10 clinically healthy German Shepherddogs (donor) was transfused to10 adult rescue domestic cats suffering severe accidental blood loss. Control group received 0.9% normal saline infusion. Pre and post blood transfusion hematological evaluation was done for each recipient cat on days 0, 1, 3 and 7. Parameters for hematological evaluation included complete blood count, CRT, SpO2and arterial blood pressure.Obtained data was statistically analyzed by repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) within control and experimental group while between groups data was statistically analyzed using independent sample t-test.On the basis of findings of this study xeno-transfusion is proved to be a safe and effective life saving technique for cats suffering critical blood loss. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2944-T] (1).

31. Comparative Efficacy Of Fipronil And Ivermectin Against Knemidocoptes In Budgerigars

by Serug Akhtar (2015-VA-1069) | Dr. Uzma Farid Durrani | Dr. Asim Khalid Mahmood | Dr. Haroon Akbar.

Material type: book Book; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: 2017Dissertation note: Knemidocoptes pilae causes scaly face condition in budgerigars. Present study was conducted in different K. pilae suspected cases of budgerigars at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. After the confirmation of knemidocoptes through skin scraping the birds were treated in 2 groups (10 birds each group), on group was topically treated with Fipronil and the other group was topically treated with Ivermectin. Fipronil was applied on neck region on days 0,7,14 and the birds were examined for mite infestation on day 0,7,14 and 21. Similarly the ivermectin was also applied topically on neck region on day 0,7 and 14. Where infestation was reconfirmed by skin scraping on day 0, 7, 14 and 21. The group treated with fipronil showed generalized clinical improvement in health (Body weight, body itch, feed intake, activity and skin lesion) after day 14 whereas all the skin lesions disappeared by day 21. Ivermectin the birds started showing improvement in health (Body weight, body itch, feed intake, activity and skin lesion) on day 7 post treatment and all the skin lesion healed by day 21. On the basis of findings of this study it is conducted that bot ivermectin and fipronil are effective against K. pilae however ivermectin induced recovery is fast as compared to fipronil. Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [Call number: 2955-T] (1).



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