Comparative Efficiacy Of Different Supplemental Nutrients Used To Combat Heat Stress In Broilers
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2006 Dissertation note: NaHCO3. Serum sodium was higher (P<O.05) in control group compared to all other treatments. Whereas, no differences in serum K and Cl concentrations
were observed. TLC values were higher (P<O.05) in birds fed on diets
containing feed supplements compared to control group. Mortality in control
group A was highest (33%) as compared to group B, C, D and E which was
3.3, 16, 23 and 6.6% respectively. Rectal temperatures of all treated groups were similar (3 7°C) to those of control birds. This study clearly indicated that when ambient temperature rises above 40°C birds require feed supplement to combat heat stress.
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Effect Of Storage, Pre-Heating & Turning During Holding Period On The Hatchability Of The Eggs Of Broiler
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2004 Dissertation note: This project was planned to study the effect of storage, pre heating & turning during holding period on the hatchability of the eggs of broiler breeder of 32 weeks. For this purpose 240 feritle eggs (52-5 gm weight) of 32 weeks old breeding flock were purchased form a reputable hatchery. After collection the eggs were cleaned and stored at specific temperature (16 C) and humidity (75%). Eggs were equally divided into four groups i.e. A, B,C, and D having 60 eggs each. The eggs of group A were neither turned nor preheated before setting in the incubator. The eggs of group B were preheated for 6-7 hours until the temperature reached 85 F before setting in incubator but were not turned. The eggs of group C were not pre heated but were turned for 6-8 times in each day during storage period before setting in the incubator. The eggs of group D were pre heated before setting in incubator and turned simultaneously during holding period (storage period). After these specific treatments the eggs were placed in the incubator for 21 days. After the incubation the hatchability percentage of all the groups were noted and the chicks were brooded for 8 days. At the end of second week of age the FCR, weight gains total feed consumed and common causes of mortality were calculated. The data was subjected to statistical analyses (2 x 2 Factorial, Steel and Torrie 1980). Statistical analyses of the data revealed that no differences were obsedved amongst the groups in case of pre heating but in case of turning there was a significant diference (P<0.05) among those groups for hatchability percentages. Although the hatchability percentage for the group D was highest than those of groups A, B, and C. The groups were significantly different in case of weight gain in first week of age. The group D showed significant difference (P<0.05) from the group A. In case of FCR in first and second week of age there was no significant difference (P<0.05) among the all groups i.e. A,B,C and D. The weight gain in second week of age did not significantly showed a difference (P<0.05) among the groups A,B,C and D. The early mortality percentage was highert in group A and lowest in group D. This shows that the turning has a major effect to reduce the sticky chick number. The over all results showed that as we give the turning to the fertile eggs the day old chick weight, weight gain in first week of age and number of sticky chicks were reduced and healing did not contribute to the day old chick weight, weight gain and FCR but reduced the early mortality losses.
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Evaluation Of Post Peak Production Of Commercial Layers And Fed On Extruded Hatchery Waste Meal
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Publisher: 2010 Dissertation note: Poultry feed ingredients are very expensive and raises poultry input cost with an inverse impact at final outcome. To decrease the feed cost and to increase farming output, utilization of non conventional feed resources such as hatchery waste meal (HWM) may be used in layer feed and seems a good economic properties. For this purpose the present study was designed to exploit post peak production of commercial layers supplemented with dietary extruded hatchery waste meal and this trail was carried out at poultry experimental farm University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore. Two experiments were conducted at the poultry experimental farm. In the first experiment raw hatchery was collected from a local hatchery and was dried at oven in 60°C till constant weight was achieved. The dried sample was then cooked by extrusion processes. In the second experiment the dietary inclusion of extruded hatchery waste meal (EHWM) was determined on performance of layer birds. For this purpose two hundred and fifty (250) White Leg horn layers in start of 2nd stage of production (35 weeks old) was procured and divided in to five groups (A, B, C, D and E) in such a way that there were fifty birds in each group. Each group was then further sub divided in to five replicates of ten birds. Group A served as a control. The experimental layers were being kept in cages with the standard norms of husbandry. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. Four different supplementary levels of extruded hatchery waste meal of groups B, C, D, and E respectively, i.e. 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% were incorporated in layers diet. The parameters studied daily egg production and egg weight, while shell weight, shell thickness, albumen weight, albumen height, yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk color, and Haugh units were studied on fortnight basis. At the end of the experiment the feasibility of each ration was also calculated. The data thus collected were statistically analyses using analysis of variance technique and comparison of means was made using DMR test.
In the present study the high mean egg production was recorded in treatment 4 (53.2±1.15) in which 6% extruded EHWM was used while the lowest mean egg production was recorded in treatment 2 (49.9±1.82) in which 2% of extruded HWM was used. The result of the present study show non-significant (p>0.05) effect of extruded hatchery waste meal on egg production. Highest value of average egg weight (60.4±0.48) was observed in control group while lowest value (59.2±0.53) was observed by using 8% EHWM. Statistical analysis showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect among treatments. Highest value of mean egg shell weight (7.3±0.17) was observed by using 4% extruded HWM. Lowest value of mean egg shell weight (7.2±0.06) was observed by using 8% HWM. The high value recorded for shell thickness was that of treatment 4 (0.33±0.008) by using 6% dietary EHWM, while lowest value was recorded in treatment 5 (0.31±0.002) using 8% dietary EHWM. The result of mean shell weight and shell thickness also showed non-significant differences (p>0.05) among different treatments.
The results of albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh units showed non-significant (p>0.05) effect of feeding different dietary levels of EHWM to commercial layers. However the highest values recorded for albumen weight and albumen height were (37.5±0.61) and (8.53 0.134) respectively in control group which was without of dietary EHWM. The highest value observed for Haugh units was (91.8±0.57) that of treatment 3 by using 4% EHWM. However albumen weight, albumen height and Haugh unit showed statistically non significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM fed on experimental commercial layers.
The values for yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color were observed in order of merit for treatment, 2 (2% EHWM) (16.0±0.17), treatment 3 (4% EHWM) (38.8±0.11), and treatment 5 (8% EHWM) (5.5±0.15) respectively. Statistically the yolk weight, yolk diameter and yolk color showed non-significant (P>0.05) effect of EHWM on layers performance.
The economic feasibility of each ration was calculated at the end of the experiment. The feed cost per kg and the cost of 1 kg eggs were decreased gradually as dietary supplementary level of HW was increased from 2 to 8% in the diet of commercial layers. The most economical ration was that of treatment 5 in which 8%EHWM was used.
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Effecacy Assessment Of Omega-3 Bio-Fortified-Eggs Against Hypercholesterolemia In Human Subjects
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids which include linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might reduce risk factors for heart disease through lowering total blood cholesterol, LDL, blood pressure, triglycerides and enhancing the level of blood HDL. Excellent sources of omega-3 fatty acids are fish, flax seed, olive oil etc. Recently the efforts had been successful to bio-fortify or improve the omeg-3 fatty acid contents of the products like eggs through feed manipulation. However, the information was lacking on extent of subsequent health benefits of such bio-fortified/ designer products. For the purpose, this project had been designed to test the efficacy of omega-3 enriched eggs against hyperlipidemia in hypercholesterolemia adult human subjects.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid bio-fortified eggs improved the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia humans. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eggs (more than 200mg per egg); already bio-fortified through feeding management, were obtained from University of Sargodha. The eggs were analyzed for chemical composition; protein, carbohydrates, ash, fatty acids, cholesterol content and physical parameters color, weight, volume, density etc. Representative samples from bio-fortified lots and control eggs were boiled and evaluated for organoleptic acceptability through a 10-member panel of trained judges for parameters of taste, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Finally, representative samples of bio-fortified and control eggs were used for efficacy studies against hypercholesterolemia in human subjects. Twenty- two hypercholesterolemia adult subjects with both sexes without complications were recruited after informed consent, divided into two groups having 11 in each group. We selected those patients whom cholesterol level was > 200mg/dl, triglycerides level also greater than 200 mg/dl, normal blood pressure and no heart problem. First group was provided with bio-fortified eggs whereas second group was not provided either of the eggs. The individuals in 1st group were asked to eat one egg per day in morning until 40 days whereas the individuals in 2nd group were advised to continue with their usual diets. The blood samples of the individuals were obtained at the start of the study, after this blood sample was obtained only weekly basis for 40 days. The blood was analyzed for blood lipid profile to assess the impact of omega-3 bio-fortified eggs against various blood lipid fractions.
The data thus collected was analyzed statistically to check significance (Steel et al., 1997). Means were compared for significant difference with t-test for physical and chemical composition parameters and with Least Significant Difference (Duncan, 1955) for efficacy studies.
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Efficacy Of Composted Poultry Litter/Dead Birds In Broiler Quail Rations
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The aim of study was to find out the method for disposal of waste material, dead birds and poultry litter and their proper utilization in the poultry industry. Secondly to evaluate the efficacy of composted poultry litter/dead birds in broiler quail ration. The experiment was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre and Avian Research and Training Center, UVAS, Lahore in two different phases. The first phase was of 8 weeks duration in which composting of dead birds was doneusing advance windrow pile technique and proximate analysis of the composted material wascarried out. During the second phase, a quail ration was formulated according to dietary recommendations of NRC (1994) with inclusion of 0, 2, 4 and 6% compost and fed to quails,For this purpose, a total of 1200 day old Japanese broiler quails were randomly divided into 4 different experimental groups (A, B, C, and D). Group A was control and group B, C, and D contained 2, 4, and 6% composted ration respectively. The birds in each group were replicated six timescomprising 50 birds in each replicate. After 4 weeks of age three birds per replicate were slaughtered and their slaughtering parameters were recorded. The data thus obtained were analyzed through ANOVA in completely randomized design (Steelet al.1997) and means were compared by Duncan's Multiple Range (DMR) test (Duncan, 1955) using SAS (Statistical Analysis System) version 9.1. In production performance feed intake, body weight, body weight gain and FCR showed positive response when fed different levels of composted diet while mortality % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period. In slaughtering parameters live body weight (g), carcass weight %, dressing Weight %, Giblet weight %, Gizzard weight % and Heart weight % showed positively when fed different levels of composted diet while liver weight % remained unaffected throughout the experimental period.
Key Words: Composted ration, Japanese quail, Production Performance, Slaughtering Parameters.
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Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Lutein Sources On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Its Bio-Availability in Eggs of Commercial Layers Categorized in THree Body Weights
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: The term Designer egg has gained popularity all over the world. Egg which gives some health benefits with the provision of basic nutrients is called designer egg. Lutein a xanthophyll pigment is good for the prevention of age related macular degeneration (AMD).Egg is considered good vehicle for lutein transport as bio-availability of lutein is high through egg. The present study was aimed to produce lutein enriched eggs (designer eggs). Different sources of lutein were used and their effect on production performance and egg quality characteristics was measured. A total number of 432 Hy-line layers categorized into 3 body sizes (Heavy, Medium, Light) were offered 4 different supplementations of lutein (0, free, esterified, free + esterified) replicated 6 times having 6 layers each. Parameters regarding production performance, egg geometry and egg quality were observed.Data were analyzed according to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique through Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using factorial arrangement. Means were compared through Duncan Multiple Range Test (Duncan, 1955) with the help of SAS 9.3. Results of the present study showed significantly higher Haugh unit score (87.17±0.39) in light birds during 3rd week whereas, within lutein sources significantly higher Haugh unit score was observed in layers fed with control diets (85.52±0.48). Significantly (p<0.05) higher yolk pH was observed in layers fed with esterified source of lutein whereas significantly higher (8.26±0.06) albumen pH was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein however, different body sizes could not show their effect on yolk and albumen pH. Significantly higher (62.97±0.22) albumen % was observed during 1st week of study in birds fed with esterified source of lutein whereas body weight categories did not affect the albumen% whereas,
yolk % was affected by different body sizes and lutein sources during 1st week of study. Significantly higher mean value (27.48±0.27) of yolk % was recorded in birds fed with combination of free and esters of lutein whereas higher value of yolk % (27.20±0.23) was observed in medium birds. Shell percentage significantly (p<0.05) affected by different body sizes (10.96±0.13) and lutein sources (11.14±0.18) during 1st week of study whereas shell thickness was significantly (p<0.05) affected by lutein sources (0.35±0.004) during 1st week of study. Means of different sources of lutein had significant (p<0.05) effect on yolk color and the highest mean value (11.63±0.15) was observed in birds fed with free source of lutein. Yolk index was significantly (0.36±0.005) affected by different lutein sources however, body sizes did not affect yolk index. As far as egg geometry was concerned egg surface area and egg volume were found to be significantly highest for heavy birds whereas non-significant differences for egg volume and shape index were observed. However, different lutein sources had no effect on egg geometry parameters. Significantly highest egg weight (62.74±0.23) was observed in heavy layers followed by medium (61.56±0.17) and light (60.63±0.17). However, different body weights (narrow ranges) and lutein sources had non-significant effect on production (%), FCR per dozen, egg mass and FCR per kg egg mass.
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Effect Of Dietary Supplementation Of Different Lutein Sources On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Its Bio-Availability in Eggs of Commercial Layers Categorized in Three Body Weighta
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2013 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1813,T] (1).
Haemato-Biochemical Profile And Immune Response In 3 Batches Of 4 Closebred Quail Parent Flocks Selected for Higher 4-Week Body Weight in 4th Generation
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1913,T] (1).
Effect Of Diets Formulated With Different Nutrient Densities On Performance And Blood Parameters Of Broilers At Different Phases.
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Poultry sector, the second largest industry of Pakistan, is growing exponentially to fulfill the growing needs of meat and eggs. Although poultry sector has shown incredible growth rate during the past decade; however, there is still gap between poultry meat demand and supply. Every living animal has a need for protein. It is the basic structural material from which all body tissues are formed. Dietary protein and metabolize-able energy content has re-emerged as a topic of interest and importance over the last few years mainly due to environmental concerns. Availability of balanced and economical ration has great importance in broiler production. Feed cost is the single most important factor, which accounts more than 70 percent of total cost in poultry production. The challenge for nutritionist and production managers is not only to provide a feed cheaper to a maximum possible level, but also to maximize profitability, because performance of the bird depends upon a broad range of dietary nutrients.
Two hundred day old chicks were purchased from the commercial hatchery. On the first day all chicks were weighed and were separated into 4 dietary treatment groups in completely randomized design so that each experimental treatment consist of 5 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicates in this way each treatment consist of total 50 chicks(4x5x10=200). Feeder and waterer were clean before start of experiment and were cleaned regularly till the end of experiment. Feed and water which were provided throughout experiment were clean, Ad libitum and completely hygenized.
Four experimental diets were prepared according to the Aviagen Recommendation (2012) but the level of ME in all groups were different, HD feed with ME (3000-3200 Kcal/Kg) and CP (19-24 %), MD feed with ME (2900-3100 Kcal/Kg) and CP (19-23), ND feed with ME (2800- 3000 Kcal/Kg) and CP (19-23 %) and LD feed with ME (2700-2900 Kcal/Kg) and CP (18-23 %) respectively. Data were collected for different parameters of growth performance, carcass traits and blood TG and HDL in mg/dl, respectively. The economics of each treatment was analyzed at the end data was analyzed through Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with use of Completely Randomized Design.
The highest weight gain (1862.4± 106.56) was observed in group HD having (ME: 3000 Kcal/Kg in Starter ration, 3100 Kcal/Kg in grower ration and 3200 Kcal/Kg in finisher ration) and lowest (2974.6±26.96) was observed in group LD having (ME: 2700 Kcal/Kg in Starter ration, 2800 Kcal/Kg in grower ration and 2900 Kcal/Kg in finisher ration) at 35 days of age. Overall result showed that there was significantly decline in weight gain with decreasing level of ME in diet .Statistical analysis showed that all treatments in starter and finisher rations were different (P≤0.05) except in finisher ration.
Carcass traits were non-significant (p > 0.05) to each other throughout experiment. Dressing percentage of broilers of different treatment groups was highest (60.38±7.90) in MD group and lowest was observed in LD feed group (54.6±10.37). Dressing percentage was increased as the level of metabolize-able energy increased in diets.
The highest blood Triglyceride level (36.3±2.5) was observed in HD group and lowest (29.5±3.92) was observed in ND group. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong significant difference (P≤0.05) among all these treatment. Same results were found in case of HDL levels in blood. Data analysis proved that MD feed was most economical with good results.
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Productive And Reproductive Performance In Japanese Quail As Affected By Interventions In The Age At Photo Stimulation
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Light play an important role in controlling the age at sexual maturity in birds. Among various managemental aspects, light management is the basic one. Attaining sexual maturity at an appropriate age and weight is the key to reproductive success and the present study was an effort in the same direction. To develop specific practice for quail production and to optimize the best age for photo-stimulation present experiment was conducted. In total 225 females and 75 males of 5 week old were studied. A completely randomized design with three treatment of 5 replicates with 15 female and 5 male each, was applied. Treatment consisted 3 different ages of photo-stimulation (30, 35 and 40 days). Production performance (body weight, feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio and livability), egg characteristics (egg weight, shell thickness, yolk index and Haugh unit) and hatching traits (infertile, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shell percent and hatchling body weight) were evaluated. This has been observed in the study that photo-stimulating the birds at 40 days of age influenced positively egg production % with longest consistent peak, number of eggs, FCR / dozen eggs and FCR/Kg egg mass. Birds stimulated at 40 days of age showed better hatchability and very low dead in germ percentage. It was concluded that photo-stimulation at 40 days of age not only significantly improves productive, reproductive and egg quality traits but also gives the consistency in all respects of these traits.
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Evaluation of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Economic Appraisal of 3 Broiler Strains Under 4 Brooding Sources And Varying Feeding Regimens In Termianal Phase
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Theses submitted with corrupt cd.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2351-T] (1).
Effect Of Different Bedding Materials On The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics And Immune Response Of Three Different Broiler Strains
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Broiler birds spent most of their life in close association with bedding material. Managing poultry house bedding material is an important husbandry practice. The type of bedding material can affect the performance of the broilers to a certain extent in terms of growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response. In Pakistan, selection of bedding material is dependent upon season and availability with little knowledge of interaction with particular broiler strain. Although, it is well documented that different strains have the tendency to perform differently in similar environmental conditions still performance of particular cross on a given bedding material is not studied. Poultry industry is constantly interested in evaluating the performance of the commercially available broiler strains. The concept of using different bedding materials for three different commercial broiler strains was evaluated at the Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 360 day old commercial broiler chicks from three different strains (Ross 308, Cobb 500 and Arbor acres) 120 from each strain were purchased from the local market. All the day old chicks having uniform body weight were randomly distributed into 36 replicates having 10 chicks each and were fed the same quality of feed. Birds from each strain were reared on each bedding material in three replicates to evaluate the ultimate growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune response influenced by four different bedding materials for the period of 5 weeks. Three birds were randomly picked up from each treatment group at the end of trial and 5 ml blood was collected in marked test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird during slaughtering to obtain serum samples. The data were analyzed through analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique using PROC GLM in SAS 9.1. Means were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test.
The findings of the present study exhibited that Cobb 500 reared on corn cob pulp showed significantly (P<0.05) better final weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio,European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), Point Spread (PS) and Livability. Regarding carcass characteristics better dressing proportion, breast yield, leg quarter yield, giblet weight and other body measurements were observed in Cobb 500 followed by Ross 308 and Arbor acres strain reared on other bedding materials used in this experiment. Corn cob pulp showed maximum potential with the best moisture absorbing capacity and favored the growth of birds followed by rice husk, wheat straw and wood shavings. Wood shaving proved to be a poor choice as it hinders the growth performance and was hard to manage due to wet, scaly and cake formation that promoted pathogenic growth leading to FPD. Moreover, corn cob pulp was better suited to promote dry condition because of fine particles size allowing more surface area for moisture evaporation and keeping it dry for longer duration. Therefore, birds kept on corn cob pulp were more comfortable as it is evident from the results that it has the potential to be used in poultry industry as alternate bedding material. Rice husk performed next to corn cob pulp while wheat straw and wood shavings did not impress by the outcome and proved to unfit for better growth and welfare of birds. In the current study, birds generated protective antibody titers against Newcastle Disease virus and no significant differences were found by using different bedding materials or broiler strains.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the observations made from the current experiment it may be claimed that:
• Corn cob pulp proved to be the most efficient as it significantly improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of 3 commercial broiler strains especially for Cobb 500.
• Corn cob pulp being most comfortable promoted health and welfare of birds leading to improved immunity against pathogens and viral diseases.
• FPD can be reduced to minimum by adopting corn cob pulp as bedding material due to its fine particles and highly moisture absorbing abilities.
• The highest carcass yield, dressing proportion, organ weight (heart weight, abdominal fat, liver, spleen, heart, thymus, bursa) along with breast yield, neck, keel and shank length were recorded by Cobb 500 on corn cob pulp.
• Cobb 500 strain was found better than rest of two strains (Ross and Arbor acres) regarding growth performance and carcass characteristics.
• Being a by-product of corn processing, corn cob pulp is the cheapest and can be an economical alternate to conventional bedding materials for all strains especially for Cobb.
In Pakistan rice husk and wood shavings are abundantly used bedding materials depending upon season and availability. Rice husk is by product of rice processing and highly dependent upon season, while poultry farming is a continuous business so its availability stands as a major issue. Whereas, corn cob pulp being a by-product of corn processing is usually left on fields or wasted. So it can be used as a cheap alternative with better performance but its availability around the year and on commercial scale can be an issue.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2424-T] (1).
Effect Of Molting On Reproductive Performance Of Indigenous Aseel Chicken
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: The native breeds of Aseel chicken are playing vital role by producing organic meat and eggs. The Aseel chicken breed has some advantage as compared to other native breeds like, Lyallpur Silver black and Desi for their growth traits. However the growth and production traits need to be enhanced. There is no commercial farming system of Aseel chicken due to its poor fertility and hatchability. To overcome these problems the breeding roosters must be physiologically elite having excellent semen quality for better growth and egg production. The objective of this study was to enhance the semen quality, fertility and hatchability of Aseel roosters by the process of induced molting. For this purpose molting was induced in the 3 old males. There were three groups of Aseel Lakha cockerels’ i.e. molted, non-molted and fresh. The research was performed at Indigenous Genetic Resource Center (ICGRC), Department of Poultry Production, Ravi Campus, Pattoki.
To evaluate the impact of induced molting on semen quality, fertility and hatchability followed by natural mating of females to get better fertility and hatchability in eggs. Six Aseel roosters up to 60 weeks of age having 3.5 to 4kg body weight were divided into two groups’ as molted and non-molted. Third group of fresh birds more than 30 weeks of age were selected in this experiment as control. In one older group molting was induced by feed restriction. After completion of molting, two weeks rest was given to birds to recover body weight. These birds were trained for semen collection by abdominal massage method for two weeks. Semen was brought to the laboratory for evaluation after collection in all three groups. The significant difference (P < 0.05), was observed for volume, concentration, motility, livability and morphological defects in molted, non-molted and fresh groups. Eggs collected from the females mated with three groups were stored at 40C for two weeks. After that these
fertility, infertile eggs, and dead germs, dead in shell and hatchability% were recorded in three experimental groups. There was significant difference (P < 0.05), between fertility % infertile eggs % dead germs % and hatchability %. It is concluded that the semen quality is improved by the process of induce molting. Further egg sets from the females mated with induced molted males’ yielded better fertility (77%) and hatchability (54.1%) in indigenous Aseel chicken so induced molting is a better tool for the old males after 60 weeks of age for their reproductive performance.
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Physiological, Behavioral And Immune Response In Three Commercial Broiler Strains Under Four Heating Systems
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The performance of broilers maintained under four different brooding systems with respect
to behavior of the birds, blood profile and immune response in comparison to different
strain of broilers raising needs to be studied under local conditions as it has been reported
to possess better prospects. Furthermore, broiler performance in four different brooding
zones having different air quality needs to be investigated in view of their effect on
performance of broilers. In the trial, 360 commercial (Hubbard, Ross, Cobb) day-old broiler
chicks purchased from the local hatchery. Hence the present study was conducted, Department
of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Ravi campus, Pattoki with
the objectives to compare the effect of strains and heating sources on the behavior (Walking,
Feeding, Jumping, Litter Pecking, Lying, Standing, Preening, Breathing, Fearfulness, Body
stretching, Rubbing beak with body) of the birds. In the present study effect of strains and
heating system on blood biochemistry and immune response were also identified. The behavior
of broilers strains studied under four different heating systems. Each treatment replicated 03 subgroups.
The experimental chicks randomly divided into 36 experimental units of 10 chicks each
after the adaptation period of three weeks. The heating system will be split into 04 groups (A, B,
C and D). The birds in group A kept over hot water pipe lines. The birds in group B will be kept
in gas heater area. The birds in group C kept in diesel brooder area. The birds in group D kept
under pen cake brooder area. The data were analyzed according to analysis of variance
(ANOVA) technique in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial
arrangements using GLM procedures. Means separated through Duncan Multiple Range
(DMR) test with the help of SAS, 9.1. Results of the present study showed significant highest
jumping behavior in birds reared on hot water pipes as compared to gas heater during starter
phase and grower phase. In interaction, significantly more jumping behavior was recorded on
electric bulbs in Ross when compared with Ross on hot water in starter phase. Significantly
highest aggression was showed in birds reared on gas heaters than birds reared on electric bulb
and diesel brooder. The preening behavior significantly improved in birds reared on gas heaters
in starter, grower and finisher phase. While minimum was recorded on hot water during starter,
grower and finisher phase. The feather picking behavior and walking behavior significantly
higher in birds reared on gas heater during starter, grower and finisher phase. The laying
behavior was statistically significant in Cobb broiler chicks during finisher phase. The feeding
and litter picking behavior significantly higher in Ross broiler chicks during finisher phase. The
under heat source, stretching and rubbing beak with body behavior significantly improved in
Hubbard broiler chicks during starter phase. The blood profile was not significantly influenced
by strains and heating source. The antibody titer against ND and IBD was higher in Ross reared
on water heating system as compared to other strains and heating sources while blood
biochemical profile was also higher in Ross when reared at floor heating system.
Ross reared under hot water during brooding showed better and healthy behavior
including jumping, aggression, walking, standing, drinking, lying, feeding and litter
Ross strains exhibited better immune response and serum chemistry at hot water brooding
Suggestion and Recommendations:
Hot water can be used as alternative brooding source
Behavior of commercial poultry needs further investigation and research.
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Performance And Immune Response Of Layers Among Different Production Cycles Influenced By Body Weight Losses During Molting
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Molting is a natural phenomenon in birds to rejuvenate their potential and body reserves. Commercially molting is being practiced in most of the countries to extend the production cycle of the bird and gain more from a single birds. It also reduces the cost of rearing the replacement pullet and increase egg size. The success of molting depends on loss of body weight during molting. Genetic improvement is a continuous process and new strains of layers are being developed on regular basis. LSL Lite is one of the recently introduced strain in Pakistan. But, its optimum body weight loss during molting in different production cycles is need to be optimized. The present study was planned to compare the performance of birds after different body weight losses during molting in different production cycles of commercial LSL Lite strain. The study was conducted at a Commercial layer farm. A total of 216 uniform weight birds of three production cycles (1st Cycle = 16 Wk, 2nd Cycle = 80 Wk, 3rd Cycle = 108 wk) were placed in battery cages. The birds of 2nd and 3rd production cycles were first molted till reduction of 20, 25, and 30% body weight loss. The birds of 1st production cycle (Control group) were those having same body weight as those of 2nd and 3rd production cycle after molting. The birds used in 3rd production cycle were first molted at the age of 64 Wk. Each treatment was replicated three times with 8 birds each and placed according to Completely Randomized Designs. The parameters used were post-moult production performance, egg geometry, egg quality and immune profile of these birds. The data collected were subjected to ANOVA under Completely Randomized Design in factorial arrangement using SAS 9.1. Significant means (P<0.05) were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Results of the present study showed that birds in 1st production cycle have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass, shape index, egg surface area,
Huagh unit, yolk index, shell %, egg shell thickness. Whereas birds in 3rd production cycle have highest feed intake. Egg weight was highest in 2nd and 3rd production cycle. Similarly birds in low weight category have highest egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass. Whereas birds heavy weight category had highest egg mass. Non-significant difference were observed regarding immunity in different production cycles and body weight loss categories. Similarly non-significant difference were observed regarding egg quality with respect to body weight loss categories throughout the experiment. Feed intake and egg production remained non-significant in case of interaction of production cycles and body weight loss categories.
From present studied it can be concluded that:
Different production cycles influence productive performance of the birds, especially 1st production cycle birds had higher production % FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass however the production performance of 2nd and 3rd production cycles birds is relatively comparable. Similarly 2nd and 3rd production cycle birds exhibit higher egg weight and egg mass.
Birds of low weight category (< 1400 g) of 1st production cycle and 30% body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycles had relatively higher egg production %, better FCR per dozen eggs and FCR per kg egg mass. Whereas heavy weight category of 1st production cycle and 20 % body weight loss groups of 2nd and 3rd production cycle had higher egg weight and egg mass.
Egg quality and geometry was influenced by production cycles but no difference was observed by body weight loss categories in this regard.
Different production cycles and body weight loss categories did not influence immune parameters.
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Supplementation Of Glycerin In Rearing Diets And Its Subsequent Effect On Production Performance, Egg Quality And Hatchability In Japanese Quails
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Glycerin has gained attraction being a low cost and energy rich compound that can partially replace the major ingredients including corn and some other energy rich stuffs. It may work as an alternative energy source without any detrimental effect on production performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quails. This study evaluated subsequent effect of glycerin on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits in Japanese quail. A total of 200 birds were arranged according to completely randomized design into 5 treatment groups having 5 replicates of 8 birds each (6 female + 2 Males). Treatment consisted 5 levels of glycerin i.e., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % and control group. Birds were fed with different levels of glycerin during rearing period of six weeks and their subsequent effect on productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed. Data were collected regarding productive performance for 16 weeks, however, egg quality and hatching traits were recorded during pre-peak (at 4th week), peak (at 12th week) and post peak (at 16th week) phase. No significant effect of glycerin on subsequent productive performance, egg quality and hatching traits were observed throughout the experimental period. Regarding productive performance, initial and final body weight, feed intake, hen housed and hen day production%, egg weight, egg mass, FCR / dozen egg and / kg egg mass did not show any major significant difference in all three phases. However, glycerin had significant effect on subsequent egg weight during peak and post peak phase. In egg quality, no significant effect of glycerin were observed on subsequent egg shell thickness, shell weight and yolk index in all three phases, whereas, albumen height and Haugh Unit score during pre-peak and peak phase were effected significantly. In terms of hatching traits, hatchability, fertility, dead in shell and dead germ% did not show any significant difference in all phases. However, clear egg % showed significant difference during peak phase of production.
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Effect Of Different Feeding Regimens On Subsequent Growth, Performance, Carcass Characterstics And Immune Response In Sexed Broiler
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Protein is a major component of broilers diets. There are contradictory reports in literature regarding optimum levels of protein in broiler chicken diets to obtain reasonable performance. Initially some efforts were made to establish a minimum level of protein to get optimum performance but those moves resulted in poor performance in terms of weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The present study was conducted at Poultry Research and Training Centre (PRTC), Ravi Campus Pattoki, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. The duration of the proposed study was 35 days. In total, 360 day old commercial broiler chicks were assigned to 12 groups in 3×4 factorial arrangement under Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Treatments consisted of 3 sex rearing systems (male, female and mix) and 4 feeding regimes (HD, conventional, NRC and Soya Corn). Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 10 birds in each. Data regarding growth performance incuding feed intake, body weight and FCR were recorded on weekly basis. At the end of trial, from each replicate two birds were randomly picked up and slaughtered to collect the data for carcass characteristics. After slaughtering, 5 ml blood was collected in test tubes from Jugular vein of each bird. Serum samples were extracted and stored at -20C for measuring antibody titers against and serum chemistry. The collected data were analyzed through ANOVA technique under factorial arrangement using PROG GLM. Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range (DMR) test with the help of SAS 9.1.
Broilers reared on different feeding regimes showed significantly enhanced body weight, better FCR, PEF, PS, PI and better ND titer in high density (HD) diet fed birds, whereas feed intake was found to be higher in those birds which were fed at conventional diet. On the other hand, glucose and cholesterol showed non-significant results. While carcass characteristics showed CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY
higher abdominal fat, heart weight and thymus weight in soya corn based diet whereas pancreas, breast and thigh meat yield weights were found to be higher in HD diet. Different sexes indicated higher body weight, FCR, PEF,PS, PI, dressed weight, heart weight, keel length and shank length in males whereas abdominal fat was observed to be higher in females. Males showed better economics rather than straight run and female birds. Among different feeding regimes HD feed exhibited better economical appraisal as compared to Soya corn, NRC and conventional diet.
Based on the findings of the present study it may be concluded that
1. Rearing of broilers on high density (HD) feed resulted into enhanced body weight and better FCR. Whereas feed intake was found to be higher in birds fed conventional diet. In sexes, male broilers fed high density (HD) feed showed better body weight, improved FCR, PEF, PS and PI values.
2. In carcass characteristics, birds fed high density diet showed enhanced weight of pancreas, breast meat yield, keel length and thigh yield while abdominal fat, heart weight and thymus weight were higher in soya corn diet fed birds. In different sexes, rearing of males separately indicated increased dressed weight, heart weight, keel length and shank length whereas abdominal fat was observed to be higher in females.
3. Birds reared on HD diet exhibited elevated antibody titer as compared to NRC, Conventional and soya corn based diet however with respect to cholesterol level, different sexes and feeding regimes separately could not show their response.
4. Among different feeding regimes, high density (HD) diet remained more economical than Soya corn, NRC and conventional diet. In sexes, rearing of males separately remained more economical than rearing of females alone as well as combined sex rearing.
Recommendations for the farmers
Based on the current findings, here are some recommendations for the farmers
1. HD feed can improve the growth performance and carcass characteristics.
2. HD feed is cost effective so by using the high density feed better results can be obtained.
Suggestions for the futures researchers
Same treatments can be applied in sexed broilers to evaluate meat quality and organoleptic.
Future researchers can also apply different feed regimes in different broilers strains.
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Welfare Assessment Of Wild Turkeys (Meleagris Gallopavo) Subjected To Free Range, Semiintensive And Confinement Rearing Systems
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The volume of turkey production is as small compared to the broiler production, although, the
turkey industry has attained a significant increase since 1980, rising from 122 million to 226
million turkeys by 2006 within the European Union, while values of turkeys produced in the US
during 2010 was $4.37 billion. The s scientific literature about welfare of confinedly reared
turkeys is scarce compared to other poultry birds. There is a need for more insight into the
factors that enhance turkey welfare, not only to sustainable production of turkey meat where the
public demands s management practices for the welfare of turkeys, but also because the
information is needed to decrease losses due to poor performance of the birds.
Besides ecological importance, Meleagris gallopavo also have aesthetic values which
mainly contribute to decline in population of turkeys due to poching in their native habitat.
Demand for poultry meat is increasing throughout the world, due to of its lower cost when
compared to other meats such as pork and beef, and also lower fat content and excellent source
of protein. The consumption of turkey meat is about 4.7 million metric tons annually throughout
of the world and with the US accounting for 50% of all consumption.
A total of 120, day-old turkey (Maleagris gallopavo) chicks were arranged into four
groups. Four diets having varying levels of crude protein (CP) viz. 16% CP, 18% CP, 20% CP
and 22% CP were prepared and were designated as control (T0), treatment 1 (T1), treatment 2
(T2) and treatment 3 (T3) diets, respectively. Group 1 birds were fed with T0 diets, group 2 with
T1 diets, group 3 with T2 and group 4 birds were fed with T3 diets. Significantly higher weight
gain 2950.86±1952.58g, body length 30.064±11cm, beak length 3.53cm, body girth
43.41±16.30cm, thigh length 18.18±6.47cm, sternum-length 11.98±4.70cm, wing-length
47.10±16.17cm, wingspan 101.36±34.32cm, shank-length and tarsus-length 13.78±4.47cm were
recorded in M. gallopavo fed with T3 diets. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) for T0, T1, T2 and T3
diets were 2.296, 2.236, 2.099 and 1.934, respectively. Internal and external quality parameters
of egg were also analyzed.
The time budget of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) reared under free-range and
confinement rearing systems was recorded and compared from day old chick to the sixth month
of age. Throughout the study period, M. gallopavo reared under free-range rearing system spent
relatively greater time litter pecking (23.51%) followed by walking (19.99%), feeding (16.33%),
preening (13.72%), feather pecking (6.07%), aggression (5.94%), drinking (5.90%), immobility
(2.36%), standing (2.29%) and jumping (1.96%). Similarly, the birds reared under confinement
rearing system spent relatively greater time in lying (17.82%) followed by litter pecking (15.71),
preening (12.93%), walking (11.47%), standing (8.35%), drinking (8.31%), aggression (6.85%),
feeding (6.46%), feather pecking (6.04%), immobility (4.59%) and jumping (1.46%) behavior. It
was observed during the present study that the birds reared under free-range rearing system spent
significantly greater time in litter pecking, walking and feeding behaviors as compared to the
birds reared under confinements. These behaviors are indicators of good health of the animals,
therefore free-range system is recommended over confinement rearing system for farming of M.
Growth performance, carcass yield and meat sensory quality attributes of turkeys
Meleagris gallopavo reared under free-range and confinement rearing systems were compared.
There were two treatments, i.e. indoor and free range, each containing 25 birds. In indoor
treatment, the turkeys were raised in a 20 × 20 feet (length × width) well ventilated room while
in free-range treatment, the birds were housed in an open shed having same dimensions i.e. 20 ×
20 feet (length × width), however, an additional free-range grassy paddock was provided to
them. To compare sensory attributes, 4 ready to-cook turkeys having equal size were selected
from each the rearing systems, were skinned and boneless breast fillets and thighs were prepared,
weighed and steam roasted. The roast breast meat of free-range turkeys was darker and yellower
than thigh meat from indoor birds. Score for breast meat tenderness and appearance varied
significantly (P<0.05) between free-range and confinement reared birds. However, nonsignificant
differences were recorded for thigh meat tenderness between free-range and confined
turkeys. Significantly higher (P<0.05) meat redness was recorded in thigh meat of turkeys reared
in free-range system than thigh meat of confined M. gallopavo while non-significant differences
in breast meat color were observed between free-range and confined birds. Significantly higher
juiciness and oiliness was recorded for confined birds as compared to the free-range reared
Morphological characteristics of turkey Meleagris gallopavo semen were recorded and
hatchability percentages of the artificially inseminated hens were assessed. To study the effect of
natural mating on hatchability 15 (12♀, 3♂) M. gallopavo were randomly selected and both the
genders were kept separately for two weeks, thereafter these birds were arranged in three groups,
each containing one male and four female birds. For AI, male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) birds
were kept separately through the experiment and female birds were inseminated on weekly basis.
Male birds were conditioned and trained for semen collection through abdominal massage and
morphological characteristics of the collected semen were recorded. Mean abnormal
spermatozoa rate was 14.61±1.61% with most common acrosomal defects 36.67±3.80%
followed by defects in mid-piece 8.59±0.24%, head defects 7.15±1.21% and tail defects
6.69±1.97%. Laid eggs were collected, stored and were incubated for hatching. Hatchability
percentage in artificially inseminated hens was greater 88.85% than natural mating 82.35%.
Variations in serum biochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys
(Meleagris gallopavo). Gender-wise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range,
semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from the 1st to 6th month of age. Variations
were recorded in serum biochemical profile with increase in age. Significantly (P<0.05) higher
values of cholesterol 8.39±0.48 mmol/L, globulin 2.71±0.34 g/dL, albumin g/dL 3.82±0.58 g/dL,
total protein 5.35±0.55 g/L, urea 26.95±0.65 mg/dL, creatinine 0.83±0.01 μmol/L, alanine
aminotransferase (ALT) 35.56±1.16 iu/L and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 44.16±1.83 iu/L
were recorded for adult birds while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) values were significantly higher
104.86±16.39 iu/L in grower birds. Similarly, the rearing systems also influenced biochemical
parameters of M. gallopavo and significantly (P<0.05) higher values for cholesterol 6.18±0.07
mmol/L and ALT 31.26±1.67 iu/L were recorded in birds reared under confinement rearing
system. Values for globulin 1.92±0.36 g/dL and creatinin 0.77±0.08 μmol/L were higher in birds
reared under semi-intensive rearing system while significantly higher urea concentrations
33.45±3.39 mg/dL were recorded from the serum of the birds reared under free range rearing
system. However, non-significant variations in albumin, total protein, ALP and AST were
recorded for all the three rearing systems.
Significantly higher values of cholesterol, globulin, albumin, creatinine and ALT were
recorded from the serum of male M. gallopavo while urea and ALP were higher in hens’ serum.
However, non-significant variations were recorded for total protein and AST among both the
genders. It can be concluded from the present study that age, gender and rearing systems strongly
influence blood biochemical profile and hence the immunity in M. gallopavo.
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Morphometric Measurements, Carcass And Slaughter Characteristics In Japanese Quails As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study was conducted at Avian Research and Training (ART) Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore to evaluate the effect of 5 Patio strategies (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days) along with growth promoters (Neomycin, Protexin and control) on morphometric measurement, carcass and slaughter characteristics of Japanese quail. A total of 900 recently hatched chicks from prior incubated eggs were randomly divided into 5 Patio strategies i.e., Treatment 0 included chicks without any feed and water in hatcher, Treatment 1 included offering feed and water during the last three days in hatcher, Treatment 3 included birds kept for extra 3 days in hatcher with feed and water, Treatment 5 included keeping chicks for extra 5 days in hatcher with feed and water and Treatment 7 included birds kept for extra 7 days in hatcher and offered feed and water at same place.
Chicks hatched in each tray were further subdivided into 3 groups and subjected to three dietary treatments including (0.3 g/kg Neomycin, 0.1 g/kg Protexin and Control group) with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. At the age of five and seven weeks six birds (3 males and 3 females) from each replicate; hence a total of 90 birds were slaughtered to study different parameters pertaining to morphometric measurements, carcass and slaughter characteristics. At the end of the experiment, the data were analyzed according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) under factorial arrangement using GLM (General Linear Model) procedures (Steel et al. 1997). Comparison of means was worked out through Duncan’s Multiple Range test with the help of SAS 9.1. (2002-2004).
Result of present study showed significant differences among different patio strategies and growth promoters in different parameters at 5 and 7 week of age. Breast width, drumstick circumference, liver % Heart%, Bursa% and pancreas% were found to be significantly higher in birds kept under patio system for 0 days at the age of 5th week. Keel length, Breast %, neck %, head% and ovary % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 1 day at the age of 5th week. Shank circumference and testes % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 5 day at the age of 5th week. However Body length, drumstick length, shank length, wing spread, fillets%, thymus%, and spleen%, were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 7 day. The most promising result in terms of growth performance and carcass characteristic were observed in birds kept under patio system for 3 days at the age of 5th week. Under patio system 3 highest body weight, carcass % Wing %, back%, drumstick %, shank %, and gizzard % were observed.
Breast width, breast %,drumstick circumference, shank length, shank circumference, keel length, wing spread, thigh %, back %,head % ,heart %,% thymus% ,spleen %, and pancreas % were found to be higher in male birds. Body length, body weight Carcass %, Shank %, shank circumference, drumstick length, wing %, fillets%, drumstick %, neck%, liver %, and bursa % were found to be higher in female birds.
Body weight, Fillets%, breast %, liver %, shank % and heart % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with probiotic diet. Breast width, drumstick length, keel length, shank length, wingspread, drumstick %, back %, head %, gizzard%, spleen%, and bursa%, were found to be higher in birds supplemented with antibiotic diet. Body length, Drumstick circumference, shank circumference, wing%, neck%, carcass%, thymus%, bursa % and pancreas % were found to be higher in birds fed Control diet.
Body length, Shank Circumference, Wing spread, and liver % were found to be significantly higher in birds kept under patio system for 0 days at the age of 7th week. Fillets, bursa %, ovary % and testes were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 1 day. Breast width, Keel length, thigh %, back%, neck %and spleen % testes were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 5 day. However breast %,Head % ,shank %,Heart %,Gizzard % and pancreas % were found to be higher in birds kept under patio system for 7 day. Body weights, carcass %, Drumstick circumference, Drumstick length, shank length, wing %, Drumstick % and thymus % werefound to be higherin birds kept under patio system for 3 days.
Breast width, breast %,drumstick circumference, drumstick length, keel length, wing spread, fillets %, thigh %, back %,head % shank %,heart %gizzard% thymus% and pancreas % were found to be higher in male birds. Body length, body weight, Carcass %, Shank length, shank circumference, wing %, drumstick %, neck% liver %, spleen %and bursa % were found to be higher in female birds.
Body length, body weight, Wing %, Back %, neck % and ovary % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with probiotic diet.Shank circumference, Shank length, wingspread, Breast %,Head %,liver %,heart %,thymus %,bursa%, pancreas % and tested % were found to be higher in birds supplemented with antibiotic diet.Breast width, Drumstick circumference, drumstick length, keel length, thigh %,drumstick %,carcass %,shank %,gizzard % and spleen % were found to be higher in birds fed Control diet.
Based upon findings of the present study it can be concluded that:
1. Patio system helped improving body measurement (body weight, breast width, body length, drumstick length, keel length, shank length, drumstick and shank circumference and wing spread) in Japanese quail at different week of age.
2. Patio system also had positive effect on carcass %.
3. The use of probiotic at different week of age helped improving body weight and body length in Japanese quail.
Suggestions and recommendations
No doubt the results of present study are very promising regarding the use of patio systems. However, This is an entirely new approach and unique in the sense that a little work is documented , hence needs to be studied very thoroughly.
1. It is suggested that the use of different probiotics and antibiotics needs to be studied in as much details as possible to draw some solid conclusions and guidelines for the quail industry regarding the use of these products.
2. In addition, females quail produced superior mean values in live body weight, body length and carcass % than males. So, more female quails be raised and produced by using these strategies.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Different Anti-Stressors On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Immune Response And Blood Bio- Chemistry Of Broilers Reared During Hot-Humid Climate
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The purpose of study was to characterize the efficacy of different anti-stressors on broilers reared during heat stress. The study was conducted at Poultry Research and Training (PRTC) Centre, Ravi Campus Pattoki, in hot-humid weather (July-August), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 200 day old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were procured from hatchery and arranged according to completely randomized design; assigned 05 dietary treatments (control, Betaine 2g/kg, Chia seed 5g/kg, Potassium chloride 2g/kg and vitamin C 600mg/kg). Feed and water was provided ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. Temperature and humidity were recorded three times a day. At day 7th, 17th, 36th and 42nd, four blood samples were taken from each treatment. Serum was separated to evaluate the immune response against New-castle disease. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight were recorded. At 42nd day, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered to record carcass characteristics; blood samples were collected to estimate blood glucose and cholesterol level of different treatment birds. Data thus collected was analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique (Steel et al. 1997). Comparison of means were worked out through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (DMR) with the help of SAS 9.1.
Results of present study indicated that betaine group significantly (P< 0.05) improved the growth parameters; body weights and feed conversion ratio of broilers during heat stress, feed efficiency, point spread, performance index production number livability, and uniformity does not significantly (P<0.05) effected but apparently improved, mortality rates reduced in this group. Addition of chia seed to the diet resulted in to significantly (P< 0.05) better feed consumption and immune response against new-castle disease in heat stressed broilers. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved the physiological perameters of broilers by reducing the cholesterol and glucose levels in serum samples of broilers reared during acute heat stress. Carcass characteristcs were also improved in heat stressed broilers fed on betaine supplemented diets. Dressing %, thigh yield%, intestine %, pancrease %, thymus %, breast width (cm) and shank length (cm) significantly increased (P< 0.05) while, breast meat yield %, abdominal fat %, giblets %, bursa%, spleen% and keel length (cm) were not significantly (P> 0.05) effected but apparently improved in this group. Betaine group also improved economics in heat stressed broilers.
Based upon the findings of present study it can be concluded that:
1. Supplementation of betaine in diet of heat stressd broilers proved comparatively more efficient than other anti-stressors in improving growth parameters and carcass characters of broilers reared during hot-humid climate, hence remained more economical.
2. The organic anti stressor “Chia seed” showed better antibody titer against new castle disease and also improved the weight of immune organs.
3. Supplementing vitamin C in diet decreases the serum glucose and cholesterol level in broilers.
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Impact Of Digestible Lysine, Methionine + Cysteine Ratios On Growth Performance, Ileal Digestibility Of Protein And Gut Health In Broilers Fed Different Protein Sources
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry production is a vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan. Genetic selection and nutritional improvements resulted in accelerated growth rate and better FCR in modern broilers. This improved broiler performance requires greater amount of digestible nutrients. Since feeding cost accounts about 70% of total production cost and protein is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Future poultry diets, therefore, will be formulated by using cheaper and poorly digestible protein sources such as CM and SFM due to price volatility of highly digestible but expensive sources like SBM. The undigested protein in hind gut is subjected to microbial fermentation, results in formation of nitrogenous products that are not only harmful to birds, but also excreted into litter bedding and generate ammonia, nitrous acid and nitrous oxide, the latter one is a powerful greenhouse gas with an effect about 300 times compared with carbon dioxide. The potential solution to this problem is supplementation of synthetic amino acids in low nutrient density (CP) diets formulated by using cheaper and poorly digestible protein sources. Therefor a study was designed with the objectives to determine the impact of dLys, M + C ratios on growth performance, apparent Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). An experiment with 432 mixed sex (Ross 308) 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplementation of Meth may improves growth performance, apparent Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). The interaction effects of the protein source (CM vs. SFM), CP levels (high vs. low) and dM+C/d Lys (recommended vs. supplemented) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 8 (2 × 2 × 2) dietary treatments. The supplementation of Meth positively influenced FI (P = 0.042), BWG (P = 0.003) and FCR (P <0.001). The broilers fed Meth supplemented diets had, on an average, 10% greater apparent Ileal digestibility of protein, 34% longer villi, 24.5% shorter crypts and 60% greater VCR compared with those fed diets with recommended levels of Meth. The levels of CP, similarly, influenced (P <0.001) the FI, BWG and FCR. The broilers fed high CP diets had 9% improved apparent Ileal digestibility of protein compared with those fed low CP diets. In conclusion, supplementation of Meth improves the broiler growth performance, apparent Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). The negative effects of poorly digestible protein sources thus may be partially ameliorated by supplementation of Meth.
In conclusion, the negative effects of poorly digestible protein sources thus may be ameliorated by supplementation of Meth. Supplementation of Meth above the recommended levels improves the growth performance, Ileal digestibility of protein and gut health in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM).
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION
Further research is needed to evaluate the different strategies to improve the digestibility of poorly digestible protein sources including guar meal. Threonine also has an important role in gut health so there is a need to study the effects of supplementation of threonine above the recommended levels in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources. Feed form has pronounced effects on gut development, digestibility of nutrients and subsequent growth performance of birds. There is a dire need to evaluate the other cheaper protein sources, supplemented with synthetic amino acids and to find out a possible interaction between feed form and poorly digestible protein sources that may replace SBM in broilers.
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Effect of Super Doses of Phytase from Two Different Sources on Growth Performance, Phosphorus Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Cereal grains contain almost two-third of the P that is present in phytate form. Phytate possesses anti-nutritive properties as it binds other nutrients like amino acids and carbohydrates. Birds are unable to use P bound with phytate complex. The phytate P is excreted into the environment causing pollution. To compensate requirements expensive inorganic P sources like DCP and rock phosphate are used in poultry diets, which ultimately increase the ration cost. Exogenous phytase is capable of degrading phytate into lower esters having less chelating capacity. Commercially phytase enzymes are being added in the poultry diets to hydrolyze the phytate P that can replace the expensive inorganic P addition. In the industry, phytase is being added in the poultry diets at 500 FTU/kg. Use of phytase at this rate still leaves some gap. Keeping this thing in view present study was planned to use the super dose of phytase from two different sources (Buttiauxella and E.coli) to minimize the anti-nutritive aspects of phytate and use the phytate P at maximum. For this purpose 35 day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of super dosing of phytate from two different origins on growth performance, phosphorus utilization and carcass characteristics of broilers. For this in total, 672 one-day old broiler chicks were randomly selected& assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each having 3 replicates of 28 birds. One group was reared on positive control diet formulated according to the Hubbard strain recommended guides with adequate P without any phytase addition. Second group was offered NC diet (deficient in Av.P). While other six diets were formulated with three levels (500, 1000, 1500 FTU/kg) of E.coli and Buttiauxella origin supplemented in NC diet. The FI, BWG and FCR were recorded at the end of each week. At the end of experiment n=3 birds per replicate were selected randomly, weighed and slaughtered to estimate plasma P, ileal digestibility of P, tibia ash, organ weight and dressing percentage. The data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA)
technique in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and means were be compared through Duncan’s multiple range test (DMR) (Duncan 1955) by using SAS (version 9.1; SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC).
Results of the experiment revealed that FI, BWG and FCR was higher 48%, 11% and 64.5% respectively in phytase supplemented diet best treatment T8, when compared to the NC. Phytase supplementation had no effect on organ weights. Organ weight was higher in diet low in NPP. Phytase supplementation had no effect on gizzard weight even at higher doses. Similarly phytase supplementation had positive effects on bone mineralization. Phytase addition in the diets improved tibia ash, Ca and P% at all levels (P <0.01). Plasma P level was significantly increased at higher level of phytase. The AIDC of P was linearly increased by phytase supplementation. Considering the economics phytase supplemented diets at higher level 1500 FTU/kg were most economical when cost of feed calculated to attain 1kg of live weight.
From this experiment it can be concluded that phytase supplementation at higher dose than the standard ensures the maximum break down of phytate P and reduce its anti-nutritive aspects apart from the source of phytase used in the experiment. Dietary inclusion of phytase at super dose economically generates the bio-available P and reduces the P load in the environment improve growth performance, and bone mineralization.
To replace the highly expensive phosphorus sources super dose of phytase can be used instead of standard dose. It can replace the expensive source of inorganic P and economically can generate more profit. Optimum level of phytase in the diet need to be reevaluated to replace inorganic P to some extent, minimize the anti-nutritive aspects of phytate and reduce P load in the environment.
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Effect Of Methionine And Mannan Oligosaccharides Supplementation On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Immunity And Selected Blood Metabolites In Broiler Chicken Under Conditions Of High Ambient Temperature And Humidity
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry sector is one of the most organized and vibrant segment of agriculture sector in Pakistan and is claimed to be among the largest industries of Pakistan with over more than 200 billion rupees investment and offering employment directly or indirectly to 1.5 million people. Broilers exposed to high environmental temperature and humidity exhibit several physiological and performance related setbacks. Heat stress cause high mortality, poor FCR, reduced feed consumption, body weight gain, and visceral development. Heat stress has been linked to a decrease in intestinal immune activity and to impaired intestinal morphology following pathogenic bacteria invasion of the body through the intestinal epithelium. Nutritional manipulations with its low cost are preferred to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress on performance. Nutritional strategies such as the addition of prebiotics, some amino acids e.g. methionine are reported to be beneficial in alleviating heat stress. As a nutritional intervention, synthetic methionine added to the diet has been explored as method of ameliorating the effects of ROS associated with high environmental temperature. Keeping above in view, the present study has been planned to evaluate the effect of supplementing methionine and MOS on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and immune status against ND under field conditions. In this experiment a total of n=200 day old chicks were procured from a commercial hatchery and randomly assigned to dietary treatments with n=40 chicks per treatment. Each treatment was further divided into four replicates with n=10 birds/replicate. Dietary treatments were : 1) negative control (NC) without any supplementation, 2) positive control (PC) containing antibiotic, 3) MOS supplemented (MOS) containing 800 and 400 g/ton of MOS in the starter and grower, respectively, 4) High Methionine supplemented treatment (HM) containing Methionine 1% of the diet in both starter and grower feeds, 5) Methionine and MOS supplemented (HM+MOS) treatment containing high methionine
(1% in starter and grower) along with 800 and 400 g/ton of MOS in the starter and grower, respectively. The temperature and humidity were recorded daily at 8:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h and means were calculated to determine the daily changes in temperature humidity index. Feed intake, body weight and FCR were recorded at the end of each week. At the end of experiment n=3 birds per replicate were selected, weighed and slaughtered. At the time of slaughtering blood samples were collected in evacuated tubes. Serum was harvested after centrifugation, dived into aliquots and stored at –20 oC until further analysis. Serum samples were used to determine antibody titer against ND. At the time of slaughtering organ weighed and jejunal sample were collected to determine the gut morphology. The data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Results were declared statistically significant at P < 0.05 and compared using Tukey, s multiple comparison test. The statistical analysis were carried out using SAS 9.1 (SAS Institute, 2006). Live BW was higher (P<0.05) in HM+MOS compared to NC and HM. Feed intake was higher (P<0.05) in HM+MOS and PC than those in NC. However, FCR was lowest in HM+MOS compared to NC and PC birds. Relative organ weights were similar (P>0.05) among treatments; however, bursa of fabricius was heavier in MOS compared to the NC and HM+MOS. Villus height and villus to crypt ratio was highest (P<0.05) in HM, than the NC treatment birds CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, supplementation of methionine at 1% of diet and MOS improved the weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio in birds reared under conditions of high temperature and humidity. Gut morphology of the bird also improved by supplementation of Methionine and MOS in the broiler diet.
SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION
Further research is needed to re-determine the recommended levels of methionine in the diet when bird are reared under the conditions of high temperature and humidity.
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Protease Supplementation Influences Growth Performance, Gut Health And Ileal Digestibility Of Protein In Broilers Fed Low Protein Diets
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Proteases are protein-digesting enzymes that are used to break down the proteins of various plant materials and proteinaceous anti-nutrients in plant protein feedstuffs. The use of exogenous proteases can help in the reduction of the protein contents of a given feed by improving the digestibility and availability of the protein thereby reducing the cost of feed contributed by the protein feedstuff. It will also help to reduce the nitrogen excretion by the poultry and will contribute to mitigate the climate change.
In the present study the protease from a bacillus lachniformis spp was supplemented to evaluate the effect of enzyme on protein digestibility, gut health and birds performance. For this three experimental diets with 21, 19 and 17 % CP (HP, MP and LP) with six treatments with and without exogenous protease were used in this trial to evaluate the effect of protease. Each treatment was replicated to 6 pens and 10 birds were allocated to each pen. Parameters studied regarding birds performance were feed intake, weight gain and FCR. All the growth performance parameters were recorded on weekly basis while the Ileal digestibility and gut health parameters were recorded at the 35th day of the trial. Data was analysed through completely randomized design (CRD) under factorial arrangement using ANOVA technique (Steel et al. 1997). Means were separated through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (Duncon’s, 1955) with the help of SAS 9.1.
The results of feed intake, weight gain and feed intake: gain on weekly basis showed inconsistent results, however the overall performance of the birds fed low protein diets supplemented with protease showed significant results. The gut health parameters showed the significant increase in villus height. The apparent Ileal digestibility of protein was significantly increased in the MP supplemented with protease enzyme.
Based upon the findings of this study it can be concluded that;
Supplementation of protease improves growth performance of the broilers however the results on weekly basis were inconsistent but overall growth performance data shows significant results.
Protease supplementation enhances the CP digestibility in 19 % diets compared to 21 % and 17 % CP diets.
The supplementation of protease enzyme improves the villus height and crypt depth: villus height in broilers.
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Future researchers can further evaluate the subsequent effects of the protease on growth performance and immune response in broilers.
In future the research can be conducted to determine the effect of protease on energy digestibility and immune response in broilers.
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Production Performance, Egg Characteristics And Immune Response In Commercial Layers Reared At Different Cage And House Zones During Summer
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Recent trends in commercial layer farming is changing the production trends worldwide. The
commercial layer farming in Pakistan is shifting from open or semi controlled floor farms to
modern automatic controlled caged farms. These cage farms are megastructure having capacity of
huge bird rearing, due to large house dimensions the environment of house not remain uniform
throughout the house and difference in light intensity, air speed, temperature and humidity
horizontally and vertically have significant impacts on overall performance of layers. House and
cage zones in environment controlled house may influence productive performance, egg
characteristics and immune response in commercial layers. For this purpose, a total of 588 birds
arranged according to completely randomized design and divided in three house zones (Near pads,
middle and near fans) and four tier levels (Lower, Bottom, Middle, Upper) being replicated 6 times
with 9 birds in each cage. These birds were placed in ECO-60 caged house (4×4) having 9 birds
in each pen. These performance of birds were compared for differences in production performance,
egg geometry, egg quality and immune profile. Data were analyzed through factorial ANOVA
using PROC GLM in SAS software, means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range test.
The highest weigh gain was observed in birds reared near the pad zone followed by the birds reared
near middle and fan zone. Similarly, better egg production was found in the birds reared near
evaporative cooling pads and middle zone as compared to the birds reared near the fan zone. To
this end, better egg mass was found in the birds reared near pad and middle zone as compared to
the birds reared near the fan zone. FCR / kg egg mass was found in the birds reared near pad and
middle zone as compared to the birds reared near the fan. Regarding Infectious Bronchitis (IB), Avian
Influenza (H9), Avian Influenza (H7), Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (MG), Newcastle (ND),
difference in titters was observed among the birds of different housing zones and their interaction.
However, no significant effect of house zones, tier cage levels and their interaction was observed
regarding egg characteristics and immune response.
From the discussion in the previous chapter it can be concluded that:
In modern environment control layer house, different house zones influence productive
performance of the birds, especially near the pad zone birds exhibited improve body weight
and better production %. In the same way, birds reared near the middle zone showed better
egg mass, FCR / dozen eggs and FCR / Kg egg mass.
Among different house zones and tier cage levels, temperature, relative humidity and
thermal index varied throughout the experimental period.
Birds reared neat the pad zone at central tier had better body weight, while, better
production % exhibited by the birds reared near the middle zone at lower cage tier.
However, birds reared near pad zone at bottom cage tier revealed better FCR/dozen eggs
and / kg egg mass.
Different cage tier levels did not influence productive performance, egg characteristics and
immune response of commercial layers.
Improved immune response was shown by the birds reared in middle zone of the house as
compared to pad and fan zone while tier level did not influenced the antibody titer.
Suggestions and Recommendation
Behavioral studies are required to observe the response of bird at micro climate.
Further investigations are needed to fulfill the welfare issues of commercial layer.
Researchers should come forward to explore the alternative housing system of commercial
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Effect Of Post Pelleting Liquid Phytase Supplementation On Growth Performance And Phosphorous Utilization In Broilers
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Poultry sector is one of the most developed and vibrant segment of agriculture sector in
Pakistan and is claimed to be among the largest industries of Pakistan with over more than 200
billion rupees investment and offering employment directly or indirectly to 1.5 million people. In
vegetable sources used in poultry rations, P is mostly present in phytate form. Phytate P is not
digested by poultry due to lack of endogenous phytase enzyme. So exogenous phytase are now
added in feed to release P from phytate. Phytase is mainly derived from fungi (Aspergilus niger)
and bacteria (Escherichi coli). Phytase starts work either at 3rd C (3-Phytase) or at 6thC (6-Phytase)
of phytate Phytase mostly used in pre pelleting powder form but it has some activity issues during
high pelleting temperature. Steam application is the most important factor that reduces enzyme
activity due high steam temperature and addition of moisture ultimately lead to enzyme inactivity.
Post pelleting liquid enzyme can be one solution to combat enzyme activity issue.
In total, 504 1-d-old chicks were procured from a commercial hatchery and randomly
assigned to six dietary treatments with Hubbard straight run n=84 chicks per treatment. Each
treatment was further divided into 3 replicates with 28 birds/replicate. One treatment was served
as positive control, while second was served as negative control with (0.30 and 0.26 %) P in starter
and grower respectively. Other four diets had two levels (500 and 750 FTU/kg) of each powder
and liquid enzyme. Liquid enzyme supplementation was done post pelleting. Pelleting temperature
was kept at 85o C.
Feed intake, body weight gain and FCR was recorded at the end of each week. At 35th day of
experiment, 3 birds per replicate were selected randomly, weighed and slaughtered. At the time of
slaughtering, blood samples were collected in heparinized tubes for the determination of plasma
P.Ileal digesta from the slaughtered birds was collected for the determination of P digestibility.
The visceral organs and left tibia from the slaughtered birds were collected, organ weight was
recorded and tibias were ashed for determination of Calcium and P.
Data collected was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique under
Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and means were compared through DMR test by
using SAS 9.1 version (SAS 2001).
The conducted study showed 49.45%, 64.64%, and 8.64 % higher results in feed
intake, body weight gain and FCR when best group H compared with group A (NC). Liver
and heart weight increase in group A, however gizzard weight showed non significant
(p>0.05) results among all groups. Tibia ash, Phosphorous, calcium and plasma P showed
significant results (p<0.05) when all phytase supplemented diets compared with NC.
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Effect Of Selenium Supplementation On The Growth Performance Of Quail Chicks From Different Parental Body Weight Categories
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Quail farming, despite having enormous potential, is still one of the neglected components of the poultry sector in the country, reason being very little research work done on its breeding, incubation, housing, nutritional requirements, feeding and overall management. Interaction factor between different parental body weight categories and Selenium sources has never been studied earlier: Therefore, it is of much importance to investigate the effect of selenium on growth performance, body measurements and slaughtering characters of progeny from the parents of variable body weight in Japanese quails. Supplementation of feed with organic selenium may affect growth performance, morphological traits and carcass characteristics of the chicks from parents of different body weight categories. Present study was conducted at Avian Research and Training Center, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Lahore for the duration of 04 weeks. Standard managemental conditions were followed, where, birds were maintained in well ventilated octagonal quail house (33×12×9 cubic ft.) equipped with French made multi deck cages. The birds were fed quail ration according to NRC (1994) recommendations. Quail broiler starter crumbs (CP 24% and ME 2900 Kcal/Kg) were provided with addition of Se from different sources. Through nipple drinking system availability of fresh, clean drinking water was ensured. Treatments consisted of 3 parental body weight categories (Heavy, medium and low) and three Se sources (Control, Organic Se @ 0.2mg/kg and Inorganic Se @ 0.4mg/kg). Effect of different Selenium sources on different parental body weight categories was studied regarding progeny growth performance, body measurement and slaughter parameters. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) under Randomized complete block design (RCBD in factorial arrangements using PROC GLM in SAS software. Means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Present study showed that parental body
weight, selenium and their interaction did not show significant effect on growth performance except livability% for which maximum value was observed in heavy x organic group. For body measurements, parental body weight (heavy) interacting with selenium (control) sources resulted in highest measurement of shank length and circumference. Keel length was maximum in heavy x control group. Drumstick length was found highest in medium x inorganic while its circumference was highest in medium x control. Wing spread was found to be the highest in heavy x control group. Regarding slaughtering characteristics live weight was found to be maximum in heavy x control group while regarding dressed weight, heavy x organic group showed the highest value. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
On the basis of the results of present study, it can be concluded that
Parental body weight, selenium and their interaction did not show any significant effect on growth performance of Japanese quail except livability%. The interaction of heavy x control for livability was found to be better.
For body measurements, parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected shank length, shank circumference, keel length, drumstick length and circumference. Wing spread only significantly responded to parental body weight. Selenium was found to be non-significantly affecting all other morphometric measurements.
Regarding slaughtering characteristics parental body weight and their interaction with selenium sources significantly affected live weight and dressed weight. Selenium sources had only significant effect on dressed weight. Live weight was not effected by selenium
supplementation. Dressing% was non-significantly affected by parental body weights, selenium sources and their interaction.
The dose rates of organic and inorganic Selenium especially for Japanese quail need to be fixed.
Carefully planned and well executed studies are needed to fix the dose rates of selenium for Japanese quail.
Organic selenium seems better but again, further experimentation is recommended to use this trace mineral in Japanese quail feeds.
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Effect Of Different Levels Of Yeast Based Mannan Oligosaccharide (Actigen™) On Growth Perfomance, Carcass Characteristics, Blood Biochemistry And Immune Response Of Broilers
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The present study of 35 days duration was conducted at Poultry Research and Training
Centre (C-Block) Ravi Campus, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore to evaluate
the effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics,
blood biochemistry and immune response in broilers. For this, a total of 360 commercial
broiler chickens were purchased from local hatchery and randomly divided into four treatment
groups having six replicated of 15 birds each, according to completely randomized design. Treatment
consisted four levels of MOS (0g/kg, 0.2g/kg, 0.4g/kg and 0.6g/kg). Weekly data were collected
regarding growth performance. At the end of experiment, three birds from each replicate
were randomly selected, after halal slaughtering carcass parameters were recorded. To find out the
effect of MOS on blood biochemistry and antibody titer against ND and IB, 5 ml blood sample
was harvested in marked test tubes from jugular vein of each bird at the time of slaughtering.
Serum samples were harvested by centrifugation (1500RPM) method and were stored at -20oC for
measuring blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Same serum samples were utilized to determine
the ND and IB antibodies titers. Collected data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique
using PROC GLM in SAS software. Supplementation of MOS level 0.6g/kg in the diet
of broilers resulted in improved growth performance, carcass characteristic, blood biochemical
profile and immune response in broilers. With respect to growth performance, significantly
improved body weight, weight gain and FCR were recorded in birds fed with 0.6g/kg
MOS. Regarding production performance indices, significantly better production efficiency
factor, point spread and performance index were recorded in birds having 0.6g/kg inclusion
of MOS in their diet. In the same way, 0.6 g/kg MOS significantly higher dressing, breast,
thigh yield, liver, heart, gizzard and intestinal weight percentage were recorded in birds
having 0.6g/kg MOS in their diet. Regarding morphometric traits, significantly higher
keel length, shank length and intestinal length were recorded in birds supplemented 0.6g/kg
MOS in their diet. Significantly low glucose and cholesterol level were recorded in broilers
having 0.6g/kg MOS supplemented diet. Broilers fed MOS at 0.6/kg in their diet showed
better antibodies titers against ND and IB.
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Efficacy Of Different Microbial Phytases On Growth Performance Carcass Characteristics And Mineral Retention In Broilers
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Cd Crupt
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Effects Of Digestible Lysine Levels On Production Efficiency, Protein Digestibility, Gut Health And Carcass Characteristics In Broilers Fed Different Protein Sources
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: In Pakistan, poultry is a vibrant part of agriculture. Nutritional and genetic improvements resulted in accelerated PEF in broilers. This improved broiler production efficiency requires greater amount of digestible nutrients like digestible amino acids. Feeding cost accounts for 70% of total cost and protein is the most expensive component of broilers ration. Future poultry rations will be formulated by using poorly digestible and cheaper protein sources such as SFM and CM due to price instability of highly digestible sources like SBM. The undigested protein in hind gut subjected to microbial fermentation, results in formation of nitrogenous products that are harmful to birds. The possible solution to this problem is supplementation of synthetic amino acids in low nutrient density (CP) diets formulated by using cheaper and poorly digestible protein sources. Therefore a study was designed with the objectives to determine the impact of dLys on production efficiency, TTP digestibility, gut health and carcass characteristics in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). An experiment with 624 Ross 308 1-d-old broilers was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplementation of dLys may improve production efficiency, TTP digestibility, gut health and carcass characteristics of the broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). The interaction effects of the protein source (CM vs. SFM), CP levels (high vs. low) and dLys (high, medium and low) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 12 (2 × 2 × 3) dietary treatments and 1 control treatment. The supplementation of dLys positively influenced production efficiency (P <0.001). The birds fed diets containing 19% CP showed 8.53% greater TTP digestibility compared with those fed diets with 17% CP, however, VH was influenced by protein source (P<0.001) and CP level (P = 0.030), however, not influenced by dLys levels while CD was influenced by dLys levels (P = 0.023). The birds fed 1.16% dLys supplemented diet had a 9.6 and 7.5% greater dressed weight with giblets compared with those birds fed diets with 1.10 and 1.21% level of dLys. In conclusion, supplementation of dLys improves the broiler production efficiency fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). The negative effects of poorly digestible protein sources thus may be partially ameliorated by supplementation of dLys.
Supplementation of dLys above the recommended levels (1.16%) improves the production efficiency, TTP digestibility of protein, gut health and carcass characteristics in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). In conclusion, the efficiency of poorly digestible protein sources may be improved by supplementation of dLys at level of 1.16%.
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Influence Of Digestible Lysine Levels On Growth Performance, Gut Development And Ileal Digestibility Of Two Vegetable Protein Sources Fed To Broiler Birds
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The poultry sector is playing a substantial role in agriculture sector of Pakistan. The extensive
research in poultry has brought vital changes that accelerated growth and improved FCR. Poultry
diets are majorly formulated cost effective for the sustainable poultry industry. For this reason,
the main focus is on protein sources which, if maintained to an adequate level with the
requirement results in cost effective feeding. In the coming days, main focus of the nutritionists
would be on replacement of expensive sources of protein during feed formulation. For this
reason, their first choice may be the selection of poorly digestible protein sources such as CM
and SFM. These sources are cheaper as compare to the SBM which is imported hence increasing
the feed cost. The poorly digestible protein sources, furthermore, in hind gut may be subjected to
microbial fermentation, results in formation of nitrogenous products that are not only harmful to
birds, but also excreted into litter bedding and generate ammonia, nitrous acid and nitrous oxide,
the latter one is a powerful greenhouse gas with an effect about 300 times compared with carbon
dioxide. The potential solution to this problem is supplementation of synthetic amino acids in
low nutrient density (CP) diets formulated by using cheaper and poorly digestible protein
sources. For this reason, a study was designed with the objectives to determine the impact of
dLys, on growth performance, ileal digestibility of protein and gut development in broilers fed
poorly digestible protein sources (CM and SFM). An experiment with 624 mixed sex 1-d-old
broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to test the hypothesis that supplementation of dLys may
improves growth performance of the broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM and
SFM). The interaction effects of the protein source (CM vs. SFM), CP levels (high vs. low) and
dLys (recommended vs. supplemented) were tested in a factorial arrangement of 12 (2 × 2 × 3)
dietary treatments and SBM as a control diet was used. The results indicate the birds fed diets
containing CM and SFM supplemented with dLys has significant effect on growth performance
in broilers. The results of the study showed that the FI, BWG and FCR for CM and SFM based
diets was different during starter and grower phases. The FI and BWG FCR was influenced by
CM and SFM based diets. The FI was not influenced by dLys levels during starter phase. The
BWG and FCR was improved with supplementation of dLys levels. During starter phase FI and
BWG was not influenced by CP levels, however, FCR was improved. The results of the grower
phase indicate that FI was significantly influenced by protein sources, CP levels, as well as, by
dLys levels. The BWG, similarly, was significantly influenced by protein sources, CP levels, and
dLys levels. The FCR during the grower phase was improved by increasing CP level. The FCR
was also improved when fed CM based diets. Supplementation of dLys significantly influenced
FI and BGW during grower phase. The FCR was also improved with the supplementation of
dLys levels. The results indicate that the birds fed dLys supplemented diets had significant effect
on ileal digestibility of protein. The results of the study showed that ileal digestibility for protein
was not influenced by CP levels. The present study resulted that some of the organs are
significantly influenced by dLys levels and CP levels, whereas, other are in influenced by protein
sources. Amino acid supplementation showed significant difference on ileal digestibility of
protein and gut development in broilers. The negative effect of poorly digestible lysine can be
compensated with the supplementation of synthetic amino acids including lysine.
Supplementation of dLys above the recommended levels improves the growth performance, ileal
digestibility of protein and gut development in broilers fed poorly digestible protein sources (CM
and SFM). In conclusion, the negative effects of poorly digestible protein sources in broilers may
be ameliorated by supplementation of dLys.
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Performance Of Two Commercial Layer Strains Under Free Range, Semi Intensive And Intensive Rearing Systems
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: In recent years, importance of alternative rearing systems has increased notably because of growing public concern against intensive rearing systems. Animal welfare laws have been established in some European countries with strict guidelines concerning the available area per bird in cage rearing systems; in some cases, the use of cages has been forbidden. Alternative rearing systems, such as furnished cages, semi-intensive and free range, have been introduced as substitutes for the currently used system (cage system). In intensive rearing systems, birds cannot fully express their intrinsic behaviors, such as walking, jumping, running, wing flapping, lying, dust bathing, sun bathing, scavenging and foraging. On the other hand, outdoor rearing systems are comfortable and welfare friendly where birds can walk and exercise freely. Present study was conducted at Layer Unit, Department of Poultry Production, UVAS, Ravi Campus Pattoki, to evaluate the effects of different rearing systems on production performance, blood biochemical profile and behavioral pattern in two commercial layers strains. A total of 150 pullets (18 wk old), 75 from each strain, were randomly allotted to 6 experimental groups in factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). Treatments consisted of 2 strains (Hy-line and Bovans) and 3 rearing systems (free range, semi-intensive and intensive). Each treatment was replicated 5 times with 5 birds per replicate. Production performance, blood biochemistry, immune response and behavioral parameters were studied. The collected data were analyzed through two-way ANOVA technique using PROC GLM in SAS 9.1 software. Treatment means were compared through Duncan’s Multiple Range test. Hy-line strain showed greater egg production, egg weight, antibody titers against IBV, more feather pecking and drinking behavior, whereas more feeding behavior was observed in Bovans strain. The results
showed higher body weight, egg production, and egg weight, and more feeding, lying and aggressive behavior in intensive, and higher antibody titer against IBV under semi-intensive. However, free range rearing system showed more wing flapping, walking, jumping, litter pecking, feather pecking and dust bathing behavior, whereas standing and drinking behavior was found to be higher in both semi-intensive and intensive rearing systems. Interaction showed maximum body weight, blood glucose, triglycerides and antibody titer against IBV in Bovans under semi-intensive and intensive rearing systems, whereas egg production was found to be maximum in Hy-line under intensive rearing system. Interaction of strains and rearing systems, likewise, indicated variations in behavior pattern.
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Effect Of Feed Form And Particle Size Of Corn On Growth Performance, Protein Digestibility And Gut Health Of Broiler
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: The presented study was conducted at control house of Department of Poultry Production, C-block, UVAS Ravi Campus. In total 480, day-old Hubbard Classic broiler chicks were procured from local hatchery, weighed at 1st day and randomly distributed to eight treatment groups in such a way that there were six replicates in each group and each replicate had 10 chicks. Eight isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets were formulated. Half birds were offered crumble form of feed in whole life while half birds were offered crumble form in starter phase and pellet form in finisher phase. Four levels (<1, 1-1.5, 1.5-2 and 2-2.5mm) of corn particle size were used in each form of feed.Body weight and feed consumptionwere recorded weekly in order to calculate feed conversion ratio.Data collected were analyzed by ANOVA using factorial arrangement under CRD. Experimental means were compared using DMR test.
Birds fed diet having higher particle size (2-2.5mm) of corn had lower feed consumption, greater body weight gain and improved FCR compared to those fed smaller particle size during starter, finisher and overall phase. Further, birds fed pelleted feed had lower feed consumption, greater weight gain and improved FCR than those fed crumble form of feed.Further, different particle size of corn resulted in non-significant effect on villus height and crypt depth. Feed form also had non-significant influence on villus height and crypt depth of duodenum.Birds fed diet having higher particle size (2-2.5mm) of corn had higher apparent ileal digestibilityof protein than those fed smaller particle size. Feed form had non-significant effect on apparent ileal digestibilityof protein.
It can be concluded from the results that birds fed pelleted diet containing coarse particle size had improved growth performance and protein digestibility without adverse effect on gut health of broiler.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2879-T] (1).
Comparative Phenotypic Characterization, Performance And Antibody Response In Naked Neck Chicken
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The indigenous chicken mostly found in rural areas of Pakistan are good scavengers as
well as foragers and playing important role towards poverty alleviation and food security. They
have good maternal qualities, hardier when compared to their exotic counterparts and have high
survival rates with minimal care and management. They have huge diversity. This diversity
provides a unique resource to respond to the present and future needs of poultry meat and eggs in
Pakistan. However, this diversity is shrinking rapidly. Local naked neck chicken is also an example
of such diverse genepool but under the threats of extinction. Present study was designed to compare
phenotypic characterization, productive, reproductive performance and anti-body response in
different phenotypes of Indigenous Naked-Neck chicken. The study was conducted at Indigenous
chicken genetic Resource Centre (ICGRC), UVAS Ravi campus, Pattoki. Six hundred day old
Naked-Neck chicks were procured from commercial hatchery and reared as the foundation stock
under best management practices. The study comprised of two main experiments. In the first
experiment, a total of 320 sexed day old chicks (160♂, 160♀) comprising 80 from each phenotype,
were randomly selected from the foundation stock and assigned 8 treatment groups, in a 2 (Sexes)
× 4 (Phenotypes) factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. Each treatment was
replicated 5 times with 8 birds in each. These chicks were reared for 8 weeks of age to study
comparative growth performance and morpho-metric traits. Growth parameters were live weight
(g), times of gain (g), total gain (g), feed intake (g), feed conversion ratio and livability%, while
morphometric traits studied were neck length, keel length, wing spread, shank length,
circumference, drumstick length, circumference and body length. The results showed significantly
higher live weight, total gain and better FCR in light and dark brown phenotypes, whereas times
of gain were found to be higher in dark brown. Feed intake and livability remained similar in all
phenotypes. Keel length and shank circumference measurements were higher in dark brown
whereas wing spread was greater in light brown phenotype. Drumstick circumference and body
length were same in all phenotypes. Over all brown phenotypes performed better. After that when
secondary sex organs were developed again 320 birds (80 of each plumage 40 females and 40
males) were selected from both foundation stock. These birds were again tagged, weighed and
arranged under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in 4 equal groups replicated 5 times with
16 birds in each pen. Each pen was considered as an experimental unit. Birds were reared till the
age of 20 weeks. At the end of the 20 weeks of age, 80 birds (40 males and 40 females) of each
phenotype was characterized for morphometric qualitative and quantitative traits based on head
appearance, comb type, wattle size, plumage pattern, shank color, spurs prevalence and number of
toes and were analyzed in terms of frequency and percentages. The results showed that males and
females of all phenotypes had plain head and single comb. Wattle size was medium in females
while highly developed in males. Over all plain feather pattern was predominantly most frequent
on breast, wing bow, wing bar, wing bay, saddle and tail followed by stippled, penciled and laced.
Males had most frequent yellow shanks followed by grey, off-white and green; however, females
had maximum grey shank color followed by yellow, green and off-white. White black, light and
dark brown phenotypes expressed maximum yellow shank coloration whereas grey shanks were
most frequent in black birds. However, morphometric characterization was based on Neck length
(cm), keel length (cm), wing span (cm), shank length (cm), shank circumference (cm), drum stick
length (cm), drum stick circumference (cm) and body length. The results showed significantly
higher morphometric measurements in males than females. Light and dark brown phenotypes had
higher measuring values of quantitative traits than those of black and white black. All males and
females of different phenotypes possessed four toes, normal spurs and tuft feathers on the ventral
portion of the Neck above crop. After that 40 birds, 10 from each phenotype (5 males and 5
females) were weighed, blood samples were collected for NDV titration and then slaughtered for
carcass characteristics, proximate meat analysis and cholesterol content estimation. Carcass
characteristics including (live weight (g), dressing%, liver weight%, gizzard weight%, heart
weight%, intestinal weight%, intestinal length (cm) and antibody response against Newcastle
disease virus (NDV) were studied and compared. The results showed significantly higher live
weight (g), dressing%, liver weight% and intestinal length (cm) in males whereas gizzard weight%
and intestinal weight% was found to be higher in females. Among different phenotypes, light
brown plumage color birds indicated significantly enhanced live weight (g) and dressing%
whereas black plumage color birds showed higher intestinal weight%. Antibody response was
significantly higher in females as compared to male birds. Light and dark brown phenotypes
exhibit significantly higher NDV titer as compared to black and white black phenotypes. In
proximate meat composition and cholesterol content study, results depicted significantly higher
dry matter%, crude protein%, ash% and cholesterol content(mg/100g) in males whereas ether
extract% and moisture% were found to be higher in females. Among different phenotypes, dry
matter% was found to be higher in white black, crude protein% in black, white black and dark
brown phenotypes, moisture% in light brown and cholesterol content was higher in black plumage
color birds, whereas ether extract% and ash% were observed to be higher in black and white black
plumage color birds. Brown phenotypes showed better performance regarding live body weight,
dressing%, cholesterol content and antibody response than others (black and white/black). In
second experiment production performance, egg characteristics and hatching traits in different
phenotypes of Naked- Neck hens were studied. In total, 300 adults 20 week old hens were
randomly selected from the foundation stock and allotted to 20 experimental groups, in
4(phenotypes) × 5 (replicates) × 15 (birds each replicate) arranged according to CRD. In
production performance, parameters studied were body weight, body weight gain, egg production,
egg weight (g), egg mass (g), and livability (%). Ten eggs of each phenotype, 2 from each pen at
initial, middle and final laying periods were collected and studied for egg geometry and quality.
Similarly, 200 hundred eggs 50 from each phenotype were collected randomly at the age of 42
weeks and studied for hatching traits comprising settable eggs%, fertility%, hatch of fertile%,
hatchability%, embryonic mortality%, and A-grade chick%. The results indicated significantly
higher feed intake (g) in white black phenotype, heavier body weight(g) in light brown and dark
brown phenotypes whereas, egg production, egg mass, FCR/dozen eggs and FCR/kg egg mass was
found to be better in light brown phenotype. Egg weight (g) remained higher in black, light brown
and dark brown phenotypes. Egg geometry results demonstrated higher egg breadth (mm), egg
volume (mm2) and egg surface area (mm3) in light brown phenotype whereas egg quality showed
no difference in various phenotypes of Naked-Neck chickens. While studying hatching traits,
results showed significantly higher settable eggs%, fertility% and hatchability% in black, dark
brown and light brown phenotypes than that of white black whereas better hatch of fertile% and
reduced embryonic mortality% was recorded in black and dark brown phenotypes as compared to
white black. Better chick quality was observed in dark brown phenotype followed by light brown,
black and then white black. In conclusion, phenotypes other than white black can be locally reared
because of their better production and hatching performance.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Naked Neck chicken with light brown, dark brown and black phenotypes should be the part of next
breeding plans owing to their better productive and reproductive performance, however, white
black phenotype should not be discarded, rather conserved as a backup gene pool for future poultry
breeding studies. Might be they have better climatic adaptability.
It is also recommended that selected Naked Neck varieties should be subjected to performance
traits analysis under different housing/production systems. Their potential needs to be thrashed
under intensive, semi intensive and extensive production systems.
Economics of each variety under different housing systems, especially under backyard type
chicken farming must be worked out in order to provide clear cut information to the rural folks to
address the most important issue of poverty alleviation in rural as well as peri-urban areas of
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2980-T] (1).