Growth Performance, Body Measurements And Slaughter Characteristics As Affected By Different Patio Strategies And Growth Promoters In Japanese Quail
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2015 Dissertation note: Coturnix japonica is the zoological name of Japanese quail, which belongs to order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, genus Coturnix and specie japonica (Beletsky, 2006). It is highly disease resistant with a very short maturity age as well as market life (4-5weeks). Female quail starts laying almost at 7-8 weeks of age, hence getting popular (Ashok and Prabakaran 2012).
Generally the chicks are removed from hatcher only when most of chicks have hatched within the period of hatch window which is almost 36 to 48 hours (Careghi et al. 2005). Many factors affect delay in hatching, the most important being the parent flock age, handling of eggs, time of egg preservation and internal incubation conditions (Decuypere et al. 2001). Little space in the hatcher for hatched chicks, opening of hatcher over many time and late collection of chick can lead to dehydrated and low quality chicks (Bamelis et al. 2005). To reduce above stated risks a concept named “Patio system” was introduced in Netherland, proposed by Kuijpers brothers to improve hatchability and growth performance of chicks. In this system pre incubated eggs (hatching phase) and after hatching chicks (brooding phase) are placed combined in hatchery (http://www.vencomatic.com). Patio system improves body weight, quality of chicks and reduces chick mortality in broilers (Van de Ven et al. 2009). A synergistic effect on growth performance and various economic traits can be attained by using patio system and various feed additives such as probiotics, prebiotics or antibiotics etc. The term probiotic is derived from two Latin words “pro” and “bios”. Probiotics are prepared from different species of microorganisms (Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces) considered as intestinal beneficial microflora (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Probiotics are used to make the products through the use of which, many species of animals improve their intestinal miro-flora (Leeson and Summers 1997). Improved beneficial bacteria
of intestine suppress harmful bacteria like E. coli and produce beneficial enzymes and substances that have antibiotic like effects (Montes and Pugh 1993). Probiotics work by two ways. 1. Competitive exclusion 2. Enhancing immune system. In competitive exclusion, bacterias in gastrointestinal tract produce such type of substances that stunt the growth of harmful bacterias and compete for their predilection site (intestinal epithelium) while second mode of action is, to stimulate their immune system as the young one born is sterile, hence, their gastro intestinal tract (GIT) and beneficial bacterias in GIT are not able to produce antibodies against harmful bacterias that aggregate in chick GIT. By using probiotics that attach intestinal mucosa and create barriers for harmful bacteria and enhance immune system (Dankowiakowska et al. 2013). Different probiotics (Bacillus subtili) have different modes of action (competitive inhibition) that utilize oxygen in GIT of birds and convert them in different useful enzymes (subtilin and catalase) by which friendly bacterias (Lactobacilli) colonize in birds GIT and block predilection site of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Lactobacilli bacteria produce lactic acid that kill many harmful bacteria like, Salmonella and E.coli (Hosoi et al. 2000). Probiotics are also found to enhance activity of immunoglobulins, macrophages, lymphocytes and interferon (Yang et al. 2009). Birds fed on probiotic mixed diet showed higher body weight and increased carcass percentage (Kabir et al. 2004a) but feed intake, proventiculus, gizzard and liver weight were found to be non-significant among different treatments (Dizaji et al. 2012). Similarly in another study, higher body weight and weight gain were observed in ostrich birds fed on probiotic enriched diet (Karimi-Kivi et al. 2015). Using antibiotics as feed additives can also improve health status of birds. The first antibiotic “chlortetracycline” when used in animal feed during early 1940s increased body weight was observed (Dibner and Richards 2005). For more than 50 years, antibiotics have been used in
poultry feed as a supplement to improve bird’s growth performance, feed conversion ratio and carcass meat yield (Denli et al. 2003). Antibiotics being used in poultry industry are also used therapeutically in human medicines (Edens, 2003). However, recent progress in poultry industry and consumer concerns have risen the questions on use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to their side effects (Wray and Davies 2000). The European Union (EU) banned some antibiotics as growth promoters because of many bacterial strains showing resistant against them (Edens, 2003) In Pakistan high production cost and market price of quail meat discourage both the producer and consumer. The use of patio system may help reduction in production cost, hence, help in gaining the trust and preference of both quail farmers and consumers. Present study was conducted with the main objectives to study the advantages of patio system in Japanese quail and also provide basic information regarding future use of this technique in quails. It was further tried to understand the utility of different growth promoters in quail production with special emphasis on antibiotics and probiotics.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Different Anti-Stressors On Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Immune Response And Blood Bio- Chemistry Of Broilers Reared During Hot-Humid Climate
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The purpose of study was to characterize the efficacy of different anti-stressors on broilers reared during heat stress. The study was conducted at Poultry Research and Training (PRTC) Centre, Ravi Campus Pattoki, in hot-humid weather (July-August), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. A total of 200 day old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were procured from hatchery and arranged according to completely randomized design; assigned 05 dietary treatments (control, Betaine 2g/kg, Chia seed 5g/kg, Potassium chloride 2g/kg and vitamin C 600mg/kg). Feed and water was provided ad-libitum throughout the experimental period. Temperature and humidity were recorded three times a day. At day 7th, 17th, 36th and 42nd, four blood samples were taken from each treatment. Serum was separated to evaluate the immune response against New-castle disease. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight were recorded. At 42nd day, four birds from each treatment were randomly selected and slaughtered to record carcass characteristics; blood samples were collected to estimate blood glucose and cholesterol level of different treatment birds. Data thus collected was analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique (Steel et al. 1997). Comparison of means were worked out through Duncan’s Multiple Range test (DMR) with the help of SAS 9.1.
Results of present study indicated that betaine group significantly (P< 0.05) improved the growth parameters; body weights and feed conversion ratio of broilers during heat stress, feed efficiency, point spread, performance index production number livability, and uniformity does not significantly (P<0.05) effected but apparently improved, mortality rates reduced in this group. Addition of chia seed to the diet resulted in to significantly (P< 0.05) better feed consumption and immune response against new-castle disease in heat stressed broilers. Vitamin C supplementation significantly (P< 0.05) improved the physiological perameters of broilers by reducing the cholesterol and glucose levels in serum samples of broilers reared during acute heat stress. Carcass characteristcs were also improved in heat stressed broilers fed on betaine supplemented diets. Dressing %, thigh yield%, intestine %, pancrease %, thymus %, breast width (cm) and shank length (cm) significantly increased (P< 0.05) while, breast meat yield %, abdominal fat %, giblets %, bursa%, spleen% and keel length (cm) were not significantly (P> 0.05) effected but apparently improved in this group. Betaine group also improved economics in heat stressed broilers.
Based upon the findings of present study it can be concluded that:
1. Supplementation of betaine in diet of heat stressd broilers proved comparatively more efficient than other anti-stressors in improving growth parameters and carcass characters of broilers reared during hot-humid climate, hence remained more economical.
2. The organic anti stressor “Chia seed” showed better antibody titer against new castle disease and also improved the weight of immune organs.
3. Supplementing vitamin C in diet decreases the serum glucose and cholesterol level in broilers.
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Identification Of Genetic Marker In Gh, Igf-1 And Bmp15 Candidate Genes Associated With Growth Trait In Beetal Goat
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Goats are pivotal indigenous assets of Pakistan and have an ample share in the annual production of milk and meat besides providing enough income to rural families. Beetal are famous for the meat and milk production and found throughout the Punjab province. But information regarding their genetic potential for meat production is still insufficientand need comprehensive genetic and genomic research. There is significant need to explore the candidate genes for growth traits in goat.GH, IGF-1 and BMP15 genes have been reported as candidate genes because they have a role in growth and skeletal development. It was hypothesized that polymorphism may be present in GH gene, IGF-1, and BMP15 genes which might also be associated with body weight and body measurements in Beetal goat. In the present study, 5 exons of growth hormone (GH) gene, exon 4 and partial region of intron 4 of IGF-1 gene and exon2 of BMP15 gene were amplified from goat genomic DNA.To assess this assumption, a total of 60 adult healthy animals of Beetal goat were selected on the basis of maximum variation in their body weight and body measurement (Body Length, height and heart girth). Animals were divided into two body weight categories, i.e. heavy and low.After blood collection (5ml), genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood and stored at -20ºC for further use. DNA quantification was performed through agarose gel electrophoresis with the help of standard. PCR conditions were optimized. The genotyping was done through RFLP. General Linear Model (GLM) procedure of the Statistical Analysis System package (SAS Institute Inc, version 9.1) was used to test the effectof genotype on the body weight, body length, body height, and chest girth.Present study resulted in the identification ofsome SNP in GH, IGF-1 candidate genes in Beetalgoats. Genotyping results were monomorphic in GH, and BMP15 genes in animals of studiedbreed, while IGF-1 gene was polymorphic and had significant associationof genotypes with body weight and with body measurements. Genotype AA is significantly associated with low body weight having 38.18 Kg body weight and heart girth 33.65 cm, (P<0.05). AA genotype is also significantly associated with body leangth (P<0.05). The goats having BB genotype is significantly associated with high body weight having body weight 47.13 Kg (P<0.05). Genotype AB is significantly associated with withers height (31.93 cm).The sequencing results of the IGF-1 gene showed conserved and showed no other mutation in studied exonUponsequencing,polymorphism was found in GH gene inhigher and lower body weight animals. One SNP was identified in exon 2. The Non-synonymous substitution mutation (A > G) of CGA to CAA at position 825 caused an amino acid change from threonine into Alanine. While one deletion mutation in intron 4was identifiedat position 1546 in this gene. Up-to our knowledge, this is the first study of growth trait genes in the Beetal goat breed of Pakistan and helpful to understand the genetics of growth genes in Beetal goat breed. It may lead us to the identification of useful molecular markers for future use in the selection of animals with better growth traits.
By evaluating the genotyping and sequencingresults of all the target regions of growth hormone GH, IGF-1 and BMP15 genes, it is concluded that GHgene and BMP15 gene in beetal goat are monomorphic. One substitution mutation in exon 2 G>Aat position 825 along with one deletionin intron 4at position 1546 can be used as genetic markers in selection programme of breeding. WhileIGF-1 is of prime importance because IGF-1 gene was polymorphic and had significant association with body weight and measurements.
Due to limited resources 60 animals were used to determine polymorphism in three growth genesand their association with growth traits. It is recommended for further studies complete gene could be genotyped and sequenced and more number of animals should be used to evaluate these traits in future.
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Comparative Phenotypic Characterization, Performance And Antibody Response In Naked Neck Chicken
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: The indigenous chicken mostly found in rural areas of Pakistan are good scavengers as
well as foragers and playing important role towards poverty alleviation and food security. They
have good maternal qualities, hardier when compared to their exotic counterparts and have high
survival rates with minimal care and management. They have huge diversity. This diversity
provides a unique resource to respond to the present and future needs of poultry meat and eggs in
Pakistan. However, this diversity is shrinking rapidly. Local naked neck chicken is also an example
of such diverse genepool but under the threats of extinction. Present study was designed to compare
phenotypic characterization, productive, reproductive performance and anti-body response in
different phenotypes of Indigenous Naked-Neck chicken. The study was conducted at Indigenous
chicken genetic Resource Centre (ICGRC), UVAS Ravi campus, Pattoki. Six hundred day old
Naked-Neck chicks were procured from commercial hatchery and reared as the foundation stock
under best management practices. The study comprised of two main experiments. In the first
experiment, a total of 320 sexed day old chicks (160♂, 160♀) comprising 80 from each phenotype,
were randomly selected from the foundation stock and assigned 8 treatment groups, in a 2 (Sexes)
× 4 (Phenotypes) factorial arrangement under completely randomized design. Each treatment was
replicated 5 times with 8 birds in each. These chicks were reared for 8 weeks of age to study
comparative growth performance and morpho-metric traits. Growth parameters were live weight
(g), times of gain (g), total gain (g), feed intake (g), feed conversion ratio and livability%, while
morphometric traits studied were neck length, keel length, wing spread, shank length,
circumference, drumstick length, circumference and body length. The results showed significantly
higher live weight, total gain and better FCR in light and dark brown phenotypes, whereas times
of gain were found to be higher in dark brown. Feed intake and livability remained similar in all
phenotypes. Keel length and shank circumference measurements were higher in dark brown
whereas wing spread was greater in light brown phenotype. Drumstick circumference and body
length were same in all phenotypes. Over all brown phenotypes performed better. After that when
secondary sex organs were developed again 320 birds (80 of each plumage 40 females and 40
males) were selected from both foundation stock. These birds were again tagged, weighed and
arranged under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) in 4 equal groups replicated 5 times with
16 birds in each pen. Each pen was considered as an experimental unit. Birds were reared till the
age of 20 weeks. At the end of the 20 weeks of age, 80 birds (40 males and 40 females) of each
phenotype was characterized for morphometric qualitative and quantitative traits based on head
appearance, comb type, wattle size, plumage pattern, shank color, spurs prevalence and number of
toes and were analyzed in terms of frequency and percentages. The results showed that males and
females of all phenotypes had plain head and single comb. Wattle size was medium in females
while highly developed in males. Over all plain feather pattern was predominantly most frequent
on breast, wing bow, wing bar, wing bay, saddle and tail followed by stippled, penciled and laced.
Males had most frequent yellow shanks followed by grey, off-white and green; however, females
had maximum grey shank color followed by yellow, green and off-white. White black, light and
dark brown phenotypes expressed maximum yellow shank coloration whereas grey shanks were
most frequent in black birds. However, morphometric characterization was based on Neck length
(cm), keel length (cm), wing span (cm), shank length (cm), shank circumference (cm), drum stick
length (cm), drum stick circumference (cm) and body length. The results showed significantly
higher morphometric measurements in males than females. Light and dark brown phenotypes had
higher measuring values of quantitative traits than those of black and white black. All males and
females of different phenotypes possessed four toes, normal spurs and tuft feathers on the ventral
portion of the Neck above crop. After that 40 birds, 10 from each phenotype (5 males and 5
females) were weighed, blood samples were collected for NDV titration and then slaughtered for
carcass characteristics, proximate meat analysis and cholesterol content estimation. Carcass
characteristics including (live weight (g), dressing%, liver weight%, gizzard weight%, heart
weight%, intestinal weight%, intestinal length (cm) and antibody response against Newcastle
disease virus (NDV) were studied and compared. The results showed significantly higher live
weight (g), dressing%, liver weight% and intestinal length (cm) in males whereas gizzard weight%
and intestinal weight% was found to be higher in females. Among different phenotypes, light
brown plumage color birds indicated significantly enhanced live weight (g) and dressing%
whereas black plumage color birds showed higher intestinal weight%. Antibody response was
significantly higher in females as compared to male birds. Light and dark brown phenotypes
exhibit significantly higher NDV titer as compared to black and white black phenotypes. In
proximate meat composition and cholesterol content study, results depicted significantly higher
dry matter%, crude protein%, ash% and cholesterol content(mg/100g) in males whereas ether
extract% and moisture% were found to be higher in females. Among different phenotypes, dry
matter% was found to be higher in white black, crude protein% in black, white black and dark
brown phenotypes, moisture% in light brown and cholesterol content was higher in black plumage
color birds, whereas ether extract% and ash% were observed to be higher in black and white black
plumage color birds. Brown phenotypes showed better performance regarding live body weight,
dressing%, cholesterol content and antibody response than others (black and white/black). In
second experiment production performance, egg characteristics and hatching traits in different
phenotypes of Naked- Neck hens were studied. In total, 300 adults 20 week old hens were
randomly selected from the foundation stock and allotted to 20 experimental groups, in
4(phenotypes) × 5 (replicates) × 15 (birds each replicate) arranged according to CRD. In
production performance, parameters studied were body weight, body weight gain, egg production,
egg weight (g), egg mass (g), and livability (%). Ten eggs of each phenotype, 2 from each pen at
initial, middle and final laying periods were collected and studied for egg geometry and quality.
Similarly, 200 hundred eggs 50 from each phenotype were collected randomly at the age of 42
weeks and studied for hatching traits comprising settable eggs%, fertility%, hatch of fertile%,
hatchability%, embryonic mortality%, and A-grade chick%. The results indicated significantly
higher feed intake (g) in white black phenotype, heavier body weight(g) in light brown and dark
brown phenotypes whereas, egg production, egg mass, FCR/dozen eggs and FCR/kg egg mass was
found to be better in light brown phenotype. Egg weight (g) remained higher in black, light brown
and dark brown phenotypes. Egg geometry results demonstrated higher egg breadth (mm), egg
volume (mm2) and egg surface area (mm3) in light brown phenotype whereas egg quality showed
no difference in various phenotypes of Naked-Neck chickens. While studying hatching traits,
results showed significantly higher settable eggs%, fertility% and hatchability% in black, dark
brown and light brown phenotypes than that of white black whereas better hatch of fertile% and
reduced embryonic mortality% was recorded in black and dark brown phenotypes as compared to
white black. Better chick quality was observed in dark brown phenotype followed by light brown,
black and then white black. In conclusion, phenotypes other than white black can be locally reared
because of their better production and hatching performance.
Conclusions and Recommendations
Naked Neck chicken with light brown, dark brown and black phenotypes should be the part of next
breeding plans owing to their better productive and reproductive performance, however, white
black phenotype should not be discarded, rather conserved as a backup gene pool for future poultry
breeding studies. Might be they have better climatic adaptability.
It is also recommended that selected Naked Neck varieties should be subjected to performance
traits analysis under different housing/production systems. Their potential needs to be thrashed
under intensive, semi intensive and extensive production systems.
Economics of each variety under different housing systems, especially under backyard type
chicken farming must be worked out in order to provide clear cut information to the rural folks to
address the most important issue of poverty alleviation in rural as well as peri-urban areas of
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