Pereentage Of Hemorrhagic Septieemia Carrier Buffalo And Their Immunity Status At District Swat, Khyber
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: The study was conducted in District Swat, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa province, to study the percentage of carrier buffaloes of hemorrhagic septicemia in the region and Immune status of buffaloes. Tracheal swabs and blood were collected from 200 buffaloes slaughtered at Saidu Sharif slaughter house. The selected buffaloes were divided into four age groups, the first group had animals of two and less than two years of age, the second had animals with age of three years, the third group, five years and fourth group had animals with age of more than five years. Tracheal swabs were cultured for the isolation of Pasteurella multocida, for identification of carrier animals and blood sample were processed to determine the antibodies titer of buffaloes against Pasteurella multocida.
The results showed that 8 (4%) out of total 200 examined buffaloes were identified as carriers of hemorrhagic septicemia by isolating the Pasteurella multocida from their tracheal swab. Out of 8 carrier buffaloes 4 were from group IV, 3 from Group III and 3 from group II. The percentage of carrier buffaloes in four age groups was 0%, 2%, 6% and 8% in group-I, group-II, group-III and group-IV respectively, showed that percentage of carrier buffaloes were high in group IV while lowest in group I. The Pathogenicity tests of the all 8 isolates showed that they were pathogenic to mice and cause their death within 24 hours of incubation.
Serological study of blood sample for antibodies titer showed that out of 200 buffaloes 156 (78%) showed antibodies titer ?1:16 which were considered immune against hemorrhagic septicemia. Out of 156, 17 were from group-I, 46 from group-II, 46 group-III and 47 from group-IV. Percentage of immune buffaloes in different age groups was 34%, 92%, 92% and 94% in group-I, group-II, group-III and group-IV respectively. The higher number of immune animals i:e 94% were in group-IV and the lowest were in group-I i:e 34%.
Results showed that all the carrier buffaloes had antibodies titer more than 1:16. The antibodies titer of the 4 carrier buffaloes were 64, 2 had 128 while 1, 1 had antibodies titer 16 and 32 respectively.
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Comparative Study Of Different Suturing Techniques For Cystotomy Closure In Canines
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: The cystotomy is an incision in to the wall of urinary bladder which is commonly indicated for the removal of urinary stones and for the excision of invading tumors. Cystotomy wound is closed by varieties of suturing patterns which commonly include simple appositional and inversion types of suturing patterns. Appositional patterns are used in single-layer while double-layer appositional pattern is also used. Inversion types of suturing patterns are commonly used in double layers. Single-layer appositional patterns are commonly used in small and young animals while double-layer inverting pattern is preferred to apply in large animals. Double-layer inversion pattern has been found to decrease the size of bladder lumen when the bladder wall is thick. Bladder mucosa in all cases is not penetrated because of the danger of the formation of bladder stones. In three-layer closure mucosa is sutured as a separate layer and is indicated commonly when there is bleeding. The present project is aimed to conduct a comparative study of appositional versus inversion type of suturing patterns and two-layer versus three-layer of bladder wall repair.
The study was conducted on 24 dogs divided into four groups comprising 6 dogs each. In 18 dogs experimental cystotomies were performed which were closed in following manners. Group-A: the cystotomy wound was closed in two-layer simple interrupted suturing pattern, group-B: cystotomy wound was closed in two layers by simple continuous and continuous lembert suturing pattern, group-C: the cystotomy wound was closed in three layers and group-D was the control group. These suturing techniques were evaluated for leakage with the help of contrast radiography, ultrasonography, renal function tests and physical signs. These techniques were also evaluated for their effect on residual urine volume with the help of ultrasound machine.
All the suturing techniques provided water tight closure when evaluated through radiography, ultrasonography, kidney function tests and physical examination. The two-layer inversion patterns and three-layer closure techniques were found to effect residual bladder volume but the effect of three-layer closure technique was more pronounced. No crystals/stones were observed on postmortem examination of the urinary bladder in each operated dog. A well demarcated stricture was noted in dogs whose bladders were sutured in three layers. It was thus concluded form the research that appositional patterns do not affect the residual bladder volume, the catgut can be penetrated through the mucosa without endangering for cystolithiasis and the two-layer appositional suturing pattern is as effective as three-layer closure of cystotomy wound for the control of hemorrhage from the bladder mucosa.
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Study On Different Closure Techniques Of Nephrotomy In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Kidney is a vital organ of body. It plays an important role in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and regulation of blood pressure. Kidney performs these functions in coordination of various endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide. There are different problems of the kidney like calculi lodged in the renal pelvis and neoplasia of the kidney in which nephrotomy is indicated. The project was designed to find out the most suitable technique of closing nephrotomy incision. For this purpose three groups A, B and C of dogs were arranged containing eight animals in each group. In group A after performing nephrotomy, 2/0 absorbable suture was placed through the cortex in horizontal mattress fashion and renal capsule was closed with 4/0 absorbable suture in a simple continuous fashion while in group B nephrotomy incision was apposed by applying gentle digital pressure for five minute and incision in the renal capsule was closed with 3/0 synthetic absorble suture. Whereas, in group C cut edges was apposed through tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Physical evaluation, Urine examination i.e urine colour, Complete blood count, blood urea Nitrogen, serum creatinine and excretory urography at different intervals was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these three techniques.
The present project clearly indicated that suturless nephrotomy closure technique was found to be more suitable and compatible technique with excellent clinical superiority in terms of good weight gain, better hemostais, minimal post operative complication and maintaining kidney function.
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A Study On Different Placements (Onlay, Inlay & Sublay) Of Prolene Mesh For The Repair Of Incisional Hernia
Material type: Book ; Format:
; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1448,T] (1).
Prevalence And Therapeutic Trials On Ticks And Mites In Sheep In And Around Lahore City
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; Literary form:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Sheep and goats sustain an expensive profitable and environmental position in Asian agriculture (Devendra 1996). Majority of the livestock owners earn their income through sale of additional animals and their by-products. There are several factors affecting the production potential of livestock. Among these, parasitic infestations are prevalent, affecting different livestock species all over the world. Parasitic infestation especially ecto-parasites are the major veterinary problems in most of the developing and under developed countries of the world. The physical condition and production in animals is severely affected by tick and mite infestation. It is one of the most common problem of sheep characterized by anemia, poor physical condition, decreased milk quality and poor meat production.. The present study was conducted on ticks and mites to study their prevalence, their effect on various blood parameters and to evaluate the efficacy of Ivermectin and Azadirchta indica (neem oil) on sheep in and around Lahore, Pakistan.
In this study 300 sheep suspected for tick and mite infestation on the basis of clinical signs were collected from outdoor hospital of University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Outreach hospital Sitar wala and Civil Veterinary Hospital Thokar Niaz Biag. The tick sample were collected with the help of foreceps and mites sample through skin scraping. Out of this 300, 198 samples were collected from outdoor hospital UVAS Lahore, from which 84 were positive with prevalence of 42.42% for tick and mite infestation, and 62 samples were collected from outreach hospital Sitarwala from which 24 were positive giving prevalence of 38.70% and 40 samples were collected from CVH Thokar Niaz Biag, out of which 17 samples were positive with prevalence of 42.5%. All the collected samples were processed at medicine laboratory, UVAS, Lhr.
Whereas in the third part therapeutic trials on 20 sheep (n=15 tick and mite infested and n=5 healthy sheep) was done and divided into four groups A, B, C&D. Each group was comprised of 5 sheep .In group A, the infested sheep were treated with two doses of ivermectin 0.2mg/kgS/C 7 days apart, on 7th day its efficacy was 40%and on 14th day it gave 100% efficacy. In group B the infested sheep were treated with neem oil (Azadirachta indica) @1 table spoon, its efficacy was 20% on 7th day and on 14th its gave 40% efficacy, in group C infested sheep were kept as positive control, whereas healthy sheep were included in group D.
In the second part of present project haematological studies on 10 sheep (n=5 tick and mite infested sheep, n=5 healthy sheep) were performed to see the effect of tick and mite infestation on various blood parameters (Hb, PCV,TLC) and it was fsound that Hb and PCV values were decreased whereas TLC was increased in infested sheep.
The therapeutic trials of this study concluded that the Ivermectin was most effective drug against ticks and mites in sheep.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Staples Tissue Adhesive (Glue) And Conventional Suture For The Apposition Of Linear Skin Incision
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2014 Dissertation note: Abstract
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1894,T] (1).
A Clinico-Biochemical Study Of Xylazine-Propofol,Meditomidine-Propofol, Diazepam-Propofol During Ovariohystrectomy Operationin Female Dogs
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Background:
Awareness among the small animals practitioner as the impedance has increased many fold on veterinary surgeons to select an ideal anesthetic provoking an ideal outcome during the ovariohystrectomy surgical interventions. The anesthesia should be selected in such a way that animal can recover from anesthesia early on and the operating room time for each patient be minimized in such a way that the animal bears minimum cardiovascular, hepatic, and renal changes due to different pre-anesthetic drugs used.
• Medetomidine-propofol might be better among all other three.
For this study, fifteen dogs brought to the Pet center for ovariohystrectomywere selected, the
animalswere allocated into three treatment groups, viz. Groups A and Group B and Group C
with 5 animals each.
In group A animalsXylazineHCL was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 2.2mg/kgbody weight as pre anesthetic. After 3-5 minutes of preanesthetic injection propofol (6 mg/kg ofbody weight, IV) was injected. In group B, after surgical preparation, Medetomidine HCL in all the five dogs wasinjecting intramuscularly at the dose rate of 40 µg/kg body weight as pre anesthetics. After 3-5 minutes of pre anesthetic injection propofol (6 mg/kg of body weight, IV) was injected.
The dogs of group C Diazepam was injected intramuscularly (0.25 mg/kg) as pre
anesthetic. After 3-5 minutes of pre-anestheticinjectionpropofol (6 mg/kg of body weight, IV)
Whilst regularly checking reflexes after short intervalsof time. After achieving of the
surgical stage of anesthesia, the surgical operation was begun.
Biochemical profile assessment was done for renal function tests (serum creatinine,
BUN) and live function tests (ALT, AST, and Alkaline phosphates).
The data wasanalyzed by One Way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests using
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The proportionate data was
analyzed through z-distribution test.
Outcome: Considering the significance of anesthesia in surgical interventions, this project was designed tostudy the effect new anesthesia combinations on cardiovascular system, renal and hepaticfunction for an efficacious and ideal pre-anesthetic combination for futuristic surgicalinterventions in dogs, with the aim to minimize surgical complications and accentuate early recovery.
Adetunji A, Ajadi R, Adewoye C, Oyemakinde B. 2002. Vol. 57 (4) 2002 Total Intravenous
Anaesthesia WithPropofol: Repeat Bolus Versus Continuous Propofol Infusion
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Ambros B, Duke-Novakovski T, Pasloske KS. 2008. Comparison of theanesthetic efficacy and
cardiopulmonary effects of continuous rate infusions of alfaxalone-2-hydroxypropyl-β-
cyclodextrinandpropofol in dogs. American journal of veterinary research. 69 (11):
Andaluz A, Trasserras O, Garcia F. 2005. Maternal and fetal effects of propofol anaesthesia in
the pregnant ewe. The Veterinary Journal. 170 (1): 77-83.
Borowicz KK, Czuczwar SJ. 2003. Effects ofetomidate, ketamine or propofol, and their
combinations with conventional antiepileptic drugs on amygdala-kindled convulsions in
rats. Neuropharmacology. 45 (3): 315-324.
Cillo JE 1999. Propofolanesthesia for outpatient oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral Surgery,
Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 87 (5): 530-538.
Cockshott I, Briggs L, Douglas E, White M. 1987. PHARMACOKINETICS OF PROPOFOL IN
FEMALE PATIENTS Studies Using Single Bolus Injections. British Journal of
Anaesthesia. 59 (9): 1103-1110.
Concannon P, Meyers-Wallen V. 1991. Current and proposed methods for contraception and termination of pregnancy in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
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Davidson EB, Payton ME. 2004. Comparison of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and
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Franks N, Lieb W. 1994. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of general anaesthesia.Nature. 367
Gales NJ 1989. Chemical restraint and anesthesia of pinnipeds: a review. Marine MammalScience. 5 (3): 228-256.
Gonzalez AD, Pechko AH, Kalafsky RE. 2003Topical compositions with a reversible
photochromic ingredient. In: Google Patents.
Hedenqvist P, Hellebrekers LJ. 2003. Laboratory animal analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia.
Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Volume 1: Essential Principles and Practices.
Heidari SM, Loghmani P. 2014. Assessment of the effects of ketamine-fentanyl combination
versus propofol-remifentanil combination for sedation during endoscopic retrograde
cholangiopancreatography. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 19 (9): 860.
Jalanka HH, Roeken BO. 1990. The use of medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine
combinations, and atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: a review. Journal of Zoo and
Kanda T, Hikasa Y. 2008. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of medetomidine compared
withxylazine in healthy cats. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 72 (3): 278-286.
Kawai S, Takagi Y, Kaneko S, Kurosawa T. 2011. Effect of three types of mixed anesthetic
agents alternate to ketamine in mice. Experimental Animals. 60 (5): 481-487.
Kotani Y, Shimazawa M, Yoshimura S, Iwama T, Hara H. 2008. The experimental and clinical
pharmacology of propofol, an anesthetic agent with neuroprotective properties. CNS
neuroscience& therapeutics. 14 (2): 95-106. 23
Lee DC. Using silver spike point needle-free electro-acupuncture for postoperative pain
management. Victoria University; 2008.
Maddern K, Adams VJ, Hill NA, Leece EA. 2010. Alfaxalone induction dose following
administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and
Analgesia. 37 (1): 7-13.
Marik PE 2004. Propofol: therapeutic indications and side-effects. Current pharmaceutical
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Mielck F, Stephan H, Weyland A, Sonntag H. 1999. Effects of one minimum alveolar anesthetic
concentration sevoflurane on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and CO2 reactivity in
cardiac patients. Anesthesia& Analgesia. 89 (2): 364-369.
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medetomidine following in ovo injection in chicks. Neurotoxicologyand teratology. 34
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morphine-lidocaine-ketamine drug combination on minimum alveolar concentration in
dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. American journal of veterinary research. 64 (9): 1155-
Prassinos NN, Galatos AD, Raptopoulos D. 2005. A comparison of propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 32 (5): 289-296.
RANA MS. GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN SWINE: COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF
PROPOFOL, KETAMINE AND THIOPENTONE WITH XYLAZINE
PREMEDICATION. 2013. 24
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Carvalho MHC, Fortes ZB. 2006. Differential effects of chloral hydrate-and
ketamine/xylazine-inducedanesthesia by the sc route. Life sciences. 79 (17): 1630-1637.
Sams L, Braun C, Allman D, Hofmeister E. 2008. A comparison of the effects of propofol and
etomidate on the induction of anesthesia and on cardiopulmonary parameters in dogs.
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propofol administered as total intravenous anaesthesia for ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
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analgesia on intravenous anaesthesia with propofol. The Veterinary Journal. 169 (1): 108-
Uilenreef JJ, Murrell JC, McKusick BC, Hellebrekers LJ. 2008. Dexmedetomidine continuous
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Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2771-T] (1).
Comparative Evaluation Of “Onlay” Versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” Novel Polyester Meshplasty In Ventral Hernia Of Rabbits
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with the body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of two placement techniques “Onlay” versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” polyester meshplasty for the treatment of ventral hernia. Polyester is a non-absorbable mesh. Polyester mesh is not available in Pakistan and was acquired from a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brand name of (Parietex®, Covidien, France).
The experimental study was conducted on 24 (twenty four) healthy rabbits presented for massive ventral hernia repair. All rabbits were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before the study. The rabbits were allocated into two different groups, viz. group-A and group-B with 12 rabbits in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) a placement technique that was used for the treatment of ventral hernia in group-A. The rabbits of group-B were treated with “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) placement technique. Ventral herniorhaphy was performed in both groups using Polyester mesh with two different placement techniques. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both techniques were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation.
During the experiment, it was observed that “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fiber. It was observed that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” showed remarkable advantages over “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” placement technique is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
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Comparative Efficacy Of Surgical And Chemical Methods Of Neutering In Toms
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Sterilization of animals is the most common veterinary practice to control overpopulation and to avoid the transmissible diseases in humans and other animals. This technique also helps to eliminate animals with undesirable characters. This procedure also helps to change the behavior of animals and keep them calm. Castration is carried out to prevent prostatic hyperplasia and mammary tumors etc. There are different methods for sterilization of male animals.
This study was designed to compare the surgical and chemical sterilization. For this purpose 12 free roaming tom cats were used. These cats were divided into group A, group B and group C each having (n=4). Animals of group A were surgically neutered, animals of group B were chemically sterilized with intratesticular injection of 20%calcium chloride and animals of group C were kept as control and injected normal saline intratesticularly.
Chemical sterilization is better than surgical sterilization. Postoperative complications, Serum testosterone level and histopathological examination was evaluated. These parameters were studied for 30 days. Data collected from this study design was evaluated by analysis of Variance. Results of data showed that there was no noteworthy difference in both procedure of sterilization.
From this study we reached the conclusion thatchemical neutering is most preferable than surgical neutering as it is lesser time consuming and cost effective with lesser postoperative complications. Chemical neutering can be easily practiced on large scale to control overpopulation.
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Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality.
This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient.
For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated.
Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.
Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner.
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