Study On Different Closure Techniques Of Nephrotomy In Dogs
Material type: Book ; Format:
Publisher: 2012 Dissertation note: Kidney is a vital organ of body. It plays an important role in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and regulation of blood pressure. Kidney performs these functions in coordination of various endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptide. There are different problems of the kidney like calculi lodged in the renal pelvis and neoplasia of the kidney in which nephrotomy is indicated. The project was designed to find out the most suitable technique of closing nephrotomy incision. For this purpose three groups A, B and C of dogs were arranged containing eight animals in each group. In group A after performing nephrotomy, 2/0 absorbable suture was placed through the cortex in horizontal mattress fashion and renal capsule was closed with 4/0 absorbable suture in a simple continuous fashion while in group B nephrotomy incision was apposed by applying gentle digital pressure for five minute and incision in the renal capsule was closed with 3/0 synthetic absorble suture. Whereas, in group C cut edges was apposed through tissue adhesive glue (cyanoacrylate). Physical evaluation, Urine examination i.e urine colour, Complete blood count, blood urea Nitrogen, serum creatinine and excretory urography at different intervals was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these three techniques.
The present project clearly indicated that suturless nephrotomy closure technique was found to be more suitable and compatible technique with excellent clinical superiority in terms of good weight gain, better hemostais, minimal post operative complication and maintaining kidney function.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 1447,T] (1).
A Clinico-Biochemical Study Of Xylazine-Propofol,Meditomidine-Propofol, Diazepam-Propofol During Ovariohystrectomy Operationin Female Dogs
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2016 Dissertation note: Background:
Awareness among the small animals practitioner as the impedance has increased many fold on veterinary surgeons to select an ideal anesthetic provoking an ideal outcome during the ovariohystrectomy surgical interventions. The anesthesia should be selected in such a way that animal can recover from anesthesia early on and the operating room time for each patient be minimized in such a way that the animal bears minimum cardiovascular, hepatic, and renal changes due to different pre-anesthetic drugs used.
• Medetomidine-propofol might be better among all other three.
For this study, fifteen dogs brought to the Pet center for ovariohystrectomywere selected, the
animalswere allocated into three treatment groups, viz. Groups A and Group B and Group C
with 5 animals each.
In group A animalsXylazineHCL was administered intramuscularly at the dose rate of 2.2mg/kgbody weight as pre anesthetic. After 3-5 minutes of preanesthetic injection propofol (6 mg/kg ofbody weight, IV) was injected. In group B, after surgical preparation, Medetomidine HCL in all the five dogs wasinjecting intramuscularly at the dose rate of 40 µg/kg body weight as pre anesthetics. After 3-5 minutes of pre anesthetic injection propofol (6 mg/kg of body weight, IV) was injected.
The dogs of group C Diazepam was injected intramuscularly (0.25 mg/kg) as pre
anesthetic. After 3-5 minutes of pre-anestheticinjectionpropofol (6 mg/kg of body weight, IV)
Whilst regularly checking reflexes after short intervalsof time. After achieving of the
surgical stage of anesthesia, the surgical operation was begun.
Biochemical profile assessment was done for renal function tests (serum creatinine,
BUN) and live function tests (ALT, AST, and Alkaline phosphates).
The data wasanalyzed by One Way ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests using
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20.0. The proportionate data was
analyzed through z-distribution test.
Outcome: Considering the significance of anesthesia in surgical interventions, this project was designed tostudy the effect new anesthesia combinations on cardiovascular system, renal and hepaticfunction for an efficacious and ideal pre-anesthetic combination for futuristic surgicalinterventions in dogs, with the aim to minimize surgical complications and accentuate early recovery.
Adetunji A, Ajadi R, Adewoye C, Oyemakinde B. 2002. Vol. 57 (4) 2002 Total Intravenous
Anaesthesia WithPropofol: Repeat Bolus Versus Continuous Propofol Infusion
Technique InXylazine-Premedicated Dogs.Veterinary Medicine.57 4.
Ambros B, Duke-Novakovski T, Pasloske KS. 2008. Comparison of theanesthetic efficacy and
cardiopulmonary effects of continuous rate infusions of alfaxalone-2-hydroxypropyl-β-
cyclodextrinandpropofol in dogs. American journal of veterinary research. 69 (11):
Andaluz A, Trasserras O, Garcia F. 2005. Maternal and fetal effects of propofol anaesthesia in
the pregnant ewe. The Veterinary Journal. 170 (1): 77-83.
Borowicz KK, Czuczwar SJ. 2003. Effects ofetomidate, ketamine or propofol, and their
combinations with conventional antiepileptic drugs on amygdala-kindled convulsions in
rats. Neuropharmacology. 45 (3): 315-324.
Cillo JE 1999. Propofolanesthesia for outpatient oral and maxillofacial surgery. Oral Surgery,
Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 87 (5): 530-538.
Cockshott I, Briggs L, Douglas E, White M. 1987. PHARMACOKINETICS OF PROPOFOL IN
FEMALE PATIENTS Studies Using Single Bolus Injections. British Journal of
Anaesthesia. 59 (9): 1103-1110.
Concannon P, Meyers-Wallen V. 1991. Current and proposed methods for contraception and termination of pregnancy in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical
Association. 198 (7): 1214-1225.
Davidson EB, Payton ME. 2004. Comparison of laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy and
ovariohysterectomy in dogs. Veterinary Surgery. 33 (1): 62-69. 22
Franks N, Lieb W. 1994. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of general anaesthesia.Nature. 367
Gales NJ 1989. Chemical restraint and anesthesia of pinnipeds: a review. Marine MammalScience. 5 (3): 228-256.
Gonzalez AD, Pechko AH, Kalafsky RE. 2003Topical compositions with a reversible
photochromic ingredient. In: Google Patents.
Hedenqvist P, Hellebrekers LJ. 2003. Laboratory animal analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia.
Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Volume 1: Essential Principles and Practices.
Heidari SM, Loghmani P. 2014. Assessment of the effects of ketamine-fentanyl combination
versus propofol-remifentanil combination for sedation during endoscopic retrograde
cholangiopancreatography. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of
Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 19 (9): 860.
Jalanka HH, Roeken BO. 1990. The use of medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine
combinations, and atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: a review. Journal of Zoo and
Kanda T, Hikasa Y. 2008. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of medetomidine compared
withxylazine in healthy cats. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 72 (3): 278-286.
Kawai S, Takagi Y, Kaneko S, Kurosawa T. 2011. Effect of three types of mixed anesthetic
agents alternate to ketamine in mice. Experimental Animals. 60 (5): 481-487.
Kotani Y, Shimazawa M, Yoshimura S, Iwama T, Hara H. 2008. The experimental and clinical
pharmacology of propofol, an anesthetic agent with neuroprotective properties. CNS
neuroscience& therapeutics. 14 (2): 95-106. 23
Lee DC. Using silver spike point needle-free electro-acupuncture for postoperative pain
management. Victoria University; 2008.
Maddern K, Adams VJ, Hill NA, Leece EA. 2010. Alfaxalone induction dose following
administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and
Analgesia. 37 (1): 7-13.
Marik PE 2004. Propofol: therapeutic indications and side-effects. Current pharmaceutical
design. 10 (29): 3639-3649.
Mielck F, Stephan H, Weyland A, Sonntag H. 1999. Effects of one minimum alveolar anesthetic
concentration sevoflurane on cerebral metabolism, blood flow, and CO2 reactivity in
cardiac patients. Anesthesia& Analgesia. 89 (2): 364-369.
Mohammad FK, Faris GA-M, Al-Zubeady AZ. 2012. Developmental and behavioral effects of
medetomidine following in ovo injection in chicks. Neurotoxicologyand teratology. 34
Muir III WW, Wiese AJ, March PA. 2003. Effects of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and
morphine-lidocaine-ketamine drug combination on minimum alveolar concentration in
dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. American journal of veterinary research. 64 (9): 1155-
Prassinos NN, Galatos AD, Raptopoulos D. 2005. A comparison of propofol, thiopental or ketamine as induction agents in goats. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 32 (5): 289-296.
RANA MS. GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN SWINE: COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF
PROPOFOL, KETAMINE AND THIOPENTONE WITH XYLAZINE
PREMEDICATION. 2013. 24
Rodrigues SF, de Oliveira MA, Martins JO, Sannomiya P, de CássiaTostes R, Nigro D,
Carvalho MHC, Fortes ZB. 2006. Differential effects of chloral hydrate-and
ketamine/xylazine-inducedanesthesia by the sc route. Life sciences. 79 (17): 1630-1637.
Sams L, Braun C, Allman D, Hofmeister E. 2008. A comparison of the effects of propofol and
etomidate on the induction of anesthesia and on cardiopulmonary parameters in dogs.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 35 (6): 488-494.
Suarez MA, Dzikiti BT, Stegmann FG, Hartman M. 2012. Comparison ofalfaxalone and
propofol administered as total intravenous anaesthesia for ovariohysterectomy in dogs.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 39 (3): 236-244.
Tusell J, Andaluz A, Prandi D, Costa C, Garcıa F. 2005. Effects of epidural anaesthesia–
analgesia on intravenous anaesthesia with propofol. The Veterinary Journal. 169 (1): 108-
Uilenreef JJ, Murrell JC, McKusick BC, Hellebrekers LJ. 2008. Dexmedetomidine continuous
rate infusion during isoflurane anaesthesia in canine surgical patients. Veterinary
Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 35 (1): 1-12.
Wheaton L, Benson G, Tranquilli W, Thurmon J. 1989. The oxytocic effect of xylazineon the
canine uterus. Theriogenology. 31 (4): 911-915.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2771-T] (1).
Comparative Evaluation Of “Onlay” Versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” Novel Polyester Meshplasty In Ventral Hernia Of Rabbits
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) is hydrophilic material works with the body’s natural systems to improve tissue integration while reducing negative foreign material response. Polyester offers extremely lower pain intensity and less foreign body reaction. The purpose of designated research was to compare the efficacy of two placement techniques “Onlay” versus “Intraperitoneal Onlay” polyester meshplasty for the treatment of ventral hernia. Polyester is a non-absorbable mesh. Polyester mesh is not available in Pakistan and was acquired from a local healthcare company in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Polyester mesh is available with brand name of (Parietex®, Covidien, France).
The experimental study was conducted on 24 (twenty four) healthy rabbits presented for massive ventral hernia repair. All rabbits were thoroughly examined to rule out any other anomaly before the study. The rabbits were allocated into two different groups, viz. group-A and group-B with 12 rabbits in each group respectively. All treatments were administered intramuscularly using 1 ml insulin syringe. The “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) a placement technique that was used for the treatment of ventral hernia in group-A. The rabbits of group-B were treated with “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” (Parietex®, Covidien) placement technique. Ventral herniorhaphy was performed in both groups using Polyester mesh with two different placement techniques. The surgery was performed at Surgery Section, Department of CMS, UVAS, Lahore for 3 months duration (including adaptation and postoperative period). Both techniques were compared on the basis of postoperative complications (wound healing, pain evaluation, hematoma, seroma and abscess formation), inflammatory responses and adhesion formation after application of mesh fixation.
During the experiment, it was observed that “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in a prominent pain sensation, persistent inflammatory reaction, proliferating fibroblast, more granulating tissue, macrophages appearance, increased connective tissue thickness and proliferating collagen fiber. It was observed that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” resulted in less pain sensation, no foreign body reaction, no neutrophil appearance and rare granulating tissue. “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” showed remarkable advantages over “Onlay Polyester Meshplasty” in terms lower pain level, reduced size seroma and extremely less scar tissue formation. Based upon all the findings it was concluded that “Intraperitoneal Polyester Meshplasty” placement technique is safer and more effective in terms of post-operative complications and outcomes.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2809-T] (1).
Treatment Of Long Oblique Tibial Fracture With Intramedullary Pin Alone And Full Cerclage Wires In Cats
Material type: Book ; Literary form:
Publisher: 2017 Dissertation note: Fracture of long bone in animals is a challenging problem these days. Leg fractures in cats are quite common problem. Fractures treated with biomechanically sound fixation and proper attention to soft tissues will be most likely to heal with a functional outcome. However, osteomyelitis, bone sequestration, and joint ankylosis still continue to be major factors in inhibiting healing and bone functionality.
This research project was designed with the aim to test the effectiveness and accuracy of three sets of bone splintage devices in healing long oblique mid-shaft tibial fractures in cats, with minimal side effects and stress to the patient.
For the study total twelve adult cats as and when presented at Pet Centre, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences Lahore, and Saleem Veterinary Clinic and petshop Lahore, having long oblique fracture of tibia irrespective of breed, sex and considering almost similar age group, both stray and domesticated were selected. These cats were divided into three groups i.e groups A, B and C comprising of four cats in each group, and designated as 1, 2 3 and 4 respectively. They were admitted as clinical trial patients and were kept in separate cat cages at Saleem Veterinary Clinic until the completion of the study. Specific tagged collars were applied on all the cats. They were kept under comfortable environment and on a standard commercially available cat feed diet with ad labitum access to water. All the cats of three groups, having long oblique tibial fracture were treated with 3 separate techniques for comparison. In group A, fracture was reduced and immobilized with intramedullary pinning. In group B, fracture was treated with full cerclage wires alone while cats of group C were treated with intramedullary pin and cerclage wires. Thus comparative fracture healing and efficacy of individual techniques in their respective cases were evaluated.
Subsequent comparative parameters were studied which included physical examination of wound, lameness grading, radiological scoring for callus formation, fracture line union, fracture alignment as well as callus remodelling. The collected data regarding study parameters were illustrated by descriptive statistics and non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal Walis Test) using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.
Therefore, as advocated by the results of this study, intramedullary pinning (preferably threaded) with at least 2 - 3 full cerclage wiring was a better choice for the correction of a long oblique mid-shaft tibial fracture in cats. The combination of both these techniques together give a strong backbone for bone healing to take place with minimum amount of stress to the bone fragments and also to counteract different forces acting on the fracture site.Both these techniques were easy, required little soft tissue manipulation, were cost-effective, required less equipment and could easily be applied by an average practitioner.
Availability: Items available for loan: UVAS Library [ Call number: 2891-T] (1).